This PSEB 12th Class History Notes Chapter 2 Sources of the History of the Punjab will help you in revision during exams.
PSEB 12th Class History Notes Chapter 2 Sources of the History of the Punjab
Difficulties Regarding the History of Punjab:
- The Janam Sakhis related to the Sikh Gurus have several inconsistencies in them.
- The Muslim writers who were fanatics and biased have distorted the facts of history.
- The Sikhs did not have any time for writing their own history during this period of anarchy.
- Moreover, whatever meager historical books had already been written were destroyed during the foreign invasions.
- Several historical sources were also destroyed during the partition of Punjab in 1947 A.D.
Kinds of Sources:
The main sources related to the history of Punjab are as follows:
Religious literature of the Sikhs:
- The Adi Granth Sahib gives us the most authentic information of this period.
- It was compiled by Guru Arjan Dey Ji in 1604 A.D.
- The Dasam Granth Sahib is a compilation of the works of the tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh Ji, and the poets of his court, of these, the ‘Bachitar Natak’ and ‘Zafarnama’ are historically the most important.
- The 39 Vars written by Bhai Gurdas Ji give us important information about the lives of the first six Gurus and the famous pilgrimages.
- Among the Janam Sakhis based on the life of Guru Nanak Dey Ji, the most important are Puratan Janam Sakhi,
- Meharban’s Janam Sakhi, Janam Sakhi of Bhai Bala, and Janam Sakhi of Bhai Mam Singh Ji.
- The Hukamnamas issued by the Sikh Gurus provides us with very valuable information about the contemporary society of these 34
- Hukamnamas were issued by Guru Gobind Singh Ji and 23 Hukamnamas were issued by Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji.
Historical and Semi-Historical works in Punjabi and Hindi:
- ‘Sri Gursobha’ gives us an eye-witness account of the events that took place from 1699 to 1708 A.D.
- Gursobha was written by Sainapat a famous court poet of Guru Gobind Singh Ji in 1741 A.D.
- Sikhan Di Bhagatmala provides valuable information about the social contention of the periods of the Gurus.
- It was written by Bhai Maui Singh Ji.
- ‘Bansavali Nama’ written by Kesar Singh Chhibbar describes the incidents from the Guru period to the middle of the 18th century.
- ‘Gurpratap Suraj Granth’ written by Bhai Santokh Singh and ‘Prachin Panth Prakash’ written by Rattan Singh Bhangu has an important position in the construction of the history of Punjab.
Historical works in Persian:
- ‘Babarnama’ written by the Mughal emperor Babar gives us historical information about Punjab at the beginning of the 16th century.
- Ain-i-Akbari’ and ‘Akbarnama’ written by Abul Fazi give us information about the relations of Akbar with the Sikh Gurus.
- Dabjstan-j-Mazahib’ written by Mubid Zulfiqar Ardistani gives us valuable information pertaining to the Sikh Gurus’.
- Khulasat-ut.Tawarjkh’ written by Sujan Rai Bhandari, ‘Muntakhibut-Lubab’ written by Khafi Khan, and ‘Jang Nama’ written by Qazi Nur Muhammad gives us information about the Punjab of the ‘8th century’.
- Umdat-ut-Tawarjkh’ written by Sohan Lai Suri and ‘Char-Bagh-i-Punjab’ written by Ganesh Das Wadhera gives us a detailed account of the incidents related to the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
- The Bhats used to write down all the important events with dates in their Vahis.
- These give us useful information about the lives of the Sikh Gurus, their travels, and their battles.
Khalsa Darbar Records:
- These are the official records of Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s time.
- They were written in Persian and their number is more than 1 lakh.
- The Khalsa Darbar Records give useful information on the life and times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
Writings of Foreign Travellers and Europeans:
- The writings of foreign travelers and Europeans contribute greatly to the construction of the history of Punjab.
- Prominent among them are ‘A Journey from Bengal to England’ by George Forster, ‘Sketch of the Sikhs’ by Malcolm, ‘Origin of Sikh Power in the Punjab’ by H.T. Princep, ‘The Court and Camp of Ranjit Singji’ by Captain William Osborne, ‘The Punjab’ by Steinbach, ‘History of the Sikhs’ by J.D. Cunningham.
Historical Buildings, Paintings, and Coins:
- The historical buildings, paintings, and coins of Punjab are also very valuable sources for tracing out the history of Punjab.
- The architecture of Khadur Sahib, Goindwal Sahib, Amritsar, Tarn Taran, Kartarpur, and Paonta Sahib, various forts, paintings in the Gurdwaras, and coins of Sikh leaders also throw ample light on the contemporary society.