PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Punjab State Board PSEB 12th Class Religion Book Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D. Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB Solutions for Class 12 Religion Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 1.
What do you know about the life of the founder of the Sikh faith Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Or
Describe in brief but meaningful the origin of Sikhism.
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How did Sikhism was originated and by whom? Discuss.
Or
How Sikhism came into being?
Or
Explain the origin of Sikhism.
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Why and how the Sikhism was originated? Elucidate.
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“Sikhism was originated by Guru Nanak Dev Ji.” Elucidate.
Or
Throw light on the life of the founder of the Sikh faith.
Or
Write a note on the life of the founder of Sfikhism.
Or
Discuss the life of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
The life time of Guru Nanak Dev Ji can be divided into three periods. Accordingly, the first period, 1469 to 1499 A.D. is related from his birth to enlightenment. The second period, 1499 to 1521 A.D. is related to the Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. The third period, 1521 to 1539 A.D. is related to his stay at Kartarpur with his family and his work for the spread, growth and development of Sikhism.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism 1469-1708 A.D. Img 1

First Period, 1469 to 1499 A.D.:

1. Birth and Parentage : Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born on 15th April, 1469 A.D., on Purnima (the day of full moon) at Rai Bhoi Ki Talwandi, a place now situated in Sheikhupura district of Pakistan. This holy place is now known as Nankana Sahib. His father Mehta Kalu, a Patwari of the village, belonged to Bedi Kshatriya family. His mother, Tripta Devi, was a pious and religious minded lady. According to Sikh traditions, many miracles were witnessed at the time of Gum Nanak Dev Ji’s birth.

2. Childhood and Education: Guru Nanak Dev Ji was quite serious and thoughtful by nature since his childhood. He was not much inclined to games and was interested in the worship of God. When he was seven years old, he was sent to the Pathshala of Pandit Gopal for elementary learning of Hindi and Mathematics. He surprised Pandit Gopal by his spiritual knowledge. Later on he learnt Sanskrit from Pandit Brij Nath and Arabic and Persian from Mulla Qutub-ud-Din.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

When he was nine, Purohit Hardyal was called to perform the ceremony of the sacred thread (Janeu). Guru Nanak Dev Ji categorically refused to wear the sacred thread and remarked that he would wear the thread of kindness, satisfaction, truthfulness and restraint which would never break, burn or get besmeared.

3. In various occupations : Having noticed the over indulgence of Guru Nanak Dev Ji in his thoughts, his father was alarmed. So, he tried to keep his son busy with one work or other. First of all, he was asked to graze buffaloes, but Guru Ji did not show any interest. Consequently, his father decided to set him in trade. He gave Guru Ji a sum of twenty rupees and sent him to the market to strike a profitable bargain. On way to the market, Guru Ji met a group of sadhus, who had been hungry for many days. Guru Ji spent the whole amount on feeding those sadhus, and returned home empty handed. This event is known as ‘Sacha Sauda” (true bargain) in history.

4. Marriage : To arouse his son’s interest in the affairs of this world, Mehta Kalu Ji married him to Sulakhni, daughter of Mool Chand of Batala. He was 14 years old then. In due course of time, he was blessed with two sons named Sri Chand and Lakhmi Das.

5. Service at Sultanpur Lodhi : At the age of 20 years, Guru Nanak Dev Ji was sent to Sultanpur Lodhi by his father Mehta Kalu to his son-in-law Jai Ram (Guru Ji’s brother-in-law). On his recommendation, Guru Nanak Dev Ji got a job in Modikhana (the store). Guru Nanak Dev Ji did this job honestly for ten years.

6. Enlightenment: While at Sultanpur Lodhi, Guru Nanak Dev Ji used to go to the rivulet Kali Bein daily in the morning to take a bath. One day, he went as usual for taking bath and remained untraceable for three days. During these three days Guru Nanak Dev Ji gained true knowledge. At that time, he was 30 years old. After enlightenment, Guru Ji uttered, “Na Ko Hindu, Na Ko Musalman”.

7. Udasis : After attaining enlightenment in 1499 A.D. Guru Nanak Dev Ji started his travels in India and abroad. These travels were called the Udasis. These Udasis

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism 1469-1708 A.D. Img 2

were conducted with the objective to dispel the ignorance of the pec-id to preach the unity of God and brotherhood of mankind. In India Gin i-. Na:w-kw travelled from Kailash mountain in north to Ramesh varum in south a ad from ha; patten ir, west to Assam in east. Outside India Guru Nanak Dev Ji travelled tr Mecca, Madina, Baghdad and Sri Lanka. We get important information from his Bam about the travels of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. He spent about 21 years in these Udasis. Guru Nanak Dev Ji succeeded in his aim to a great extent during these Udasis.

8. Settled at Kartarpur : Guru Nanak Dev Ji founded a town named Kartarpur (the abode of God) at the banks of the Ravi river in 1521 A.D. and spent the last 18 years of his life at this place. He started the institutions of ‘Sangat’ and ‘Pangat’ during this period. Besides, he composed 976 Sabads, which also proved extremely helpful for the spread and development of Sikhism. Th prominent Ranis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji are Japji Sahib, Var Majh, Asa di Var, Sidh Goshti, Var Malhar, Bara Maha and Patti.

9. Nomination of the Successor : Guru Nanak Dev Ji -ominated Bhai Lehna, his famous disciple as his successor, before he immersed in Eternal Light. Guru Nanak Dev Ji placed one coconut and five paise infront of Bhai Lehna and bowed his head. In this way, Bhai Lehna came to be known as Guru Angad Dev Ji. Thus, Guru Nanak Dev Ji planted a sapling, which became a dense tree at the time of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. According to Dr. Hari Ram Gupta,” The appointment of Angad was a step of far-reaching significance.”

10. Immersion in Eternal Light: Guru Nanak Dev Ji Immerssed in Eternal Light on 22th September, 1539 A.D.

Question 2.
Write a note on the Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. What was the aim of these Udasis?
Or
What is meant by Udasis? Give a brief account of the Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Or
Briefly discuss the travels of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. What was their aim?
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Describe briefly the Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. What was their impact on society?
Or
Discuss the Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
After attaining enlightenment in 1499 A.D., Guru Nanak Dev Ji set out on long travels in India and in foreign countries. He spent about 21 years in these travels. These travels of Guru Nanak Dev Ji are known as Udasis because he wandered like an Udasi (unconcerned, unattached) during these years and renounced his home and family. The historians also disagree on the total number of the Udasis undertaken by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. However, the latest researches have proved that Guru Nanak Dev Ji undertook three Udasis.

Objects of the Udasis:

The main objective of the Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, was to dispel the ignorance of the people and to give the message of the unity of the Godhead and universal brotherhood of mankind. The Hindu, Brahmans and Jogis, whose main function was to show the right path to the misled people, were themselves corrupt and characterless. The people worshipped countless gods and goddesses, graves, trees, snakes, stones etc. The Muslim religious leaders had also degenerated. Although the Quran forbids sensual merry-making, music and dance, yet many Muslims led a life of sensual pleasure.

The society was divided into many castes and sub-castes. The members of high caste hated those belonging to the low castes. The condition of women in the society was the most deplorable. Guru Nanak Dev Ji undertook his Udasis to show the new path of enlightenment and salvation to those, who were wandering in the darkness of ignorance. In the words of a famous historian, Dr. S. S. Kohli, “The Great Master did not confine his mission to this country, he travelled far and wide to far off lands and countries, in order to enlighten humanity as a whole.”

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

First Udasi:

Guru Nanak Dev Ji started his first Udasi at the end of 1499 A.D., Bhai Mardana, who was a famous follower of Guru Ji, also accompanied him during these travels. Guru Nanak Dev Ji completed this Udasi in 12 years. He travelled from the east to the south. He visited the following important places during this Udasi:

1. Saidpur : Guru Nanak Dev Ji started his first Udasi from Sultanpur and first ‘ reached Saidpur (Eminabad). When he reached there, Malik Bhago, a landlord of the village, invited Guru Ji to a feast, but Guru Ji stayed in the house of a poor carpenter Bhai Lalo. Malik Bhago compelled Guru Nanak Dev Ji to explain his conduct. Guru Nanak Dev Ji took the food of Malik Bhago in one hand and the rough and dry bread of Bhai Lalo in the other hand and pressed them. Blood dripped from Malik Bhago’s food, whereas milk dripped from Bhai Lalo’s bread. In this way Guru Nanak Dev Ji proved that we should earn our livelihood by honest means and hard labour.

2. Talumba : Guru Nanak Dev Ji met Sajjan at this place. He had built a temple and a mosque within his Haveli. During the day, he served Hindu and Muslim travellers nicely but at night he used to rob them and sometimes killed them and threw their bodies into a secret well. He was planning to play the same trick with Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Bhai Mardana. However, when at night Guru Nanak Dev Ji recited his melodious Bani, Sajjan thug was moved and he fell at the feet of the great Guru and sought his pardon for his bad deeds. Guru Nanak Dev Ji forgave him. After this incident, Sajjan gave up cheating and killing, became a true Sajjan and spent his remaining life in propagating Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s teachings. According to K.S. Duggal, “Sajjan’s den of an assassin was transformed into a dharamsala.”

3. Kurukshetra : Guru Nanak Dev Ji reached Kurukshetra on the occasion of a solar eclipse. Here, it is said a follower of Guru Nanak Dev Ji offered him venison (deer’s meat). Guru Nanak Dev Ji started cooking it at that very place. The Brahmans expressed their horror at the sight of flesh. They gathered around Guru Nanak Dev Ji and told him to leave the place. Guru Nanak Dev Ji told them that we ought not to bother about what one ate and how one lived. One should care more for inward purity. His words worked like magic and many people became his disciples. Majority of the historians don’t agree with this incident.

4. Delhi : Guru Nanak Dev Ji stayed at ‘Majnu Ka Tila’ in Delhi. It is said, while living in Delhi, Guru Nanak Dev Ji brought back a dead elephant of Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi to life, but Sikh tradition don’t agree with this incident.

5. Haridwar : When Guru Nanak Dev Ji reached Haridwar many Hindus had gathered there to wash away their sins by a dip in the sacred water of the Ganges. While taking a bath, they were offering water to their forefathers [Pitras] facing the Sun. On seeing this, Guru Ji started throwing water towards the west. Astonished at this, many people gathered around him and asked what he was doing. He answered that he was offering water to his fields in Panjab.

People laughed at his answer and asked how this water could reach his fields situated at a distance of 300 miles. Guru Nanak Dev Ji remarked that if their water could reach the Sun, which is situated millions of miles away, why his water could not reach his fields. Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s answer impressed them deeply.

6. Gorakhmata : After Haridwar Guru Nanak Dev’Ji reached Gorakhmata. Here, Guru Ji told Sidh Jogis that one cannot get salvation by wearing earrings in the ears, by applying ash (vibhuti) to the body or by blowing of horns’, by holding sticks or by shaving of heads. These Jogis were so impressed with his teachings that they became his disciples. Since then, Gorakhmata is called Nanakmata.

7. Banaras : Banaras was also a famous place of pilgrimage of the Hindus. Here Guru Nanak Dev Ji held a long discussion with Pt. Chatur Das about idol worship. Guru Nanak Dev Ji convinced him saying that idol worship is as futile as watering the barren land. Highly impressed by his teachings, Chatur Das became a Sikh along with his Brahman friends.

8. Kamrup: When Guru Nanak Dev Ji reached Kamrup in Assam, a famous witch Nur Shahi along with some other beautiful women, tried to cast a spell on Guru Nanak Dev Ji by her alluring gestures and extraordinary display of tempting charms but she failed. Guru Nanak Dev Ji showed them the right path.

9. Jagannath Puri : After a visit to Assam, Guru Nanak Dev Ji reached Jagan Nath Puri in Orissa. The priest of Jagannath temple asked Guru Nanak Dev Ji to pay homage to their Lord Jagannath. Guru Nanak Dev Ji told them he did not believe in formal worship of aarti. Nature, all the time, is busy with the worship of that Almighty God. So, there; is no need of offering artificial worship to him.

10. Ceyko ; After visiting South India Guru Nanak Dev Ji reached Ceylon (Sri Lanka). At that time Shivnath was the ruler of Ceylon. He was greatly impressed by the personality and hymns of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. As a result he became the follower of Guru Nanak Dev Ji along with many other people.

11. Pakpattan : During his return to the Punjab from Ceylon, Guru Nanak Dev Ji stayed at Pakpattan. Here, he met Sheikh Brahm the follower of Sheikh Farid. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was greatly pleased to meet this famous Sufi saint. Sheikh Brahm was also impressed very much by Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

Second Udasi:

In 1513-14 A.D. Guru Nanak Dev Ji began his second Udasi towards the East. Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent four years in this Udasi. He visited the following important places during this Udasi:

1. Hilly States : Guru Nanak Dev Ji passed through the Punjab and visited the hilly states of Mandi, Rawalsar, Jawalamukhi, Kangra, Baijnath, Kullu etc. Many people of these hilly states were impressed by the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and thus became his followers.

2. Kailash Parbat: Guru Nanak Dev Ji reached Kailash Parbat (Sumer) via Tibet. The Siddhas were greatly surprised at Guru’s arrival there. Guru Nanak Dev Ji told them that the truth had disappeared from the world and falseh od and corruption prevailed everywhere. Guru Nanak Dev Ji advised them to serve humanity.

3. Ladakh : Guru Nanak Dev Ji reached Ladakh from Kailash Parbat. Impressed by the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, many people became his disciples.

4. Kashmir: Guru Nanak Dev Ji held a very lengthy religious debate with-Pandit Brahm Das at Mattan in Kashmir. Guru Nanak Dev Ji explained to him that mere reading or reciting of the Vedas and the Ramayana could not bring salvation. Salvation can be attained only by one’s actions in accordance with the teachings of these holy scriptures.

5. Hasan Abdal s On his return journey to the Punjab Guru Nanak P w Ji stunned at Hasan Abdal. Here an arrogant Faqir Wali Kandhari in a fit oi rage, iohz:i vuy heavy stone rock downward from the hill top to kill Guru Nanak Ji stopped it with his palm. This place is known as ‘Punja Sahib’ these days and there stands a splendid Gurdwara.

6. Sialkot : Guru Nanak Dev Ji met a Muslim saint named Hamza Ghaus at Sialkot. He was angry with the people of this town over some issue and he was determined to destroy the whole city with his power. But, when he met Guru Ji he was so impressed that all his anger disappeared. This incident impressed the people.

Third Udasi:

Guru Nanak Dev Ji began his third Udasi in 1517 A.D. This Udasi also took four years. Guru Ji visited many countries of Western Asia during this Udasi. Bhai Mardana also accompanied him. Guru Ji visited the following important places during this Udasi:

1. Multan : Many Sufi saints lived in Multan. Here Guru Nanak Dev Ji met a famous Sufi saint Sheikh Bahauddin. He was greatly impressed with Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s teachings and became his disciple.

2. Mecca : Mecca is the birth place of the Prophet Mohammad. According to Sikh tradition, when Guru Nanak Dev Ji reached Mecca, he slept with his fees, towards the Kaaba. When Qazi Rukun-ud-Din noticed it, he flew into a rage. When the Qazi turned Guru Ji’s feet to the other directions, the Kaaba also began to turn towards those directions. At this, the Qazi and other Muslims present were deeply impressed. Guru Nanak Dev Ji explained to them that Allah is present everywhere.

3. Madina: From Mecca Guru Nanak Dev Ji reached Madina. Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave here his message of love. He had a religious debate with Imam Azim there.

4. Baghdad: Guru Nanak Dev Ji met Sheikh Behlol in Baghdad. He was so much impressed with the Bani of the great Guru Nanak Dev Ji that he became his disciple.

5. Saidpur : When Guru Nanak Dev Ji reached Saidpur in 1520*21 A.D., Babar attacked this town with a view to occupy it. The Mughal army put to death thousands of innocent people during this attack. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was also arrested along with them. But when Babar came to know that Guru Nunak Dev Ji was a great saint, he set free not only Guru Nanak Dev Ji but many other prisoners also. After it, Guru Ji reached Talwandi. Thus, his Udasis came to an end in 1521 A. D.

Impact of the Udasis:

The Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji had a profound impact on the society. He succeeded to a great extent in removing the superstitions prevalent among people and brought in them s new awakening. He won over great scholars, Jogis, Siddhas, Brahmans, thieves, Is by his sweet hymns. Guru Nanak Dev Ji completely cli anged the persons. Thousands of people became his followers after being greatly impressed by his personality and his teachings. To conclude, we fully agree with these words of Dr. S.S. Kohli, ‘He had a holy mission to perform and his performance was no less than a miracle.”

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 3.
Discuss the main teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Or
Write down the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Or
Discuss the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji for the development of Human society.
Or
Describe in brief but meaningful the basic teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Or
Throw light on the basic ethical teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Or
Write a short note bn the main teachings of Sikhism.
Or
Write the teachings of Sikhism.
Or
Discuss the main teachings of the Guru Granth Sahib.
Or
I describe in brief the basic teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
The teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji were simple but impressive. His teachings had a miraculous effect on the minds of the people. His teachings were not meant for any particular class, caste or province. They were concerned with the whole humanity. His main teachings are as follows :

1. The Nature of God: Guru Nanak Dev Ji believed in one God only. He laid stress on .he oneness of God in his Bani again and again. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is the Creator, Sustainer and Destroyer of the world. There are hundreds and thousands of Mohammads, but only one God. God is known by countless names, like Hari, Ram, Gopal, Wahe Guru, Sahib, Allah, Khuda etc. His manifestations may be many, but He is One and there is no other. Guru Nanak says, “Remember the one God who is contained in sea and land.” God has two forms.

He is Nirguna (without attributes) as well as Saguna (with attributes). He is the absolute Lord. Every thing happens in accordance with His will. He alone is the Creator, Sustainer and Destroyer of the world. He is immortal. He is the greatest of all. His greatness is beyond description.

2. Maya : According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Maya is the biggest obstacle in man’s way of attaining salvation (mukti). An unregenerate (man mukti) man always indulges in the vicious circle of worldly things like wealth, status, power, luxury, beautiful woman, son etc. It is Maya. Thus, one who yields to Maya is caught in the cycle of transmigration and his chains are not cut.

3. Haumai : An unregenerate (manmukh) man has a very strong feeling of Haumai (ego). As a consequence of his haumai, he remains trapped in the worldly evils. The results are disastrous, for instead of leading a man to salvation, his haumai binds him more firmly to the wheel of transmigration.

4. Evil impulses : An unregenerate (manmukh) man is always surrounded by evil impulses. Kam (lust), krodh (anger), lobh (greed), moh (attachment) and ahankar (pride) are five enemies of man. He commits sins and deceives others under their influence. Consquently, he is caught in stronger chains of transmigration and therefore he is destined to suffer the pains of hell.

5. Denunciation of the Priestly Class : Guru Nanak Dev Ji denounced the priestly class in strong words. No doubt, they used to study the Vedas, the Shastras and the Quran, but they were not pure at heart. They cheated people and looted them in the name of superfluous traditions. Consequently, Guru Nanak Dev Ji preached people not to follow them. ‘

6. Denunciation of the Caste System : The Hindu society of Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s time was divided not only into four main castes—Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras but into many sub-castes also. The members of’the upper castes hated the people of the lower castes and treated them very badly. The practice of untouchability was very common. Guru Nanak Dev Ji condemned the caste system and untouchability in unequivocal words. Guru Nanak Dev Ji preached the principle of universal brotherhood of mankind.

7. Condemnation of Idol Worship : Guru Nanak Dev Ji condemned idol worship in unequivocal terms. He preached that idols are lifeless stones. If they are thrown into the water, they themselves would sink. How can those idols, which cannot save themselves help men to cross the ocean of the world? So, idol worship is useless and the worship of only one God is desirable.

8. Condemnation of Empty Rituals: Guru Nanak Dev Ji denounced empty rituals and blind faith which were in vogue in the society, in strong words. He told the people that they could not attain salvation (mukti) by putting a tilak on the forehead, applying ash on the body, by wearing earrings, by blowing of horns (shells), by keeping fasts, by undergoing penance in the forest, by offering water to the Sun, and by worshipping graves, khankahas, snakes, trees etc.

Guru Nanak Dev Ji called all such acts as vain ceremonies. According to him, the religion of only such a man is true, who is true and pure at heart.

9. Denounced Ill-treatment of Women : During the time of Guru Nanak Dev Ji the condition of women in Indian society was extremely pitiable. Many evil practices had crept in. Women were considered a mere object of sensual satisfaction. G uru Nanak Dev Ji condemned emphatically all such evils as were prevalent among women of that time. In order to raise the status of women Guru Nanak Dev Ji laid emphasis on the equal rights of men and women. He says, “Why belittle her who gives birth to Rajas?”

10. Recitation of Nam and Sabad : Guru Nanak Dev Ji considered the recitation of Nam and Sabad as the highest form of God-worship. Man can get deliverance through Nam and Sabad from the world which is full of diseases and sufferings. Man’s arrival in this world (his birth) is futile, if he does not recite Nam and Sabad. Man remains entrapped in all sort of sins and in the vicious circle of transmigration without Nam. The Nam should be recited with a true heart and inner respect (faith). Dr. Dewan Singh aptly says, “Nam is the only and most efficacious source and agent for the redemption and salvation of the sinful and self-engrossed mankind.”

11. Importance of Guru : Guru Nanak Dev Ji regarded the blessings of the Guru as most important in order to reach God. According to him the Guru is the ladder by means of which one reaches God. It is the Guru who leads a man from darkness (ignorance) to light (enlightenment). But it is not an easy affair to find out a real Guru. Man cannot find the real Guru withovj the blessings of God himself.

12. Hukam : The doctrine of Hukim (order) or the will of God occupies a crucial position in the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Happiness or misery is in accordance with his Hukam. God’s Hukam cannot be evaded. Man should always obey the Hukam of God. He who does so, is blessed by God and gets salvation. On the contrary, he who does not bow before the will of God, is bound to wander from pillar to post.

13. Sach Khand : According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, to reach the Sach Khand was the ultimate goal of human life. A man has to travel through Dharam Khand, Gian Khand, Saram Khand and Karam Khand in his journey to Sach Khand which is the final stage. Here, the soul merges with the Super Soul and all worries and sufferings disappear.

Importance of Teachings:

The teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji had a tremendous impact not only on religious and social fields, but on political fields also. His teachings went a long way in eliminating blind faiths and superstitions from the society, as the darkness of the horizon disappears before the sunrise. Consequently, a new awakening took place among people. They discarded useless rituals and started worship of one God.

Guru Nanak Dev Ji laid the foundation of a new social order by condemning caste system, by propagating brotherhood of mankind, providing equal status to women in society, and by establishing institutions of ‘Sangat’ and ‘Pangat’. His teachings gave a rude jolt, even to the rulers of the time.

According to famous historian Dr. I.B. Banerjee, “The age of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was an age of ignorance and an age of strife, and we may say at once the message of Nanak was a message of truth and a message of peace.”

Question 4.
Explain Guru Nanak’s life and his basic teachings.
Or
Discuss in detail the life and teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Or
Write the life and teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:

The life time of Guru Nanak Dev Ji can be divided into three periods. Accordingly, the first period, 1469 to 1499 A.D. is related from his birth to enlightenment. The second period, 1499 to 1521 A.D. is related to the Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. The third period, 1521 to 1539 A.D. is related to his stay at Kartarpur with his family and his work for the spread, growth and development of Sikhism.

First Period, 1469 to 1499 A.D.:

1. Birth and Parentage : Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born on 15th April, 1469 A.D., on Purnima (the day of full moon) at Rai Bhoi Ki Talwandi, a place now situated in Sheikhupura district of Pakistan. This holy place is now known as Nankana Sahib. His father Mehta Kalu, a Patwari of the village, belonged to Bedi Kshatriya family. His mother, Tripta Devi, was a pious and religious minded lady. According to Sikh traditions, many miracles were witnessed at the time of Gum Nanak Dev Ji’s birth.

2. Childhood and Education: Guru Nanak Dev Ji was quite serious and thoughtful by nature since his childhood. He was not much inclined to games and was interested in the worship of God. When he was seven years old, he was sent to the Pathshala of Pandit Gopal for elementary learning of Hindi and Mathematics. He surprised Pandit Gopal by his spiritual knowledge. Later on he learnt Sanskrit from Pandit Brij Nath and Arabic and Persian from Mulla Qutub-ud-Din.

When he was nine, Purohit Hardyal was called to perform the ceremony of the sacred thread (Janeu). Guru Nanak Dev Ji categorically refused to wear the sacred thread and remarked that he would wear the thread of kindness, satisfaction, truthfulness and restraint which would never break, burn or get besmeared.

3. In various occupations : Having noticed the over indulgence of Guru Nanak Dev Ji in his thoughts, his father was alarmed. So, he tried to keep his son busy with one work or other. First of all, he was asked to graze buffaloes, but Guru Ji did not show any interest. Consequently, his father decided to set him in trade. He gave Guru Ji a sum of twenty rupees and sent him to the market to strike a profitable bargain. On way to the market, Guru Ji met a group of sadhus, who had been hungry for many days. Guru Ji spent the whole amount on feeding those sadhus, and returned home empty handed. This event is known as ‘Sacha Sauda” (true bargain) in history.

4. Marriage : To arouse his son’s interest in the affairs of this world, Mehta Kalu Ji married him to Sulakhni, daughter of Mool Chand of Batala. He was 14 years old then. In due course of time, he was blessed with two sons named Sri Chand and Lakhmi Das.

5. Service at Sultanpur Lodhi : At the age of 20 years, Guru Nanak Dev Ji was sent to Sultanpur Lodhi by his father Mehta Kalu to his son-in-law Jai Ram (Guru Ji’s brother-in-law). On his recommendation, Guru Nanak Dev Ji got a job in Modikhana (the store). Guru Nanak Dev Ji did this job honestly for ten years.

6. Enlightenment: While at Sultanpur Lodhi, Guru Nanak Dev Ji used to go to the rivulet Kali Bein daily in the morning to take a bath. One day, he went as usual for taking bath and remained untraceable for three days. During these three days Guru Nanak Dev Ji gained true knowledge. At that time, he was 30 years old. After enlightenment, Guru Ji uttered, “Na Ko Hindu, Na Ko Musalman”.

7. Udasis : After attaining enlightenment in 1499 A.D. Guru Nanak Dev Ji started his travels in India and abroad. These travels were called the Udasis. These Udasis were conducted with the objective to dispel the ignorance of the pecid to preach the unity of God and brotherhood of mankind. In India Gin i-. Na:w-kw travelled from Kailash mountain in north to Ramesh varum in south a ad from ha; patten ir, west to Assam in east.

Outside India Guru Nanak Dev Ji travelled tr Mecca, Madina, Baghdad and Sri Lanka. We get important information from his Bam about the travels of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. He spent about 21 years in these Udasis. Guru Nanak Dev Ji succeeded in his aim to a great extent during these Udasis.

8. Settled at Kartarpur : Guru Nanak Dev Ji founded a town named Kartarpur (the abode of God) at the banks of the Ravi river in 1521 A.D. and spent the last 18 years of his life at this place. He started the institutions of ‘Sangat’ and ‘Pangat’ during this period. Besides, he composed 976 Sabads, which also proved extremely helpful for the spread and development of Sikhism. Th prominent Ranis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji are Japji Sahib, Var Majh, Asa di Var, Sidh Goshti, Var Malhar, Bara Maha and Patti.

9. Nomination of the Successor : Guru Nanak Dev Ji -ominated Bhai Lehna, his famous disciple as his successor, before he immersed in Eternal Light. Guru Nanak Dev Ji placed one coconut and five paise infront of Bhai Lehna and bowed his head. In this way, Bhai Lehna came to be known as Guru Angad Dev Ji. Thus, Guru Nanak Dev Ji planted a sapling, which became a dense tree at the time of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. According to Dr. Hari Ram Gupta,” The appointment of Angad was a step of far-reaching significance.”

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

10. Immersion in Eternal Light: Guru Nanak Dev Ji Immerssed in Eternal Light on 22th September, 1539 A.D.

The teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji were simple but impressive. His teachings had a miraculous effect on the minds of the people. His teachings were not meant for any particular class, caste or province. They were concerned with the whole humanity. His main teachings are as follows :

1. The Nature of God: Guru Nanak Dev Ji believed in one God only. He laid stress on .he oneness of God in his Bani again and again. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is the Creator, Sustainer and Destroyer of the world. There are hundreds and thousands of Mohammads, but only one God. God is known by countless names, like Hari, Ram, Gopal, Wahe Guru, Sahib, Allah, Khuda etc. His manifestations may be many, but He is One and there is no other. Guru Nanak says, “Remember the one God who is contained in sea and land.” God has two forms.

He is Nirguna (without attributes) as well as Saguna (with attributes). He is the absolute Lord. Every thing happens in accordance with His will. He alone is the Creator, Sustainer and Destroyer of the world. He is immortal. He is the greatest of all. His greatness is beyond description.

2. Maya : According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Maya is the biggest obstacle in man’s way of attaining salvation (mukti). An unregenerate (man mukti) man always indulges in the vicious circle of worldly things like wealth, status, power, luxury, beautiful woman, son etc. It is Maya. Thus, one who yields to Maya is caught in the cycle of transmigration and his chains are not cut.

3. Haumai : An unregenerate (manmukh) man has a very strong feeling of Haumai (ego). As a consequence of his haumai, he remains trapped in the worldly evils. The results are disastrous, for instead of leading a man to salvation, his haumai binds him more firmly to the wheel of transmigration.

4. Evil impulses : An unregenerate (manmukh) man is always surrounded by evil impulses. Kam (lust), krodh (anger), lobh (greed), moh (attachment) and ahankar (pride) are five enemies of man. He commits sins and deceives others under their influence. Consquently, he is caught in stronger chains of transmigration and therefore he is destined to suffer the pains of hell.

5. Denunciation of the Priestly Class : Guru Nanak Dev Ji denounced the priestly class in strong words. No doubt, they used to study the Vedas, the Shastras and the Quran, but they were not pure at heart. They cheated people and looted them in the name of superfluous traditions. Consequently, Guru Nanak Dev Ji preached people not to follow them.

6. Denunciation of the Caste System : The Hindu society of Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s time was divided not only into four main castes—Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras but into many sub-castes also. The members of the upper castes hated the people of the lower castes and treated them very badly. The practice of untouchability was very common. Guru Nanak Dev Ji condemned the caste system and untouchability in unequivocal words. Guru Nanak Dev Ji preached the principle of universal brotherhood of mankind.

7. Condemnation of Idol Worship : Guru Nanak Dev Ji condemned idol worship in unequivocal terms. He preached that idols are lifeless stones. If they are thrown into the water, they themselves would sink. How can those idols, which cannot save themselves help men to cross the ocean of the world? So, idol worship is useless and the worship of only one God is desirable.

8. Condemnation of Empty Rituals: Guru Nanak Dev Ji denounced empty rituals and blind faith which were in vogue in the society, in strong words. He told the people that they could not attain salvation (mukti) by putting a tilak on the forehead, applying ash on the body, by wearing earrings, by blowing of horns (shells), by keeping fasts, by undergoing penance in the forest, by offering water to the Sun, and by worshipping graves, khankahas, snakes, trees etc. Guru Nanak Dev Ji called all such acts as vain ceremonies. According to him, the religion of only such a man is true, who is true and pure at heart.

9. Denounced Ill-treatment of Women : During the time of Guru Nanak Dev Ji the condition of women in Indian society was extremely pitiable. Many evil practices had crept in. Women were considered a mere object of sensual satisfaction. Guru Nanak Dev Ji condemned emphatically all such evils as were prevalent among women of that time. In order to raise the status of women Guru Nanak Dev Ji laid emphasis on the equal rights of men and women. He says, “Why belittle her who gives birth to Rajas?”

10. Recitation of Nam and Sabad : Guru Nanak Dev Ji considered the recitation of Nam and Sabad as the highest form of God-worship. Man can get deliverance through Nam and Sabad from the world which is full of diseases and sufferings. Man’s arrival in this world (his birth) is futile, if he does not recite Nam and Sabad. Man remains entrapped in all sort of sins and in the vicious circle of transmigration without Nam. The Nam should be recited with a true heart and inner respect (faith). Dr. Dewan Singh aptly says, “Nam is the only and most efficacious source and agent for the redemption and salvation of the sinful and self-engrossed mankind.”

11. Importance of Guru : Guru Nanak Dev Ji regarded the blessings of the Guru as most important in order to reach God. According to him the Guru is the ladder by means of which one reaches God. It is the Guru who leads a man from darkness (ignorance) to light (enlightenment). But it is not an easy affair to find out a real Guru. Man cannot find the real Guru withovj the blessings of God himself.

12. Hukam : The doctrine of Hukim (order) or the will of God occupies a crucial position in the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Happiness or misery is in accordance with his Hukam. God’s Hukam cannot be evaded. Man should always obey the Hukam of God. He who does so, is blessed by God and gets salvation. On the contrary, he who does not bow before the will of God, is bound to wander from pillar to post.

13. Sach Khand : According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, to reach the Sach Khand was the ultimate goal of human life. A man has to travel through Dharam Khand, Gian Khand, Saram Khand and Karam Khand in his journey to Sach Khand which is the final stage. Here, the soul merges with the Super Soul and all worries and sufferings disappear.

Importance of Teachings:

The teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji had a tremendous impact not only on religious and social fields, but on political fields also. His teachings went a long way in eliminating blind faiths and superstitions from the society, as the darkness of the horizon disappears before the sunrise. Consequently, a new awakening took place among people. They discarded useless rituals and started worship of one God. Guru Nanak Dev Ji laid the foundation of a new social order by condemning caste system, by propagating brotherhood of mankind, providing equal status to women in society, and by establishing institutions of ‘Sangat’ and ‘Pangat’.

His teachings gave a rude jolt, even to the rulers of the time. According to famous historian Dr. I.B. Banerjee, “The age of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was an age of ignorance and an age of strife, and we may say at once the message of Nanak was a message of truth and a message of peace.”

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 5. What do you know about the early career of Guru Angad Dev Ji? Explain briefly.
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji was the second Guru of the Sikhs. His period of pontifical was from 1539 to 1552 A.D. A brief description of his early career is as under :

1. Birth and Parentage : The original name of Guru Angad Dev Ji was Bhai Lehna Ji. He was born in a village named Matte Di Sarai on 31st March 1504 A.D. His father’s name was Pheru Mai, who was a Trihun Khatri. His mother Sabhrai Devi was a religious-minded lady. Her religious thoughts had a deep influence on Bhai Lehna Ji.

2. Childhood and Marriage : When Bhai Lehna Ji grew young he helped his father in his profession. At the age of 15 years, he was married to Bibi Khivi, the daughter of Devi Chand of the same village. In due to rse of time, Bhai Lehna was blessed with two daughters Bibi Amro and Bibi Anokhi and two sons Datu and Dasu. In 1526 A.D., Babar sacked Matte Di Sarai, so Pheru Mai along with his family shifted to Khadur Sahib, a village in Amritsar district. Soon after, Pheru Mai died and therefore the entire responsibility to run his family fell upon the shoulders of Bhai Lehna Ji.

3. Lehna Ji Becomes the Disciple of Guru Nanak Dev Ji : Before meeting Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Bhai Lehna was a devotee of Durga. He used to visit Jawalamukhi (in Kangra district) every year along with a group of devotees (Jatha) One day he heard in Khadur Sahib, the recitation of‘Asa Di Var’ from Bhai Jodha, Bhai Lehna was so much stirred by it that he determined to meet Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Thus, when he set out for the pilgrimage of Jawalamukhi with his group of devotees next year, he stopped on the way at Kartarpur to meet Guru Nanak Dev Ji. He was so much overwhelmed and awed by the great personality and teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji that he felt his destination

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism 1469-1708 A.D. Img 3

was at hand. Therefore, Bhai Lehna became a follower of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and spent his life in the service of the Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

4. Assumption of Guruship: Bhai Lehna Ji served Guru Nanak Dev Ji dedieatedly and with full devotion. Guru Nanak Dev Ji put his disciple to hard tests from time to time. Bhai Lehna Ji passed all these tests. Guru Nanak Dev Ji decided to ordain Guruship to Bhai Lehna, as he was fully satisfied with his true de oti- u i nd endless affection. So, he placed one coconut and five paise in front of Bhai Lehna Ji and greeted him and appointed him as his successor. Guru Nanak Dev Ji named him (Bhai Lehna) ‘Angad’ because he considered him a part of his own body. It happened on 7th September, 1539 A.D.

The appointment of Guru Angad Dev Ji by Guru Nanak Dev Ji as his successor is considered one of the most important events of Sikh history. If Guru Nanak Dev Ji had not done so before leaving for his heavenly abode, Sikhism undoubtedly would gradually have ceased to exist. G.C. Narang aptly says, “Had Nanak died without a successor, there would have been no Sikhism today.”

Question 6.
What contribution Guru Angad Dev Ji made for the development of Sikhism? Discuss.
Or
Describe the contribution made by Guru Angad Dev Ji for the development of Sikhism.
Or
Give a brief account of the contribution made by Guru Angad Dev Ji to the development of Sikhism.
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji became the second Guru of the Sikhs in 1539 A.D. and retained Guruship till 1552 A.D. At the time of his attaining Guruship, Sikhism was facing many dangers. The most potent threat came from Hinduism itself. It was feared that Sikhism might merge in Hinduism. The second danger to Sikhism was from the Udasis. The Udasi sect was founded by Baba Sri Chand Ji,the elder son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

Naturally many Sikhs were joining the Udasi sect. Under such circumstances constant vigil was needed to safeguard the interests of the Sikhs. Guru Angad Dev Ji not only succeeded in removing all the hurdles in the path of Sikhism, but also in consolidating it. The significant contribution of Guru Angad Dev Ji to the development of Sikhism can be described as under :

1. Popularisation of Gurmukhi : Guru Angad Dev Ji’s first significant effort for the development of Sikhism was the popularisation of Gurmukhi script. Guru Angad Dev Ji improved and polished it. Now it became very easy even for common people to understand it. All the religious books of Sikhism were written in it. Its very name ‘Gurmukhi’ (an utterance of words from the Guru’s mouth) reminded the Sikhs of their duties towards the Guru and constantly kept alive in their minds the consciousness that they were something distinct from the common mass of Hinduism.

This script was also instrumental in rapid spread of education among the Sikhs. Besides, the introduction of this script gave a severe blow to the supremacy of the Brahmans, who recognised Sanskrit as the only religious language. Undoubtedly, the popularisation of Gurmukhi proved most significant in the development of Sikhism. According to H.S. Bhatia and S.R. Bakshi, “Guru Angad Dev Ji gave the Sikhs a written language different from the language of the Hindus and Muslims and thus made them realise that they were separate people.”

2. Collection of Hymns : The collection of the hymns of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was the second great work of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Nanak Dev Ji had composed many hymns, but these hymns (Bani) lay scattered at many places. Guru Angad Dev Ji collected all the hymns at one place. According to Sikh traditions, Guru Angad Dev Ji summoned Bhai Bala, a devotee of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and got a Janam Sakhi written on Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s life.

This Janam Sakhi is known as Bhai Bala’s Janam Sakhi. Some scholars don’t agree with this view that the Janam Sakhi was of Bhai Bala Ji written at the time of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji himself composed Bani in the name of ‘Nanak’. He composed sixty-two Sabads. In this way, firstly, Guru Angad Dev Ji preserved the original form of Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s hymns and saved it from distortion. Secondly, Guru Angad Dev Ji prepared the basis for the compilation of Adi Granth Sahib Ji.

3. Expansion of Langar System : Langar system was introduced by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji expanded it. In his time, the Langar was managed by his wife Bibi Khivi Ji. All people ate food in Langar collectively without any consideration of sex, caste or creed. Money for the Langar was given by the Sikhs to the Guru. This institution strengthened feelings of co-operation and fraternity among the Sikhs. It also gave a shattering blow to the caste system among the Hindus. The habit of charity was developed by it among the Sikhs. It provided a powerful aid in propaganda work.

It helped a lot to make Sikhism popular. Prof. Harbans Singh, a famous historian, rightly remarks, “This served as an instrument of a far-reaching social revolution.”9 4. Organisation of Sangat : Guru Angad Dev Ji more effectively organised institution of Sangat founded by Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

The ‘Sangat’ meant ‘sitting together collectively’. All people (male or female) could take part in it. The Sangat was considered to be a replica of God. The Sangat met every morning and evening to listen to the Bani (hymn) of the Guru. This institution not only brought the Sikhs under one banner but it also helped a lot in the success of Sikh missionary work.

5. Denunciation of the Udasi Sect: Udasi sect was founded by Baba Sri Chand Ji, the elder son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. This sect laid emphasis on ‘Sanyas’ or renunciation, Many people began to join the Udasi sect. Thus, the Udasi sect posed a formidable challenge to Sikhism. Therefore, Guru Angad Dev Ji made it clear in unequivocal terms that Sikhism was essentially a religion of householders and no true Sikh could be an Udasi. This action of the Guru Angad Dev Ji brought rich dividends. Udasism could not become the mass movement. Thus, Guru Angad Dev Ji succeeded in preserving the purity and originality of Sikh religion.

6. Discipline in Sikh Sect: Guru Angad Dev Ji was a great disciplinarian. Once two Ragis named Satta and Balwand, who sang hymns in the Darbar of Guru Ji began to feel excessively proud of their sweet voice. They began to violate even the instructions of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji could not tolerate their attitude of defiance. As a result, Guru Angad Dev Ji dismissed both of them from his Darbar. Soon, they realised their mistake. Afterwards, when they apologised and Bhai Ladha Ji requested on their behalf, Guru Angad Dev Ji pardoned them. Thus, Guru Angad Dev Ji maintained the tradition of strict discipline in Guru Darbar.

7. Physical Training. Guru Angad Sahib was of the view that just as it is essential to recite Nam to cleans the Atma, similarly, it is necessary to do exercise for the fitness of the body. He held the view that a sound mind develops in a sound body. With this object in view, he built a wrestling ground at Khadur Sahib. Thus, Guru Angad Sahib laid the foundation of the martial spirit, which in the times of the sixth and the tenth Gurus blossomed into the Khalsa.

8. Foundation of Goindwal Sahib : Guru Angad Dev Ji founded a new town named Goindwal Sahib near Khadur Sahib and thus accomplished another very significant step for the development of Sikhism. The town began to be built in 1546 A.D. Guru Angad Dev Ji made one of his devoted followers Amar Das ftdly responsible for this project. This town soon became a place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs.

9. Meeting with Humayun : In 1540 A.D. Sher Shah Suri gave a crushing defeat to Mughal Emperor Humayun at Kanauj. After the defeat, Humayun reached Punjab and came to Khadur Sahib for Guru Angad Dev Ji’s blessings. At that moment, Guru Angad Dev Ji was in deep meditation, so he did not open his eyes. Humayun felt insulted and drew out his sword in anger. Suddenly, at that very moment, Guru Angad Dev Ji opened his eyes and said to Humayun, “Where was this sword that you have unsheathed against me during the battle with Sher Shah Suri?”

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

On hearing these words, Humayun felt very much ashamed and prayed for his pardon. Thereafter, Humayun, sought Guru Angad Dev Ji’s blessings. Guru Angad Dev Ji gave his blessings to Humayun and said that he would have to wait for some time for his folly and thereafter he would regain the throne. This prediction of Guru Angad Dev Ji was proved true.

10. Nomination of the Successor: The greatest service rendered by Guru Angad Dev Ji for the development of Sikhism was the nomination of his successor. After deep and prolonged thinking and consideration, Guru Angad Dev Ji chose his most faithful disciple Amar Das for appointment to the highest post of Guruship. Guru Angad Dev Ji placed one coconut and five paise in front of Amar Das and bowed his head before him. Thus, Amar Das Ji was nomination the third Guru of the Sikhs. By doing so,
Guru Angad Dev Ji took a step of far reaching consequence. Guru Angad Dev Ji immersed in Eternal Light on 29 March, 1552 A.D.

11. Estimate of Guru. Angad Dev Ji’s Achievements : Guru Angad Dev Ji took many important steps for the development of Sikhism during his Guruship. He rendered a great service to the Sikh Panth by popularising Gurmukhi, collecting Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s hymns, expanding Sangat and Pangat, separating the Udasi sect from Sikhism, maintaining discipline in Guru’s Dardar, founding Goindwal Sahib and appointing his successor. K.S. Duggal,

a famous historian, estimates the achievements of Guru Angad Dev Ji in the following words, “ It is amazing how much Guru Angad Dev Ji could achieve in the short time at his disposal.”According to another famous historian S.S. Johar, “The pontificate of Guru Angad Dev is indeed a turning point in the history of Sikh faith.”

Question 7.
Describe in brief the life and achievements of Guru Angad Dev Ji.
Or
Discuss the life and contribution of Guru Angad Dev Ji to the development of Sikhism.
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji was the second Guru of the Sikhs. His period of pontifical was from 1539 to 1552 A.D. A brief description of his early career is as under :

1. Birth and Parentage : The original name of Guru Angad Dev Ji was Bhai Lehna Ji. He was born in a village named Matte Di Sarai on 31st March 1504 A.D. His father’s name was Pheru Mai, who was a Trihun Khatri. His mother Sabhrai Devi was a religious-minded lady. Her religious thoughts had a deep influence on Bhai Lehna Ji.

2. Childhood and Marriage : When Bhai Lehna Ji grew young he helped his father in his profession. At the age of 15 years, he was married to Bibi Khivi, the daughter of Devi Chand of the same village. In due to rse of time, Bhai Lehna was blessed with two daughters Bibi Amro and Bibi Anokhi and two sons Datu and Dasu. In 1526 A.D., Babar sacked Matte Di Sarai, so Pheru Mai along with his family shifted to Khadur Sahib, a village in Amritsar district. Soon after, Pheru Mai died and therefore the entire responsibility to run his family fell upon the shoulders of Bhai Lehna Ji.

3. Lehna Ji Becomes the Disciple of Guru Nanak Dev Ji : Before meeting Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Bhai Lehna was a devotee of Durga. He used to visit Jawalamukhi (in Kangra district) every year along with a group of devotees (Jatha) One day he heard in Khadur Sahib, the recitation of‘Asa Di Var’ from Bhai Jodha, Bhai Lehna was so much stirred by it that he determined to meet Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Thus, when he set out for the pilgrimage of Jawalamukhi with his group of devotees next year,

he stopped on the way at Kartarpur to meet Guru Nanak Dev Ji. He was so much overwhelmed and awed by the great personality and teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji that he felt his destination was at hand. Therefore, Bhai Lehna became a follower of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and spent his life in the service of the Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

4. Assumption of Guruship: Bhai Lehna Ji served Guru Nanak Dev Ji dedieatedly and with full devotion. Guru Nanak Dev Ji put his disciple to hard tests from time to time. Bhai Lehna Ji passed all these tests. Guru Nanak Dev Ji decided to ordain Guruship to Bhai Lehna, as he was fully satisfied with his true de oti- u i nd endless affection. So, he placed one coconut and five paise in front of Bhai Lehna Ji and greeted him and appointed him as his successor. Guru Nanak Dev Ji named him (Bhai Lehna) ‘Angad’ because he considered him a part of his own body. It happened on 7th September, 1539 A.D.

The appointment of Guru Angad Dev Ji by Guru Nanak Dev Ji as his successor is considered one of the most important events of Sikh history. If Guru Nanak Dev Ji had not done so before leaving for his heavenly abode, Sikhism undoubtedly would gradually have ceased to exist. G.C. Narang aptly says, “Had Nanak died without a successor, there would have been no Sikhism today.”

Guru Angad Dev Ji became the second Guru of the Sikhs in 1539 A.D. and retained Guruship till 1552 A.D. At the time of his attaining Guruship, Sikhism was facing many dangers. The most potent threat came from Hinduism itself. It was feared that Sikhism might merge in Hinduism. The second danger to Sikhism was from the Udasis. The Udasi sect was founded by Baba Sri Chand Ji,the elder son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

Naturally many Sikhs were joining the Udasi sect. Under such circumstances constant vigil was needed to safeguard the interests of the Sikhs. Guru Angad Dev Ji not only succeeded in removing all the hurdles in the path of Sikhism, but also in consolidating it. The significant contribution of Guru Angad Dev Ji to the development of Sikhism can be described as under :

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

1. Popularisation of Gurmukhi : Guru Angad Dev Ji’s first significant effort for the development of Sikhism was the popularisation of Gurmukhi script. Guru Angad Dev Ji improved and polished it. Now it became very easy even for common people to understand it. All the religious books of Sikhism were written in it. Its very name ‘Gurmukhi’ (an utterance of words from the Guru’s mouth) reminded the Sikhs of their duties towards the Guru and constantly kept alive in their minds the consciousness that they were something distinct from the common mass of Hinduism.

This script was also instrumental in rapid spread of education among the Sikhs. Besides, the introduction of this script gave a severe blow to the supremacy of the Brahmans, who recognised Sanskrit as the only religious language. Undoubtedly, the popularisation of Gurmukhi proved most significant in the development of Sikhism. According to H.S. Bhatia and S.R. Bakshi, “Guru Angad Dev Ji gave the Sikhs a written language different from the language of the Hindus and Muslims and thus made them realise that they were separate people.”

2. Collection of Hymns : The collection of the hymns of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was the second great work of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Nanak Dev Ji had composed many hymns, but these hymns (Bani) lay scattered at many places. Guru Angad Dev Ji collected all the hymns at one place. According to Sikh traditions, Guru Angad Dev Ji summoned Bhai Bala, a devotee of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and got a Janam Sakhi written on Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s life.

This Janam Sakhi is known as Bhai Bala’s Janam Sakhi. Some scholars don’t agree with this view that the Janam Sakhi was of Bhai Bala Ji written at the time of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji himself composed Bani in the name of ‘Nanak’. He composed sixty-two Sabads. In this way, firstly, Guru Angad Dev Ji preserved the original form of Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s hymns and saved it from distortion. Secondly, Guru Angad Dev Ji prepared the basis for the compilation of Adi Granth Sahib Ji.

3. Expansion of Langar System : Langar system was introduced by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji expanded it. In his time, the Langar was managed by his wife Bibi Khivi Ji. All people ate food in Langar collectively without any consideration of sex, caste or creed. Money for the Langar was given by the Sikhs to the Guru. This institution strengthened feelings of co-operation and fraternity among the Sikhs. It also gave a shattering blow to the caste system among the Hindus. The habit of charity was developed by it among the Sikhs. It provided a powerful aid in propaganda work.

It helped a lot to make Sikhism popular. Prof. Harbans Singh, a famous historian, rightly remarks, “This served as an instrument of a far-reaching social revolution.”9 4. Organisation of Sangat : Guru Angad Dev Ji more effectively organised institution of Sangat founded by Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

The ‘Sangat’ meant ‘sitting together collectively’. All people (male or female) could take part in it. The Sangat was considered to be a replica of God. The Sangat met every morning and evening to listen to the Bani (hymn) of the Guru. This institution not only brought the Sikhs under one banner but it also helped a lot in the success of Sikh missionary work.

5. Denunciation of the Udasi Sect: Udasi sect was founded by Baba Sri Chand Ji, the elder son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. This sect laid emphasis on ‘Sanyas’ or renunciation, Many people began to join the Udasi sect. Thus, the Udasi sect posed a formidable challenge to Sikhism. Therefore, Guru Angad Dev Ji made it clear in unequivocal terms that Sikhism was essentially a religion of householders and no true Sikh could be an Udasi.

This action of the Guru Angad Dev Ji brought rich dividends. Udasism could not become the mass movement. Thus, Guru Angad Dev Ji succeeded in preserving the purity and originality of Sikh religion.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

6. Discipline in Sikh Sect: Guru Angad Dev Ji was a great disciplinarian. Once two Ragis named Satta and Balwand, who sang hymns in the Darbar of Guru Ji began to feel excessively proud of their sweet voice. They began to violate even the instructions of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji could not tolerate their attitude of defiance. As a result, Guru Angad Dev Ji dismissed both of them from his Darbar. Soon, they realised their mistake. Afterwards, when they apologised and Bhai Ladha Ji requested on their behalf, Guru Angad Dev Ji pardoned them. Thus, Guru Angad Dev Ji maintained the tradition of strict discipline in Guru Darbar.

7. Physical Training. Guru Angad Sahib was of the view that just as it is essential to recite Nam to cleans the Atma, similarly, it is necessary to do exercise for the fitness of the body. He held the view that a sound mind develops in a sound body. With this object in view, he built a wrestling ground at Khadur Sahib. Thus, Guru Angad Sahib laid the foundation of the martial spirit, which in the times of the sixth and the tenth Gurus blossomed into the Khalsa.

8. Foundation of Goindwal Sahib : Guru Angad Dev Ji founded a new town named Goindwal Sahib near Khadur Sahib and thus accomplished another very significant step for the development of Sikhism. The town began to be built in 1546 A.D. Guru Angad Dev Ji made one of his devoted followers Amar Das ftdly responsible for this project. This town soon became a place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs.

9. Meeting with Humayun : In 1540 A.D. Sher Shah Suri gave a crushing defeat to Mughal Emperor Humayun at Kanauj. After the defeat, Humayun reached Punjab and came to Khadur Sahib for Guru Angad Dev Ji’s blessings. At that moment, Guru Angad Dev Ji was in deep meditation, so he did not open his eyes. Humayun felt insulted and drew out his sword in anger. Suddenly, at that very moment, Guru Angad Dev Ji opened his eyes and said to Humayun, “Where was this sword that you have unsheathed against me during the battle with Sher Shah Suri?”

On hearing these words, Humayun felt very much ashamed and prayed for his pardon. Thereafter, Humayun, sought Guru Angad Dev Ji’s blessings. Guru Angad Dev Ji gave his blessings to Humayun and said that he would have to wait for some time for his folly and thereafter he would regain the throne. This prediction of Guru Angad Dev Ji was proved true.

10. Nomination of the Successor: The greatest service rendered by Guru Angad Dev Ji for the development of Sikhism was the nomination of his successor. After deep and prolonged thinking and consideration, Guru Angad Dev Ji chose his most faithful disciple Amar Das for appointment to the highest post of Guruship. Guru Angad Dev Ji placed one coconut and five paise in front of Amar Das and bowed his head before him. Thus, Amar Das Ji was nomination the third Guru of the Sikhs. By doing so,
Guru Angad Dev Ji took a step of far reaching consequence. Guru Angad Dev Ji immersed in Eternal Light on 29 March, 1552 A.D.

11. Estimate of Guru. Angad Dev Ji’s Achievements : Guru Angad Dev Ji took many important steps for the development of Sikhism during his Guruship. He rendered a great service to the Sikh Panth by popularising Gurmukhi, collecting Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s hymns, expanding Sangat and Pangat, separating the Udasi sect from Sikhism, maintaining discipline in Guru’s Dardar, founding Goindwal Sahib and appointing his successor. K.S. Duggal, a famous historian, estimates the achievements of Guru Angad Dev Ji in the following words, “ It is amazing how much Guru Angad Dev Ji could achieve in the short time at his disposal.”According to another famous historian S.S. Johar, “The pontificate of Guru Angad Dev is indeed a turning point in the history of Sikh faith.”

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 8.
Give a brief account of the early career- and difficulties of Guru Amar Das Ji.
Answer:
A brief account of the early career and difficulties of Guru Amar Das Ji is as under :

Early Life of Guru Amardas Ji:

1. Birth and Parentage : Guru Amar Das Ji was born in Basarke village of Amritsar district on 5th May, 1479 A.D. His father Tej Bhan belonged to Bhalla family of Khatri caste. He was rich. No definite information is available about his mother’s actual name.

2. Childhood and Marriage : Nothing is known of Guru Amar Das Ji’s childhood exrcept that he was religiously inclined. On coming of age, he took over his father’s profession. As his parents were followers of the Vaishnav sect, he also became a follower of Vaishnavism. At the age of 24 years, he was married to Mansa Devi, daughter of Devi Chand. He was blessed with two sons Baba Mohan and Baba Mohri and two daughters Bibi Dani and Bibi Bhani.

3. Becoming Guru Angad Sahib’s Disciple : Once, when he was returning from Haridwar’s pilgrimage, he met a Sadhu on the way. Both of them took food together. Afterwards, the Sadhu enquired, “Who is your Guru” (spiritual leader)?” Amar Das replied, “ I have none, I am in search of one, but have not found as yet.” The Sadhu exclaimed with sorrow, “ What! have I been associating with a person who hath no Guru. Oh man ! thou hast polluted all my sanctity. All my vows, austerities, fasts and penances have been rendered fruitless. As for thyself all thy charities are of no avail. These sixty two years thou hast passed in vain.” Amar Das was dumb-founded at this behaviour of the Sadhu. So he resolved to have a Guru.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism 1469-1708 A.D. Img 4

One day, Amar Das heard the Bani of Guru Nanak Dev Ji from Bibi Amro. He was greatly impressed by the Bani. Therefore, Amar Das decided to meet Guru Angad Dev Ji. Soon, he visited Khadur Sahib along with Bibi Amro. He was so much impressed by Guru Angad Dev Ji that he became his follower. He was 62 years old at this time.

4, Assumption of Guruship : After becoming a follower of Guru Angad Dev Ji, Amar Das lived at Khadur Sahib. He served Guru Angad Dev Ji dedicatedly for about eleven years. He used to bring water for Guru Angad Dev Ji’s bath, carrying it on his head from the river Beas, situated three miles away from there. He served the Sangat ( people coming to see Guru Angad Dev Ji) and the Langar whole-heartedly. One day, in January 1552 A.D. when Amar Das was returning from the Beas carrying water on his head as usual, he stumbled in the dark and fell down.

There was a weaver’s hut near by. On hearing the thud-sound, the weaver woke up and asked who was there. His wife, who had also awoken, by now, replied that it must be Amru Nithawan (who has no place to take shelter). The word reached Guru Angad Dev Ji gradually. He honoured Amar Das and declared that from then onward, Amar Das Ji would no longer remain without shelter (Nithawan), instead he would provide shelter to the shelterless.

In March, 1552 A.D., Guru Angad Dev Ji placed five paisas‘and one coconut in front of Amar Das and bowed his head before him. Thus, Amar Das Ji became the third Guru of the Sikhs. Guru Amar Das Ji was 73 years old at that time.

Early Difficulties of Guru Amar Das Ji:

After assuming Guruship, Guru Amar Das Ji shifted from Khadur Sahib to Goindwal Sahib as per instructions from Guru Angad Dev Ji. In the beginning of hi .a pontificate Guru Amar Das Ji had to face many difficulties. A brief description of these difficulties
is given below:

(1) Opposition ofDasu and Datu: Soon after Guru Amar Das Ji succeeded to the Guruship, he had to face the opposition from both the sons of Guru Angad. Dev Ji, Dasu and Datu. They refused to recognise Guru Amar Das Ji as the Guru. They used to ask how a water carrier to their house till yesterday could become their Guru. One day in a fit of anger, Datu went to Goindwal Sahib and kicked Guru Amar Das Ji in the presence of the Sangat. As a result of this Guru Am ar Das Ji fell down from his seat. In spite of provocation Guru Amar Das Ji showed utmost tolerance and humbleness. After this incident, Guru Amar Das Ji left Goindwal Sahib and returned to his village Basarke. The Sikhs refused to consider Datu to be their Guru. Finally, he retreated to Khadur Sahib with extreme disappointment. Guru Amar Das Ji once again came to Goindwal Sahib on the request of Baba Buddha Ji and other Sikh Sangat.

(2) Opposition of Baba Sri Chand Ji : Baba Sri Chand Ji was the elder son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and he considered himself to be the rightful successor to Guruship. He did not oppose Guru Angad Dev Ji, because Guru Nanak Dev Ji himself had appointed him ( Guru Angad Dev Ji) the Guru. But, after Guru Angad Dev Ji, he tried to get his father’s Guruship. Baba Sri Chand Ji had many followers. Guru Amar Das Ji showed great wisdom at this occasion. He clarified to the Sikhs that the principles of Udasi sect were totally against the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. The Sikhs were convinced by his reasoning and logic. So, they left Baba Sri Chand Ji. In this way, Guru Amar Das Ji separated the Sikhs from Udasi sect for ever.

(3) Opposition by the Muslims of Goindwal Sahib : The Muslims of Goindwal Sahib grew jealous of increasing popularity of Guru Amar Das Ji. They began to harass the Sikhs in many ways. They stole the belongings of the Sikhs. They pelted stones at the earthen pitchers in which the Sikhs brought water from the Beas and often broke them. Whenever the Sikhs complained about it to Guru Ji, he advised them to remain calm. Once some armed men came to that village. The Muslims picked up a quarrel with them over some matter. A fight took place between the two parties and as a result of which many Muslims were killed. This incident greatly impressed the Sikhs. They thought that God had punished the Muslims for their misdeeds. Thus, their faith in Sikhism became stronger.

(4) Opposition by the Hindus. Many Hindus were joining Sikhism as a result of the social reforms undertaken by Guru Amar Das Ji. Sikhism laid emphasis on social equality. All the people were served Langar without any discrimination. The Sikhs had got a separate place of pilgrimage with the construction of a Baoli. The high caste Hindus of Goindwal complained to the Mughal emperor Akbar that Guru Amar Das Ji was propagating agpinst Hinduism.

Akbar summoned Guru Amar Das Ji to his court to investigate into the charges levelled against Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji sent his most competent follower Bhai Jetha Ji to- the Mughal court. After meeting Bhai Jetha, Akbar declared that all charges against Guru Amar Das Ji were baseless. It spread Guru Amar Das Ji’s fame in all corners and gave a great boost to Sikhism.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 9.
Describe the tasks done by Guru Amar Das Jiat new polacb Goindwal Sahib.
Or
Describe the contribution of Guru Amar Das Ji in the development of Sikhism.
Or
What was the special contribution of Guru Amar Das Ji to Sikhism?
Or
Describe the services rendered by Guru Amar Das Ji for the development of Sikh religion.
Or
What were the measures taken by Guru Amar Das Ji for the consolidation and expansion of Sikhism?
Or
Describe the contribution of Guru Amar Das Ji in the development of Sikhism.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism 1469-1708 A.D. Img 5

Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji was the third Guru of the Sikhs. He retained Guruship from 1552 to 1574 AJD. When Guru Amar Das Ji assumed Guruship, the Sikh Panth was passing through a critical juncture. Guru Nanak Dev Ji had left for his heavenly abode only thirteen years ago. No doubt, many significant steps had been undertaken for the development of Sikhism in this short period, but still there remained much to be done in this regard. Guru Amar Das Ji continued the work started by Guru Angad Dev Ji for organisation and development of Sikhism and established many new institutions and traditions.

1. Construction of the Baoli at Goindwal Sahib : The first significant step undertaken by Guru Amar Das Ji for the development of Sikhism was the construction of a Baoli at Goindwal Sahib. The construction work of the Baoli was started in 1552 AJD. and it was completed in 1559 A.D. Eighty four steps were built to reach the Baoli. After its construction was over, Guru Ji declared, “Whoever would attentively and reverently repeat the Japji on every step after a bath in the baoli would escape from the wandering in the wombs of the 84 lakhs of living creatures.”

The construction of Baoli Sahib gave the Sikhs a place of pilgrimage of their own and it helped in separating the Sikhs from the common mass of the Hindus. Moreover, the prestige and prosperity of Goindwal Sahib enormously increased. In the words of H.S. Bhatia and S.R. Bakshi, “The pontificate of Guru Amar Das Ji is thus a turning point in the history of the Sikh movement.”

2. Expansion of Langar Institution: Guru Nanak Dev Ji started the institution of Langar. Guru Amar Das Ji expanded it greatly, Guru Amar Das Ji declared that no visitor could meet him unless he had taken the Langar. He gave the injunction, “Pehle Pangat, pachhe Sangat” (First eat together and then meet together.) Mughal emperor Akbar and the ruler of Haripur had partaken the Langar in the Pangat before meeting Guru Amar Das Ji. It was open for people of every religion and caste.

The Langar was served till late at night. The remaining food was thrown to birds and animals. The institution of Langar proved much helpful in the propagation of Sikhism. It gave a shattering blow to the caste system and developed a feeling of brotherhood among the Sikhs. According to Dr. Fauja Singh, “This institution gave a shattering blow to the rigidity of the caste system and paved the way for social equality.”

3. Collection of Hymns : The next important work of Guru Amar Das Ji was to collect the hymns (Bani) of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Guru Angad Dev Ji. He himself composed 907 Sabads (hymns). It prepared the basis for the compilation of Adi Granth Sahib.

4. Maqji System: The establishment of Manji system was one of the most important works of Guru Amar Das Ji. During his Guruship, the number of the followers of Sikhism had increased considerably. Thus, it became impossible for Guru Amar Das Ji to reach every Sikh. So, he established twenty two Manjis to convey the message of Sikhism to far off areas. It should be kept in mind that Guru Amar Das Ji did not establish all the Manjis at one time. Instead, the process continued throughout.his Guruship. The head of every Manji was called Manjidar.

These Manjidars appealed to more and more people to join Sikhism. As the Manjidars used to sit on Manji (the cot) while preaching, the system came to be known as Manji system in history. It made tangible contribution to the development and progress of Sikhism. According to D.S. Dhillon,“The establishment of Manji system gave a big thrust to the missionary activities of the Sikhs.”

5. Denunciation of the Udasi Sect: The Udasi sect once again began to gain strength during the time of Guru Amar Das Ji. Many Sikhs were becoming Udasis, as they were impressed by the ascetism of Baba Sri Chand Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji showed considerable courage at this juncture. He left no stone unturned to explain to the Sikhs that Udasi sect was totally different from Sikhism. He clarified that Sikhism taught normal family life and to earn one’s livelihood by the sweat of one’s brow, whereas the Udasi sect taught to escape one’s social responsibilities and wander in the forests in search of salvation by running away from the world. As a result of indefatigable efforts made by Guru Amar Das Ji, the Sikhs broke away from the Udasi sect for ever. Thus, Guru Amar Das Ji saved Sikhism from being merged into Hinduism.

6. Social Reforms : Gpru Amar Das Ji was a great social reformer. He wanted to give a new form to the social set up of the Sikhs. Guru Amar Das Ji launched a frontal attack on the caste system and untouchability. He made if compulsory for each visitor to eat food in the Langar, before he was allowed to have Guru’s darshan. In this way, Guru Amar Das Ji laid emphasis on the universal brotherhood of mankind. Guru Amar Das Ji also condemned the sati system vehemently. He said, “They are not satis who are burnt alive on the pyres ; rather satis are they who die of the blow of separation.”

Guru Amar Das Ji vigorously opposed child marriage and the purdah system. He was in favour of widow re-marriage. Guru Amar Das Ji laid stress on inter-caste marriages. He strongly forbade the use of narcotics. Besides, he introduced new (special) rituals for the Sikhs to be observed on occasions of birth, marriage and death. Thus, Guru Amar Das Ji founded a new society.

7. Akbar’s visit to Goindwal Sahib : Mughal emperor Akbar visited Goindwal Sahib in 1568 A.D. In accordance with the practice then established by the Guru Akbar first took the Langar before he met Guru Amar Das Ji. He was deeply impressed by the Langar system and Guru Amar Das Ji’s personality. He offered some villages as Jagir to meet the expenses of the Langar. Guru Amar Das Ji refused this offer. Akbar gave the Jagir to Guru Amar Das Ji’s daughter Bibi Bhani. Later on, the town of Amritsar was founded on this land. This visit of Akbar is of special significance in the history of the Sikh religion. People were greatly impressed by it. They joined Sikhism in large numbers. The Sikh Panth gained more popularity.

8. Nomination of the Successor : In 1574 A.D. Guru Amar Das Ji decided to nominate Bhai Jetha Ji as his successor, before he left for his heavenly abode. Bhai Jetha Ji was the son-in-law of Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji was so much impressed by the humbleness and devotional service of Bhai Jetha Ji and his wife Bibi Bhani, that he not only appointed Bhai Jetha as his successor, but also blessed that in future Guruship would remain in their family. Guru Amar Das Ji immersed in Eternal Light on 1 September, 1574 A.D.

9. Estimate of Guru Amar Das Ji’s Achievements: Sikhism made multifaceted development under the efficient leadership of Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji gave the Sikhs a new place of pilgrimage. He expanded the Langar system. He collected the hymns of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Guru Angad Dev Ji and he himself composed hymns. In this way, he prepared the ground for the compilation of Adi Granth Sahib. He condemned in unequivocal terms the empty rituals prevalent in the Hindu society and opposed the Udasi sect. He, thus, gave the Sikhs a separate entity.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

In fact, under the able and benign guidance of Guru Amar Das Ji, Sikhism passed through a remarkable transformation. That is why the pontificate of Guru Amar Das Ji is considered a milestone in the history of the Sikh Panth. According to Dr. Sangat Singh, a noted historian, “Under Guru Amar Das, Sikhism made rapid strides.” According to another famous historian, Dr. D.S. Dhillon, “Guru Amar Das’s’contribution to the growth of the Sikh Panth was great.”

Question 10.
Describe the life and achievements of Guru Amar Das Ji.
Answer:
A brief account of the early career and difficulties of Guru Amar Das Ji is as under :

I. Early Life of Guru Amardas Ji

1. Birth and Parentage : Guru Amar Das Ji was born in Basarke village of Amritsar district on 5th May, 1479 A.D. His father Tej Bhan belonged to Bhalla family of Khatri caste. He was rich. No definite information is available about his mother’s actual name.

2. Childhood and Marriage : Nothing is known of Guru Amar Das Ji’s childhood exrcept that he was religiously inclined. On coming of age, he took over his father’s profession. As his parents were followers of the Vaishnav sect, he also became a follower of Vaishnavism. At the age of 24 years, he was married to Mansa Devi, daughter of Devi Chand. He was blessed with two sons Baba Mohan and Baba Mohri and two daughters Bibi Dani and Bibi Bhani.

3. Becoming Guru Angad Sahib’s Disciple : Once, when he was returning from Haridwar’s pilgrimage, he met a Sadhu on the way. Both of them took food together. Afterwards, the Sadhu enquired, “Who is your Guru” (spiritual leader)?” Amar Das replied, “ I have none, I am in search of one, but have not found as yet.” The Sadhu exclaimed with sorrow, “ What! have I been associating with a person who hath no Guru. Oh man ! thou hast polluted all my sanctity. All my vows, austerities, fasts and penances have been rendered fruitless. As for thyself all thy charities are of no avail. These sixty two years thou hast passed in vain.” Amar Das was dumb-founded at this behaviour of the Sadhu. So he resolved to have a Guru.

One day, Amar Das heard the Bani of Guru Nanak Dev Ji from Bibi Amro. He was greatly impressed by the Bani. Therefore, Amar Das decided to meet Guru Angad Dev Ji. Soon, he visited Khadur Sahib along with Bibi Amro. He was so much impressed by Guru Angad Dev Ji that he became his follower. He was 62 years old at this time.

4, Assumption of Guruship : After becoming a follower of Guru Angad Dev Ji, Amar Das lived at Khadur Sahib. He served Guru Angad Dev Ji dedicatedly for about eleven years. He used to bring water for Guru Angad Dev Ji’s bath, carrying it on his head from the river Beas, situated three miles away from there. He served the Sangat ( people coming to see Guru Angad Dev Ji) and the Langar whole-heartedly. One day, in January 1552 A.D. when Amar Das was returning from the Beas carrying water on his head as usual, he stumbled in the dark and fell down.

There was a weaver’s hut near by. On hearing the thud-sound, the weaver woke up and asked who was there. His wife, who had also awoken, by now, replied that it must be Amru Nithawan (who has no place to take shelter). The word reached Guru Angad Dev Ji gradually. He honoured Amar Das and declared that from then onward, Amar Das Ji would no longer remain without shelter (Nithawan), instead he would provide shelter to the shelterless. In March, 1552 A.D., Guru Angad Dev Ji placed five paisas‘and one coconut in front of Amar Das and bowed his head before him. Thus, Amar Das Ji became the third Guru of the Sikhs. Guru Amar Das Ji was 73 years old at that time.

Early Difficulties of Guru Amar Das Ji:

After assuming Guruship, Guru Amar Das Ji shifted from Khadur Sahib to Goindwal Sahib as per instructions from Guru Angad Dev Ji. In the beginning of hi .a pontificate Guru Amar Das Ji had to face many difficulties. A brief description of these difficulties
is given below:

(1) Opposition ofDasu and Datu: Soon after Guru Amar Das Ji succeeded to the Guruship, he had to face the opposition from both the sons of Guru Angad. Dev Ji, Dasu and Datu. They refused to recognise Guru Amar Das Ji as the Guru. They used to ask how a water carrier to their house till yesterday could become their Guru. One day in a fit of anger, Datu went to Goindwal Sahib and kicked Guru Amar Das Ji in the presence of the Sangat. As a result of this Guru Am ar Das Ji fell down from his seat. In spite of provocation Guru Amar Das Ji showed utmost tolerance and humbleness.

After this incident, Guru Amar Das Ji left Goindwal Sahib and returned to his village Basarke. The Sikhs refused to consider Datu to be their Guru. Finally, he retreated to Khadur Sahib with extreme disappointment. Guru Amar Das Ji once again came to Goindwal Sahib on the request of Baba Buddha Ji and other Sikh Sangat.

(2) Opposition of Baba Sri Chand Ji : Baba Sri Chand Ji was the elder son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and he considered himself to be the rightful successor to Guruship. He did not oppose Guru Angad Dev Ji, because Guru Nanak Dev Ji himself had appointed him ( Guru Angad Dev Ji) the Guru. But, after Guru Angad Dev Ji, he tried to get his father’s Guruship. Baba Sri Chand Ji had many followers. Guru Amar Das Ji showed great wisdom at this occasion. He clarified to the Sikhs that the principles of Udasi sect were totally against the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. The Sikhs were convinced by his reasoning and logic. So, they left Baba Sri Chand Ji. In this way, Guru Amar Das Ji separated the Sikhs from Udasi sect for ever.

(3) Opposition by the Muslims of Goindwal Sahib : The Muslims of Goindwal Sahib grew jealous of increasing popularity of Guru Amar Das Ji. They began to harass the Sikhs in many ways. They stole the belongings of the Sikhs. They pelted stones at the earthen pitchers in which the Sikhs brought water from the Beas and often broke them. Whenever the Sikhs complained about it to Guru Ji, he advised them to remain calm. Once some armed men came to that village. The Muslims picked up a quarrel with them over some matter.

A fight took place between the two parties and as a result of which many Muslims were killed. This incident greatly impressed the Sikhs. They thought that God had punished the Muslims for their misdeeds. Thus, their faith in Sikhism became stronger.

(4) Opposition by the Hindus. Many Hindus were joining Sikhism as a result of the social reforms undertaken by Guru Amar Das Ji. Sikhism laid emphasis on social equality. All the people were served Langar without any discrimination. The Sikhs had got a separate place of pilgrimage with the construction of a Baoli. The high caste Hindus of Goindwal complained to the Mughal emperor Akbar that Guru Amar Das Ji was propagating agpinst Hinduism. Akbar summoned Guru Amar Das Ji to his court to investigate into the charges levelled against Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji sent his most competent follower Bhai Jetha Ji to- the Mughal court. After meeting Bhai Jetha, Akbar declared that all charges against Guru Amar Das Ji were baseless. It spread Guru Amar Das Ji’s fame in all corners and gave a great boost to Sikhism.

Guru Amar Das Ji was the third Guru of the Sikhs. He retained Guruship from 1552 to 1574 AJD. When Guru Amar Das Ji assumed Guruship, the Sikh Panth was passing through a critical juncture. Guru Nanak Dev Ji had left for his heavenly abode only thirteen years ago. No doubt, many significant steps had been undertaken for the development of Sikhism in this short period, but still there remained much to be done in this regard. Guru Amar Das Ji continued the work started by Guru Angad Dev Ji for organisation and development of Sikhism and established many new institutions and traditions.

1. Construction of the Baoli at Goindwal Sahib : The first significant step undertaken by Guru Amar Das Ji for the development of Sikhism was the construction of a Baoli at Goindwal Sahib. The construction work of the Baoli was started in 1552 AJD. and it was completed in 1559 A.D. Eighty four steps were built to reach the Baoli. After its construction was over, Guru Ji declared, “Whoever would attentively and reverently repeat the Japji on every step after a bath in the baoli would escape from the wandering in the wombs of the 84 lakhs of living creatures.”

The construction of Baoli Sahib gave the Sikhs a place of pilgrimage of their own and it helped in separating the Sikhs from the common mass of the Hindus. Moreover, the prestige and prosperity of Goindwal Sahib enormously increased. In the words of H.S. Bhatia and S.R. Bakshi, “The pontificate of Guru Amar Das Ji is thus a turning point in the history of the Sikh movement.”

2. Expansion of Langar Institution: Guru Nanak Dev Ji started the institution of Langar. Guru Amar Das Ji expanded it greatly, Guru Amar Das Ji declared that no visitor could meet him unless he had taken the Langar. He gave the injunction, “Pehle Pangat, pachhe Sangat” (First eat together and then meet together.) Mughal emperor Akbar and the ruler of Haripur had partaken the Langar in the Pangat before meeting Guru Amar Das Ji.

It was open for people of every religion and caste. The Langar was served till late at night. The remaining food was thrown to birds and animals. The institution of Langar proved much helpful in the propagation of Sikhism. It gave a shattering blow to the caste system and developed a feeling of brotherhood among the Sikhs. According to Dr. Fauja Singh, “This institution gave a shattering blow to the rigidity of the caste system and paved the way for social equality.”

3. Collection of Hymns : The next important work of Guru Amar Das Ji was to collect the hymns (Bani) of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Guru Angad Dev Ji. He himself composed 907 Sabads (hymns). It prepared the basis for the compilation of Adi Granth Sahib.

4. Maqji System: The establishment of Manji system was one of the most important works of Guru Amar Das Ji. During his Guruship, the number of the followers of Sikhism had increased considerably. Thus, it became impossible for Guru Amar Das Ji to reach every Sikh. So, he established twenty two Manjis to convey the message of Sikhism to far off areas. It should be kept in mind that Guru Amar Das Ji did not establish all the Manjis at one time. Instead, the process continued throughout.his Guruship. The head of every Manji was called Manjidar.

These Manjidars appealed to more and more people to join Sikhism. As the Manjidars used to sit on Manji (the cot) while preaching, the system came to be known as Manji system in history. It made tangible contribution to the development and progress of Sikhism. According to D.S. Dhillon,“The establishment of Manji system gave a big thrust to the missionary activities of the Sikhs.”

5. Denunciation of the Udasi Sect: The Udasi sect once again began to gain strength during the time of Guru Amar Das Ji. Many Sikhs were becoming Udasis, as they were impressed by the ascetism of Baba Sri Chand Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji showed considerable courage at this juncture. He left no stone unturned to explain to the Sikhs that Udasi sect was totally different from Sikhism. He clarified that Sikhism taught normal family life and to earn one’s livelihood by the sweat of one’s brow, whereas the Udasi sect taught to escape one’s social responsibilities and wander in the forests in search of salvation by running away from the world.

As a result of indefatigable efforts made by Guru Amar Das Ji, the Sikhs broke away from the Udasi sect for ever. Thus, Guru Amar Das Ji saved Sikhism from being merged into Hinduism.

6. Social Reforms : Gpru Amar Das Ji was a great social reformer. He wanted to give a new form to the social set up of the Sikhs. Guru Amar Das Ji launched a frontal attack on the caste system and untouchability. He made if compulsory for each visitor to eat food in the Langar, before he was allowed to have Guru’s darshan. In this way, Guru Amar Das Ji laid emphasis on the universal brotherhood of mankind. Guru Amar Das Ji also condemned the sati system vehemently. He said, “They are not satis who are burnt alive on the pyres ; rather satis are they who die of the blow of separation.”

Guru Amar Das Ji vigorously opposed child marriage and the purdah system. He was in favour of widow re-marriage. Guru Amar Das Ji laid stress on inter-caste marriages. He strongly forbade the use of narcotics. Besides, he introduced new (special) rituals for the Sikhs to be observed on occasions of birth, marriage and death. Thus, Guru Amar Das Ji founded a new society.

7. Akbar’s visit to Goindwal Sahib : Mughal emperor Akbar visited Goindwal Sahib in 1568 A.D. In accordance with the practice then established by the Guru Akbar first took the Langar before he met Guru Amar Das Ji. He was deeply impressed by the Langar system and Guru Amar Das Ji’s personality. He offered some villages as Jagir to meet the expenses of the Langar. Guru Amar Das Ji refused this offer. Akbar gave the Jagir to Guru Amar Das Ji’s daughter Bibi Bhani. Later on, the town of Amritsar was founded on this land. This visit of Akbar is of special significance in the history of the Sikh religion. People were greatly impressed by it. They joined Sikhism in large numbers. The Sikh Panth gained more popularity.

8. Nomination of the Successor : In 1574 A.D. Guru Amar Das Ji decided to nominate Bhai Jetha Ji as his successor, before he left for his heavenly abode. Bhai Jetha Ji was the son-in-law of Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji was so much impressed by the humbleness and devotional service of Bhai Jetha Ji and his wife Bibi Bhani, that he not only appointed Bhai Jetha as his successor, but also blessed that in future Guruship would remain in their family. Guru Amar Das Ji immersed in Eternal Light on 1 September, 1574 A.D.

9. Estimate of Guru Amar Das Ji’s Achievements: Sikhism made multifaceted development under the efficient leadership of Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji gave the Sikhs a new place of pilgrimage. He expanded the Langar system. He collected the hymns of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Guru Angad Dev Ji and he himself composed hymns. In this way, he prepared the ground for the compilation of Adi Granth Sahib. He condemned in unequivocal terms the empty rituals prevalent in the Hindu society and opposed the Udasi sect. He, thus, gave the Sikhs a separate entity. In fact, under the able and benign guidance of Guru Amar Das Ji, Sikhism passed through a remarkable transformation.

That is why the pontificate of Guru Amar Das Ji is considered a milestone in the history of the Sikh Panth. According to Dr. Sangat Singh, a noted historian, “Under Guru Amar Das, Sikhism made rapid strides.” According to another famous historian, Dr. D.S. Dhillon, “Guru Amar Das’s’contribution to the growth of the Sikh Panth was great.”

Question 11.
Describe the life and achievements of Guru Ram Das Ji.
Or
Describe the contribution of Guru Ram Das Ji for the development of Sikhism.
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji was the fourth Guru of the Sikhs. He remained on Gurgaddi from 1574 to 1581 A.D. During his pontificate there was made considerable progress in the consolidation and development of Sikhism. A brief description of early life of Guru Ram Das Ji and the development of Sikhism under him is as under :

Early Career of Guru Ram Das Ji:

1. Birth and Parentage : Guru Ram Das Ji was born at Chuna Mandi in Lahore on 24th September, 1534 A.D. His childhood name was Bhai Jetha Ji. His father

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism 1469-1708 A.D. Img 6

Hari Das belonged to Sodhi family of Kashatriya caste. The name of his mother was Daya Kaur. His parents were very poor.

2. Childhood and Marriage : Bhai Jetha Ji was of a very religious disposition from his childhood. Once his mother sent him to the market to sell boiled grams. Some hungry saints met him on the way. Jetha Ji was very kind-hearted. He served all the grams to the hungry saints and came back home empty-handed. He was always ready to serve the people. Once he got a chance to visit Goindwal Sahib in the company of a group of Sikhs. Here he became the disciple of Guru Amur Das Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji was greatly impressed by the devotion and qualities of Bhai Jetha Ji. So, in 1553 A.D., when Bhai Jetha Ji was 19 years old, Guru Amar Das Ji married his younger daughter, Bibi Bhani, to him. Bhai Jetha Ji was blessed with three sons, Prithi Chand (Prithia), Mahadev and Arjan Dev.

3. Assumption of Guruship : Even after his marriage Bhai Jetha Ji lived at Goindwal Sahib and continued doing service as usual. Selfless service, humility and the sweet nature of Bhai Jetha Ji had a profound effect on Guru Amar Das Ji. So, he appointed Bhai Jetha Ji as his successor to the Guruship in 1574 A.D. From then onward Bhai Jetha Ji was called Ram Das. Thus, Guru Ram Das Ji became the fourth Guru of the Sikhs.

Development of Sikhism Under Guru Ram. Das Ji:

Guru Ram Das Ji retained the Guruship from 1574 to 1581 A.D, Although, his tenure of Guruship was very short, yet he took many significant steps for the organisation and development of Sikhism.

1. Foundation of Ramdaspura : The most important contribution of Guru Ram Das Ji towards the Sikh Panth was the foundation of Ramdaspura or Amritsar. After assuming the Guruship, he himself settled here. In 1577. A.D. he founded Ramdaspura. He settled fifty two other traders, belonging to different trades, at this place in order to make it popular and attract people. The market formed by these traders came to be known as ‘Guru Ka Bazaar’. Guru Ram Das Ji planned to construct two sarovars (tanks) Amritsar and Santokhsar at Ramdaspura.

At first, the digging of Amritsar sarovar was started. Baba Buddha Ji was entrusted to look after this project. Later on the name of Ramdaspura came to be known as Amritsar. The foundation of Amritsar occupies an important place in the history of Sikhism. It gave the Sikhs a separate place of pilgrimage which soon developed into the most famous centre of religious propagation.

2. Introduction of Masand System : Guru Ram Das Ji had started the digging work of two Sarovars (Amritsar and Santokhsar) at Ramdaspura. He needed money to complete this work. So, he sent his representatives to different places to collect money from the Sikhs and to propagate Sikhism. This institution later came to be known as Masand system. It contributed a lot to the spread of Sikhism in remote places. According to S.S. Gandhi, “Masand system played a big role in consolidating Sikhism,”

3. Reconciliation with the Udasis : Another important event relating to the pontificate of Guru Ram Das Ji was his reconciliation with Udasis. Once Baba Sri Chand Ji, the founder of Udasi sect visited Amritsar to see Guru Ram Das Ji. When he met Guru Ji, he asked, “Why have you grown such a long beard?” Guru Ram Das Ji politely replied, “I have grown such a long beard to wipe the dust from thy holy feet.” And the Guru Ram Das Ji proceeded to do so. Baba Sri Chand Ji felt much ashamed at this and withdrew his feet. Baba Sri Chand Ji was so much impressed by Guru’s modesty and humility that he gave up opposing Sikhism from that day. This reconciliation between the Sikhs and the Udasis proved very useful for the Sikh Panth.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

4. Some other Important Works : Guru Ram Das Ji did some other important works also for the development of Sikhism. He maintained the tradition of composing hymns. Guru Ram Das Ji composed 679 Sabads. He introduced a new system of marriage among the Sikhs by circumambulation (Lawan) around Granth Sahib four times. Guru Ram Das Sahib composed four Lawans in this respect. He further consolidated the institutions of Pangat, Sangat and Manji system. Guru Ram Das Ji also condemned in strong words such social evils as caste-system, sati system, child marriage, denial of widow re-marriage.

5. Friendly Relations with Akbar : Friendly relations between the Sikhs and Mughal emperor Akbar continued during his tenure of Guruship. Guru Ram Das Ji had met Akbar at Lahore. He was much impressed by Guru Ram Das Ji’s personality. So, he donated 500 Bighas of land to Guru Ram Das Ji. Besides, he remitted one year’s land revenue to the farmers of the Punjab on recommendation of Guru Ram Das Ji. All this added to the fame and prestige of Guru Ram Das Ji.

6. Appointment of the Successor : In 1581 A.D., Guru Ram Das Ji appointed his youngest son Arjan Dev as his successor. The reason “for this appointment was clear. Prithia or Prithi Chand, the eldest son of Guru Ram Das Ji had annoyed him because of his conspiracies. His second son, Mahadev, was not interested in worldly affairs. Thus, the youngest son, Arjan Dev was considered competent for the Guruship from every angle. Guru Ram Das Ji left for his heavenly abode on I September, 1581 A.D.

7. Estimate of Achievements of Guru Ram Dass Ji : Although the period of Guruship of Guru Ram Das Ji was seven years only, he succeeded in giving a new impetus to Sikhism. Guru Ram Das Ji by laying the foundation of Ramdaspura and Masand system, by conciliating with the Udasis, by adding his own verses, by refuting the prevalent evils in the society, by continuing the Sangat, Pangat and Manji institutions and by establishing friendly relations with Akbar, he contributed significantly to the consolidation of Sikhism. So, finally we agree with a famous historian, Dr. D.S. Dhillon’s words, “During the short period of his Guruship of about seven years, Guru Ram Das provided a well-knit community with a form and content.”

Question 12.
Describe briefly the development of Sikhism from 1539 to 1581 A.D.
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji became the second Guru of the Sikhs in 1539 A.D. and retained Guruship till 1552 A.D. At the time of his attaining Guruship, Sikhism was facing many dangers. The most potent threat came from Hinduism itself. It was feared that Sikhism might merge in Hinduism. The second danger to Sikhism was from the Udasis. The Udasi sect was founded by Baba Sri Chand Ji,the elder son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Naturally many Sikhs were joining the Udasi sect. Under such circumstances constant vigil was needed to safeguard the interests of the Sikhs. Guru Angad Dev Ji not only succeeded in removing all the hurdles in the path of Sikhism, but also in consolidating it. The significant contribution of Guru Angad Dev Ji to the development of Sikhism can be described as under :

1. Popularisation of Gurmukhi : Guru Angad Dev Ji’s first significant effort for the development of Sikhism was the popularisation of Gurmukhi script. Guru Angad Dev Ji improved and polished it. Now it became very easy even for common people to understand it. All the religious books of Sikhism were written in it. Its very name ‘Gurmukhi’ (an utterance of words from the Guru’s mouth) reminded the Sikhs of their duties towards the Guru and constantly kept alive in their minds the consciousness that they were something distinct from the common mass of Hinduism. This script was also instrumental in rapid spread of education among the Sikhs. Besides, the introduction of this script gave a severe blow to the supremacy of the Brahmans, who recognised Sanskrit as the only religious language.

Undoubtedly, the popularisation of Gurmukhi proved most significant in the development of Sikhism. According to H.S. Bhatia and S.R. Bakshi, “Guru Angad Dev Ji gave the Sikhs a written language different from the language of the Hindus and Muslims and thus made them realise that they were separate people.”

2. Collection of Hymns : The collection of the hymns of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was the second great work of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Nanak Dev Ji had composed many hymns, but these hymns (Bani) lay scattered at many places. Guru Angad Dev Ji collected all the hymns at one place. According to Sikh traditions, Guru Angad Dev Ji summoned Bhai Bala, a devotee of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and got a Janam Sakhi written on Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s life. This Janam Sakhi is known as Bhai Bala’s Janam Sakhi. Some scholars don’t agree with this view that the Janam Sakhi was of Bhai Bala Ji written at the time of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji himself composed Bani in the name of ‘Nanak’. He composed sixty-two Sabads. In this way, firstly, Guru Angad Dev Ji preserved the original form of Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s hymns and saved it from distortion. Secondly, Guru Angad Dev Ji prepared the basis for the compilation of Adi Granth Sahib Ji.

3. Expansion of Langar System : Langar system was introduced by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji expanded it. In his time, the Langar was managed by his wife Bibi Khivi Ji. All people ate food in Langar collectively without any consideration of sex, caste or creed. Money for the Langar was given by the Sikhs to the Guru. This institution strengthened feelings of co-operation and fraternity among the Sikhs. It also gave a shattering blow to the caste system among the Hindus.

The habit of charity was developed by it among the Sikhs. It provided a powerful aid in propaganda work. It helped a lot to make Sikhism popular. Prof. Harbans Singh, a famous historian, rightly remarks, “This served as an instrument of a far-reaching social revolution.”9 4. Organisation of Sangat : Guru Angad Dev Ji more effectively organised institution of Sangat founded by Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

The ‘Sangat’ meant ‘sitting together collectively’. All people (male or female) could take part in it. The Sangat was considered to be a replica of God. The Sangat met every morning and evening to listen to the Bani (hymn) of the Guru. This institution not only brought the Sikhs under one banner but it also helped a lot in the success of Sikh missionary work.

5. Denunciation of the Udasi Sect: Udasi sect was founded by Baba Sri Chand Ji, the elder son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. This sect laid emphasis on ‘Sanyas’ or renunciation, Many people began to join the Udasi sect. Thus, the Udasi sect posed a formidable challenge to Sikhism. Therefore, Guru Angad Dev Ji made it clear in unequivocal terms that Sikhism was essentially a religion of householders and no true Sikh could be an Udasi. This action of the Guru Angad Dev Ji brought rich dividends. Udasism could not become the mass movement. Thus, Guru Angad Dev Ji succeeded in preserving the purity and originality of Sikh religion.

6. Discipline in Sikh Sect: Guru Angad Dev Ji was a great disciplinarian. Once two Ragis named Satta and Balwand, who sang hymns in the Darbar of Guru Ji began to feel excessively proud of their sweet voice. They began to violate even the instructions of Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji could not tolerate their attitude of defiance.

As a result, Guru Angad Dev Ji dismissed both of them from his Darbar. Soon, they realised their mistake. Afterwards, when they apologised and Bhai Ladha Ji requested on their behalf, Guru Angad Dev Ji pardoned them. Thus, Guru Angad Dev Ji maintained the tradition of strict discipline in Guru Darbar.

7. Physical Training. Guru Angad Sahib was of the view that just as it is essential to recite Nam to cleans the Atma, similarly, it is necessary to do exercise for the fitness of the body. He held the view that a sound mind develops in a sound body. With this object in view, he built a wrestling ground at Khadur Sahib. Thus, Guru Angad Sahib laid the foundation of the martial spirit, which in the times of the sixth and the tenth Gurus blossomed into the Khalsa.

8. Foundation of Goindwal Sahib : Guru Angad Dev Ji founded a new town named Goindwal Sahib near Khadur Sahib and thus accomplished another very significant step for the development of Sikhism. The town began to be built in 1546 A.D. Guru Angad Dev Ji made one of his devoted followers Amar Das ftdly responsible for this project. This town soon became a place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs.

9. Meeting with Humayun : In 1540 A.D. Sher Shah Suri gave a crushing defeat to Mughal Emperor Humayun at Kanauj. After the defeat, Humayun reached Punjab and came to Khadur Sahib for Guru Angad Dev Ji’s blessings. At that moment, Guru Angad Dev Ji was in deep meditation, so he did not open his eyes. Humayun felt insulted and drew out his sword in anger. Suddenly, at that very moment, Guru Angad Dev Ji opened his eyes and said to Humayun, “Where was this sword that you have unsheathed against me during the battle with Sher Shah Suri?” On hearing these words, Humayun felt very much ashamed and prayed for his pardon. Thereafter, Humayun, sought Guru Angad Dev Ji’s blessings. Guru Angad Dev Ji gave his blessings to Humayun and said that he would have to wait for some time for his folly and thereafter he would regain the throne. This prediction of Guru Angad Dev Ji was proved true.

10. Nomination of the Successor: The greatest service rendered by Guru Angad Dev Ji for the development of Sikhism was the nomination of his successor. After deep and prolonged thinking and consideration, Guru Angad Dev Ji chose his most faithful disciple Amar Das for appointment to the highest post of Guruship. Guru Angad Dev Ji placed one coconut and five paise in front of Amar Das and bowed his head before him. Thus, Amar Das Ji was nomination the third Guru of the Sikhs. By doing so,
Guru Angad Dev Ji took a step of far reaching consequence. Guru Angad Dev Ji immersed in Eternal Light on 29 March, 1552 A.D.

11. Estimate of Guru. Angad Dev Ji’s Achievements : Guru Angad Dev Ji took many important steps for the development of Sikhism during his Guruship. He rendered a great service to the Sikh Panth by popularising Gurmukhi, collecting Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s hymns, expanding Sangat and Pangat, separating the Udasi sect from Sikhism, maintaining discipline in Guru’s Dardar, founding Goindwal Sahib and appointing his successor. K.S. Duggal, a famous historian, estimates the achievements of Guru Angad Dev Ji in the following words, “ It is amazing how much Guru Angad Dev Ji could achieve in the short time at his disposal.”According to another famous historian S.S. Johar, “The pontificate of Guru Angad Dev is indeed a turning point in the history of Sikh faith.”

Guru Amar Das Ji was the third Guru of the Sikhs. He retained Guruship from 1552 to 1574 AJD. When Guru Amar Das Ji assumed Guruship, the Sikh Panth was passing through a critical juncture. Guru Nanak Dev Ji had left for his heavenly abode only thirteen years ago. No doubt, many significant steps had been undertaken for the development of Sikhism in this short period, but still there remained much to be done in this regard. Guru Amar Das Ji continued the work started by Guru Angad Dev Ji for organisation and development of Sikhism and established many new institutions and traditions.

1. Construction of the Baoli at Goindwal Sahib : The first significant step undertaken by Guru Amar Das Ji for the development of Sikhism was the construction of a Baoli at Goindwal Sahib. The construction work of the Baoli was started in 1552 AJD. and it was completed in 1559 A.D. Eighty four steps were built to reach the Baoli. After its construction was over, Guru Ji declared, “Whoever would attentively and reverently repeat the Japji on every step after a bath in the baoli would escape from the wandering in the wombs of the 84 lakhs of living creatures.”

The construction of Baoli Sahib gave the Sikhs a place of pilgrimage of their own and it helped in separating the Sikhs from the common mass of the Hindus. Moreover, the prestige and prosperity of Goindwal Sahib enormously increased. In the words of H.S. Bhatia and S.R. Bakshi, “The pontificate of Guru Amar Das Ji is thus a turning point in the history of the Sikh movement.”

2. Expansion of Langar Institution: Guru Nanak Dev Ji started the institution of Langar. Guru Amar Das Ji expanded it greatly, Guru Amar Das Ji declared that no visitor could meet him unless he had taken the Langar. He gave the injunction, “Pehle Pangat, pachhe Sangat” (First eat together and then meet together.) Mughal emperor Akbar and the ruler of Haripur had partaken the Langar in the Pangat before meeting Guru Amar Das Ji.

It was open for people of every religion and caste. The Langar was served till late at night. The remaining food was thrown to birds and animals. The institution of Langar proved much helpful in the propagation of Sikhism. It gave a shattering blow to the caste system and developed a feeling of brotherhood among the Sikhs. According to Dr. Fauja Singh, “This institution gave a shattering blow to the rigidity of the caste system and paved the way for social equality.”

3. Collection of Hymns : The next important work of Guru Amar Das Ji was to collect the hymns (Bani) of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Guru Angad Dev Ji. He himself composed 907 Sabads (hymns). It prepared the basis for the compilation of Adi Granth Sahib.

4. Maqji System: The establishment of Manji system was one of the most important works of Guru Amar Das Ji. During his Guruship, the number of the followers of Sikhism had increased considerably. Thus, it became impossible for Guru Amar Das Ji to reach every Sikh. So, he established twenty two Manjis to convey the message of Sikhism to far off areas. It should be kept in mind that Guru Amar Das Ji did not establish all the Manjis at one time. Instead, the process continued throughout.his Guruship. The head of every Manji was called Manjidar.

These Manjidars appealed to more and more people to join Sikhism. As the Manjidars used to sit on Manji (the cot) while preaching, the system came to be known as Manji system in history. It made tangible contribution to the development and progress of Sikhism. According to D.S. Dhillon,“The establishment of Manji system gave a big thrust to the missionary activities of the Sikhs.”

5. Denunciation of the Udasi Sect: The Udasi sect once again began to gain strength during the time of Guru Amar Das Ji. Many Sikhs were becoming Udasis, as they were impressed by the ascetism of Baba Sri Chand Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji showed considerable courage at this juncture. He left no stone unturned to explain to the Sikhs that Udasi sect was totally different from Sikhism.

He clarified that Sikhism taught normal family life and to earn one’s livelihood by the sweat of one’s brow, whereas the Udasi sect taught to escape one’s social responsibilities and wander in the forests in search of salvation by running away from the world. As a result of indefatigable efforts made by Guru Amar Das Ji, the Sikhs broke away from the Udasi sect for ever. Thus, Guru Amar Das Ji saved Sikhism from being merged into Hinduism.

6. Social Reforms : Gpru Amar Das Ji was a great social reformer. He wanted to give a new form to the social set up of the Sikhs. Guru Amar Das Ji launched a frontal attack on the caste system and untouchability. He made if compulsory for each visitor to eat food in the Langar, before he was allowed to have Guru’s darshan. In this way, Guru Amar Das Ji laid emphasis on the universal brotherhood of mankind. Guru Amar Das Ji also condemned the sati system vehemently. He said, “They are not satis who are burnt alive on the pyres ; rather satis are they who die of the blow of separation.”

Guru Amar Das Ji vigorously opposed child marriage and the purdah system. He was in favour of widow re-marriage. Guru Amar Das Ji laid stress on inter-caste marriages. He strongly forbade the use of narcotics. Besides, he introduced new (special) rituals for the Sikhs to be observed on occasions of birth, marriage and death. Thus, Guru Amar Das Ji founded a new society.

7. Akbar’s visit to Goindwal Sahib : Mughal emperor Akbar visited Goindwal Sahib in 1568 A.D. In accordance with the practice then established by the Guru Akbar first took the Langar before he met Guru Amar Das Ji. He was deeply impressed by the Langar system and Guru Amar Das Ji’s personality. He offered some villages as Jagir to meet the expenses of the Langar. Guru Amar Das Ji refused this offer. Akbar gave the Jagir to Guru Amar Das Ji’s daughter Bibi Bhani. Later on, the town of Amritsar was founded on this land. This visit of Akbar is of special significance in the history of the Sikh religion. People were greatly impressed by it. They joined Sikhism in large numbers. The Sikh Panth gained more popularity.

8. Nomination of the Successor : In 1574 A.D. Guru Amar Das Ji decided to nominate Bhai Jetha Ji as his successor, before he left for his heavenly abode. Bhai Jetha Ji was the son-in-law of Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji was so much impressed by the humbleness and devotional service of Bhai Jetha Ji and his wife Bibi Bhani, that he not only appointed Bhai Jetha as his successor, but also blessed that in future Guruship would remain in their family. Guru Amar Das Ji immersed in Eternal Light on 1 September, 1574 A.D.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

9. Estimate of Guru Amar Das Ji’s Achievements: Sikhism made multifaceted development under the efficient leadership of Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji gave the Sikhs a new place of pilgrimage. He expanded the Langar system. He collected the hymns of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Guru Angad Dev Ji and he himself composed hymns. In this way, he prepared the ground for the compilation of Adi Granth Sahib. He condemned in unequivocal terms the empty rituals prevalent in the Hindu society and opposed the Udasi sect. He, thus, gave the Sikhs a separate entity.

In fact, under the able and benign guidance of Guru Amar Das Ji, Sikhism passed through a remarkable transformation. That is why the pontificate of Guru Amar Das Ji is considered a milestone in the history of the Sikh Panth. According to Dr. Sangat Singh, a noted historian, “Under Guru Amar Das, Sikhism made rapid strides.” According to another famous historian, Dr. D.S. Dhillon, “Guru Amar Das’s’contribution to the growth of the Sikh Panth was great.”

Guru Ram Das Ji was the fourth Guru of the Sikhs. He remained on Gurgaddi from 1574 to 1581 A.D. During his pontificate there was made considerable progress in the consolidation and development of Sikhism. A brief description of early life of Guru Ram Das Ji and the development of Sikhism under him is as under :

I. Early Career of Guru Ram Das Ji

1. Birth and Parentage : Guru Ram Das Ji was born at Chuna Mandi in Lahore on 24th September, 1534 A.D. His childhood name was Bhai Jetha Ji. His father Hari Das belonged to Sodhi family of Kashatriya caste. The name of his mother was Daya Kaur. His parents were very poor.

2. Childhood and Marriage : Bhai Jetha Ji was of a very religious disposition from his childhood. Once his mother sent him to the market to sell boiled grams. Some hungry saints met him on the way. Jetha Ji was very kind-hearted. He served all the grams to the hungry saints and came back home empty-handed. He was always ready to serve the people. Once he got a chance to visit Goindwal Sahib in the company of a group of Sikhs. Here he became the disciple of Guru Amur Das Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji was greatly impressed by the devotion and qualities of Bhai Jetha Ji. So, in 1553 A.D., when Bhai Jetha Ji was 19 years old, Guru Amar Das Ji married his younger daughter, Bibi Bhani, to him. Bhai Jetha Ji was blessed with three sons, Prithi Chand (Prithia), Mahadev and Arjan Dev.

3. Assumption of Guruship : Even after his marriage Bhai Jetha Ji lived at Goindwal Sahib and continued doing service as usual. Selfless service, humility and the sweet nature of Bhai Jetha Ji had a profound effect on Guru Amar Das Ji. So, he appointed Bhai Jetha Ji as his successor to the Guruship in 1574 A.D. From then onward Bhai Jetha Ji was called Ram Das. Thus, Guru Ram Das Ji became the fourth Guru of the Sikhs.

Development of Sikhism Under Guru Ram. Das Ji:

Guru Ram Das Ji retained the Guruship from 1574 to 1581 A.D, Although, his tenure of Guruship was very short, yet he took many significant steps for the organisation and development of Sikhism.

1. Foundation of Ramdaspura : The most important contribution of Guru Ram Das Ji towards the Sikh Panth was the foundation of Ramdaspura or Amritsar. After assuming the Guruship, he himself settled here. In 1577. A.D. he founded Ramdaspura. He settled fifty two other traders, belonging to different trades, at this place in order to make it popular and attract people. The market formed by these traders came to be known as ‘Guru Ka Bazaar’. Guru Ram Das Ji planned to construct two sarovars (tanks) Amritsar and Santokhsar at Ramdaspura. At first, the digging of Amritsar sarovar was started. Baba Buddha Ji was entrusted to look after this project. Later on the name of Ramdaspura came to be known as Amritsar. The foundation of Amritsar occupies an important place in the history of Sikhism. It gave the Sikhs a separate place of pilgrimage which soon developed into the most famous centre of religious propagation.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

2. Introduction of Masand System : Guru Ram Das Ji had started the digging work of two Sarovars (Amritsar and Santokhsar) at Ramdaspura. He needed money to complete this work. So, he sent his representatives to different places to collect money from the Sikhs and to propagate Sikhism. This institution later came to be known as Masand system. It contributed a lot to the spread of Sikhism in remote places. According to S.S. Gandhi, “Masand system played a big role in consolidating Sikhism,”

3. Reconciliation with the Udasis : Another important event relating to the pontificate of Guru Ram Das Ji was his reconciliation with Udasis. Once Baba Sri Chand Ji, the founder of Udasi sect visited Amritsar to see Guru Ram Das Ji. When he met Guru Ji, he asked, “Why have you grown such a long beard?” Guru Ram Das Ji politely replied, “I have grown such a long beard to wipe the dust from thy holy feet.” And the Guru Ram Das Ji proceeded to do so. Baba Sri Chand Ji felt much ashamed at this and withdrew his feet. Baba Sri Chand Ji was so much impressed by Guru’s modesty and humility that he gave up opposing Sikhism from that day. This reconciliation between the Sikhs and the Udasis proved very useful for the Sikh Panth.

4. Some other Important Works : Guru Ram Das Ji did some other important works also for the development of Sikhism. He maintained the tradition of composing hymns. Guru Ram Das Ji composed 679 Sabads. He introduced a new system of marriage among the Sikhs by circumambulation (Lawan) around Granth Sahib four times. Guru Ram Das Sahib composed four Lawans in this respect. He further consolidated the institutions of Pangat, Sangat and Manji system. Guru Ram Das Ji also condemned in strong words such social evils as caste-system, sati system, child marriage, denial of widow re-marriage.

5. Friendly Relations with Akbar : Friendly relations between the Sikhs and Mughal emperor Akbar continued during his tenure of Guruship. Guru Ram Das Ji had met Akbar at Lahore. He was much impressed by Guru Ram Das Ji’s personality. So, he donated 500 Bighas of land to Guru Ram Das Ji. Besides, he remitted one year’s land revenue to the farmers of the Punjab on recommendation of Guru Ram Das Ji. All this added to the fame and prestige of Guru Ram Das Ji.

6. Appointment of the Successor : In 1581 A.D., Guru Ram Das Ji appointed his youngest son Arjan Dev as his successor. The reason “for this appointment was clear. Prithia or Prithi Chand, the eldest son of Guru Ram Das Ji had annoyed him because of his conspiracies. His second son, Mahadev, was not interested in worldly affairs. Thus, the youngest son, Arjan Dev was considered competent for the Guruship from every angle. Guru Ram Das Ji left for his heavenly abode on I September, 1581 A.D.

7. Estimate of Achievements of Guru Ram Dass Ji : Although the period of Guruship of Guru Ram Das Ji was seven years only, he succeeded in giving a new impetus to Sikhism. Guru Ram Das Ji by laying the foundation of Ramdaspura and Masand system, by conciliating with the Udasis, by adding his own verses, by refuting the prevalent evils in the society, by continuing the Sangat, Pangat and Manji institutions and by establishing friendly relations with Akbar, he contributed significantly to the consolidation of Sikhism. So, finally we agree with a famous historian, Dr. D.S. Dhillon’s words, “During the short period of his Guruship of about seven years, Guru Ram Das provided a well-knit community with a form and content.”

Question 13.
Describe briefly the early life of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. What difficulties he had to face at the time of his accession to Guruship?
Or
What do you know about the life of Guru Arjan Dev Ji?
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji was the fifth Guru of the Sikhs. His period of pontification was from 1581 to 1606 A.D. The pontification of Guru Arjan Dev Ji saw the unprecedented development on the one hand and on the other hand his martyrdom started a new era in the Sikh history. A brief description of early career and difficulties faced by Guru Arjan Dev Ji is as under :

Early Career of Guru Arajan Dev Ji:

1. Birth and Parentage : Guru Axjan Dev Ji was born on April 15, 1563 A.D. at Goindwal Sahib. He was the youngest son of Guru Ram Das Ji. He belonged to a Kashatriya family of Sodhi caste. His mother’s name was Bibi Bhani. Bibi Bhani Ji was very religious minded lady. Her religious views had greatly influenced the mind of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

2. Childhood and Marriage : Right from his childhood, Guru Arjan Dev Ji was very dear to his parents. His maternal grandfather Guru- Amar Das Ji had special attachment with this grandson. He made a forecast that the child would become a great man, “Ih Mera Dohta, Bani Ka Bohita Hovega”. (This grandson of mine” will ‘produce the boat of Bani to ferry others across). His prediction proved true. Right from the beginning Guru Arjan Dev Ji was very promising, a symbol of modesty and a very religious minded person. He learnt Hindi and Persian languages. He received knowledge about Gurbani from his parents and grandfather. He was married to Ganga Devi, daughter of Krishan Chand of village Mou of Phillaur. In 1595 A.D. he was blessed with a son named Hargobind.

3. Assumption of Guruship : Guru Ram Das Ji had three sons. Prithi Chand the eldest son was utterly selfish and subtle. His second son Mahadev was an ascetic, who showed no interest in the worldly affairs. Arjan Dev was his third and the youngest son. Devotion to God, modesty and selfless service were his three main characteristics. So Guru Ram Das Ji appointed Guru Arjan Dev Ji as his successor in 1581 A.D. Thus Guru Arjan Dev Ji became the fifth Guru of the Sikhs.

Difficulties of Guru Arajan Dev Ji:

After ascending Gurgaddi, Guru Arjan Sahib had to face a number of difficulties. A brief description of these is given as ahead :

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1. Opposition of Prithi Chand : Prithi Chand was the elder brother of Guru Axjan Dev Ji. Therefore, he presumed himself as the true successor of Gurgaddi, But, when Guru Arjan Dev Ji was appointed as the successor by Guru Ram Das Ji he refused to submit and adopted an attitude of open defiance. He spoke bad words to his father. When Guru Ram Das Ji left for his heavenly abode, Prithia spread the rumour that Arjan Dev poisoned Guru Ram Das Ji so that, he might succeed to Gm giddi. Even on the occasion of Guru Arjan Dev Ji’s dastarbandi Prithia snatched the dastar (turban) from him and placed it on his own head. He asked Guru Arjan Dev Ji for his share in the property.

Guru Aijan Dev Ji gave him all his property, but still he was not appeased. Now, he forcibly started collecting funds brought for Langar by the Sikh Sangat and used them for his personal affairs. When in 1595 A.D. Guru Arjan Dev Ji’s wife was blessed with a son, named Hargobind, he hatched a number of conspiracies to put an end to the life of infant Hargobind. Prithi Chand planned a conspiracy against Guru Arjan Dev Ji and complained to Akbar through a Mughal employee Sulhai Khan. But Akbar paid no heed to his complaints. Thus, till his death, Prithia remained an arch enemy of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

2. Opposition of Orthodox Muslims : Guru Arjan Dev Ji had to face stiff opposition from orthodox Muslims. Muslims could never tolerate the increasing influence of Sikhs. Orthodox Muslims in order to save their religion established Naqshbandi order at Sirhind. Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi was the leader of this organisation. In 1605 A.D., when Jahangir became the new Mughal ruler, these Naqshbandis poisoned his ears against the Sikhs. As Jahangir was an orthodox emperor, so it had the desired impact on him.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

3. Opposition of Brahmans : The Brahmans of Punjab were also against Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The main reason behind this was that the propagation of Sikh religion resulted in the decreasing influence of BrahmAnswer: Sikhs had started performing their customs and traditions even without BrahmAnswer: When Guru Arjan Dev Ji edited Adi Granth Sahib, Brahmans could not tolerate it. They complained to Akbar against Guru Granth Sahib but Akbar observed that it was a scripture worthy of reverence.

4. Opposition of Chandu Shah : Chandu Shah was the Diwan of Lahore. He was looking for a suitable match for his daughter. In connection with this he sent his messengers in different parts. When they returned they proposed the name of Hargobind, son of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, for his daughter. On hearing this Chandu Shah was enraged and remarked that he couldn’t marry his daughter with the son of a beggar. But, after being persuaded by his wife he agreed to the proposal. By this time the Sikhs had come to know about the remarks given by Chandu Shah against the Guru Ji.

So, they asked Guru Arjan Dev Ji to turn down this proposal. Consequently, Guru Arjan Dev Ji did the same. Now Chandu Shah personally came to Guru Arjan Dev Ji and offered Rs. 1 lakh and promised to give more dowry. But Guru Arjan Dev Ji refused saying, “My words are engraved on stone, and cannot be effaced. If you give me the whole world as a dowry with your daughter, my son will not marry her.” On hearing this Ch andu Shah got very angry and became Guru Arjan Dev Ji’s sworn enemy.

Question 14.
Discuss the measures adopted by Guru Arjan Dev Ji for the development of Sikhism.
Or
Discuss in brief but meaningful the development of Sikhism during Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Or
Discuss in brief the development of Sikhism during Guru Aijan Dev Ji.
Or
Discuss the role of Guru Arjan Dev Ji in the development of the Sikh Panth.
Or
Discuss the special contribution of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Or
Discuss the contribution of Guru Arjan Dev Ji for the development of Sikhism.
Or
Discuss the role of Guru Arjan Dev Ji in the development of Sikh faith and tradition.
Or
Discuss Guru Arjan Sahib’s contribution to the organisation and development of Sikhism.
Or
Give an account of the various achievements of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji remained on Gurgaddi from 1581 to 1606 A.D. With his accession to Guruship, Sikhism entered into a new phase. Guru Arjan Dev Ji’s contribution to the development of Sikhism is multifaceted. His important achievements are as follows :

1. Construction of Harmandir Sahib : The foremost achievement of Guru Arjan Dev Ji for the consolidation of Sikhism was the construction of Harmandir Sahib. Guru Ram Das Ji had started the digging of Amrit Sarover and it was completed by Guru Arjan Dev Ji. After this, he started the construction work of Harmandir Sahib (Temple of God) in Amrit Sarovar. Its foundation was laid in 1588 A.D. by. a very famous Sufi saint, named Mian Mir.

The Sikhs suggested to Guru Arjan Dev Ji that the temple should be higher than the surrounding buildings. But Guru Arjan Sahib said, “He who is humble shall be exalted.” That is why the building of the temple was kept lower as compared to the other buildings. Another distinguishing feature of Harmandir Sahib

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was that it has four doorways, one on each side. It symbolises that the people from all the four directions of the world may come to this temple of God without any discrimination on the basis of caste, colour or creed. On completion of this temple in 1601 A.D. Guru Sahib announced that the pilgrimage to this place would have the value of all the 68 Hindu places of pilgrimage and if any pilgrim takes bath here with full devotion shall attain salvation.

It impressed a large number of people. They started coming here in large numbers and it helped in the propagation of Sikhism. In a very short period, Harmandir Sahib became the most important pilgrimage of the Sikhs. According to G.S. Talifo, “This temple and the pool became to Sikhism what Mecca is to Islam, Jerusalem to Judaism and Christianity and Bodh Gaya to Buddhism.”

2. Foundation of Tarn Taran : Guru Arjan Dev Ji, in order to propagate Sikhism in Majha tract of the Punjab founded the city of Tarn Taran in 1590 A.D. This city is 24 kms to the South of Amritsar. Here a tank named as Tarn Taran was also dug. Tarn Taran means that any pilgrim who takes bath in this tank shall get salvation from transmigration. Tarn Taran also became a famous holy place of the Sikhs. As a result, thousands of Jats of the Majha became the followers of Guru Arjan Dev Ji and embraced Sikhism. The services of these Jats towards Sikhism was of great value.

3. Foundation of Kartarpur and Hargobindpur : In 1593 A.D., Guru Arjan Dev Ji laid the foundation of another town called Kartarpur in Jalandhar Doab. Kartarpur means, ‘The City of God’. It is situated between the Beas and the Sutlej rivers. Here Guru Sahib built a tank named ‘Gangsar’. Thus, Kartarpur also became the centre of propagation of Sikhism. On the occasion of the birth of his son in 1595 A.D. Hargobind, Guru Arjan Dev Sahib founded another town on the bank of the river Beas and this town was named as Hargobindpur after the name of his son.

4. Construction of a Baoli at Lahore : Once on the request of Sikh Sangat, Guru Sahib went to Lahore. There he got constructed a Baoli in Dabbi Bazaar. This Baoli became a holy place for the Sikhs of that area.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

5. Development of Masand System : Development of Masand system was one of the greatest achievements of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The word Masand has been derived from the word ‘Masnad’ which means high place. As the representatives of Guru Sahib used to sit on a higher place than others, so they were called as Masands. With the passage of time, the number of Sikhs had increased considerably. As a consequence, the Guru needed money for Langar and other development programmes. It was enjoined upon every Sikh to give Daswandh (l/10th) of his total income to Guru Sahib.

For collecting this money from Sikhs, he appointed very responsible persons called Masands. These Masands not only collected money, but also propagated Sikhism with a vigorous zeal. The money collected by Masands was deposited in the Guru’s treasury at Amritsar on the occasions of Diwali and Baisakhi. The Masand system played a vital role in spreading the message of Sikhism to far-off places. Secondly, it gave a definite income to Guru Arjan Sahib.

6. Compilation of Adi Granth Sahib : The crowning achievement of Guru Arjan Dev Ji for the development of Sikhism is the compilation of Adi Granth Sahib. The main objective of its compilation was to keep the Gurbani of the former Sikh Gurus intact and to provide the Sikhs a separate religious scripture of their own. The compilation work was started by the Guru at Ramsar sarovar near Amritsar. He dictated the hymns to Bhai Gurdas Ji. This work was completed in 1604 A.D. In Adi Granth Sahib, Guru Arjan Dev Ji included the hymns of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Guru Angad Dev Ji, Guru Amar Das Ji, Guru Ram Das Ji and his own hymns, which were maximum (2216) in number. Besides this, he had added the hymns of many Bhagats, Sufi Saints and Bhats. Later on, the hymns of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji were also included in it.

The compilation of Adi Granth Sahib is a great landmark in the history of Sikh religion. It gave the Sikhs a holy book of their own. It is called the Bible of the Sikhs. By including the hymns of the people belonging to different religions and castes in it, Guru Arjan Sahib has set up an example. Adi Granth Sahib throws ample light on the political, religious, social and economic life of 15th and 16th centuries. Before Guru Gobind Singh Ji immersed in Eternal Light he gave Adi Granth Sahib the status of Guru Granth Sahib. According to Dr. Hari Ram Gupta, “The compilation of the Granth formed an important landmark in the history of the Sikhs.”

7. Trade of Horses. In order to make the Sikhs rich and prosperous, Guru Arjan Sahib encouraged the Sikhs to take the trade of horses beyond the Indus with Arab countries. This step of Guru Arjan Sahib not only increased the income of the Sikhs but they became good horse riders also. Moreover, it dealt an effective blow at the stringency of caste and Hindu superstitions. It went a long way in breaking down the barrier that prevented the Hindus from crossing the Indus.

8. Friendly Relations with Akbar : Mughal emperor Akbar had set up friendly relations with Guru Arjan Sahib. During the pontification of Guru Arjan Dev Ji his opponents Prithia, Chandhu Shah, Brahmans and orthodox Muslims all tried their best to instigate the emperor against the Guru in every possible way, but Akbar paid no heed to their false complaints. Some Muslims tried to instigate Akbar by complaining that the ‘Adi Granth Sahib’ written by Guru Sahib contained many things against Islam.

When Akbar looked into the matter, he said that the Granth was worthy of reverence. On the request made by Guru Arjan Sahib, Akbar reduced the land revenue by 10%. Due to it Guru Arjan Sahib earned a good name and fame and it helped in the development of Sikhism also.

9. Nomination of the Successor: In 1606 A.D., before his martyrdom, Guru Arjan Dev Ji nominated his son Hargobind as his successor. Guru Sahib instructed him to sit fully armed on his throne and maintain an army to the best of his ability. Thus, Guru Arjan not only maintained the tradition of Gurgaddi, but also changed its peaceful course.

10. Estimate of Guru Arjan Dev Ji’s Achievements : Guru Arjan Dev Ji’s contribution in the development of Sikhism is remarkable. By constructing Harmandir Sahib, he has presented to the Sikhs their most sacred religious place. In the coming times, the Sikhs always got inspiration from it. Establishment of Tarn Taran, Hargobindpur and Kartarpur proved to be very helpful in the propagation of Sikh religion. Masand system made Sikh religion more powerful. The compilation of the Adi Granth Sahib was Guru Arjan Sahib’s greatest achievement.

We agree with the remarks of Prof. Harbans Singh, “Under Guru Arjan, the fifth Guru, Sikhism became more firmly established.” According to another famous historian Dr. G.S. Mansukhani, “During the period of Guru Arjan, Sikhism took a significant stride.”

Question 15.
Give an account of the early career of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. What was his contribution to Sikhism?
Answer:
Note : For answer to this question students may refer to Question Nos. 13 and 14.

Question 16.
Write a detailed note on the compilation and historical importance of Adi Granth Sahib.
Or
Write a critical note on compilation, language, contents and significance of the Adi Granth.
Answer:
Undoubtedly the compilation of Adi Granth Sahib or Guru Granth Sahib is Guru Arjan Sahib’s greatest achievement. In Sikhism, this sacred Granth is as revered as the Bible by the Christians, the Quran by the Mohammedans and the Vedas and Gita by the Hindus. In fact, Adi Granth Sahib is not only a holy book of the Sikhs, but also a priceless treasure for the whole humanity.

1. Need for its Compilation: Many factors impressed upon the Guru the necessity for the compilation of Adi Granth Sahib. In the times of Guru Arjan Sahib, Sikh religion was getting momentum. So Guru Arjan Dev Ji felt the necessity of laying down rules for the guidance of his followers in the performance of their daily religious duties. Secondly, Prithia, the elder brother of Guru Arjan had also started composing religious hymns of his own which he described as the compositions of Guru Nanak and his successors. Under these circumstances, if the compositions of the Sikh Gurus were to be saved from spurious writings, an authentic text had to be written.

Thirdly, if the independence of the Sikh race was to be established, it was essential that they should have an independent religious book. Fourthly, Guru Arjan Dev Ji felt the need to replace the Hindu Granths, written in the Sanskrit language with a Granth of their own written in the simple language of the people of the Punjab. The twenty-third and twenty-fourth pauris of the Anand Sahib state that real hymns of the Gurus should alone be repeated and revered by the Sikhs. Guru Amar Das Ji writes,
“Come, ye disciples, beloved of the true Guru, sing a true song.
Sing the song of the Guru, the song of songs,
Saith Nanak, ever sing this true song.”
Hence it was obligatory for Guru Arjan Dev Ji to take precautions, lest the Sikhs should recite writings other than those of the Sikh Gurus.

2. Collection of Hymns : For editing Adi Granth Sahib, Guru Arjan Sahib collected hymns from different sources. Hymns of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Guru Angad Dev Ji and Guru Amar Das Ji were lying with Baba Mohan Ji, the eldest son of Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Arjan Sahib himself went from Amritsar to Goindwal Sahib bare-footed. Impressed by the modesty of Guru Arjan Sahib, Baba Mohan handed over the whole material to the Guru. Hymns of Guru Ram Das Ji were already with Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Guru Arjan Sahib then added his own hymns. Then, Guru Arjan Dev Ji invited many disciples of Hindu and Muslim Saints to give him the best hymns of their Gurus and Saints. Thus, the Bani was collected from different sources.

3. Compilation of Adi Granth Sahib : For the compilation of Adi Granth, Guru Arjan Sahib selected a beautiful and solitary place situated to the south of Amritsar. Here Guru Arjan Dev Ji built a tank named as Ramsar Sarovar. On the bank of this sarover tents were fixed under a pipal tree. Here Guru Arjan Sahib started the compilation of Adi Granth Sahib. Guru Arjan Sahib dictated and Bhai Gurdas Ji went on writing. This great work was completed in. 1604 A.D. This Granth Sahib was kept in Sri Harmandir Sahib and Baba Buddha Ji was appointed as the first Granthi (priest).

4. Contributions in the Granth Sahib: The Adi Granth Sahib is a very vast Granth. It contains a total of 5,894 Sabads (Hymns). The contributors in the Adi Granth Sahib are divided into four classes. „

  • Sikh Gurus : Guru Granth Sahib contains 976 hymns of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, 62 of Guru Angad Dev Ji, 907 of Guru Amar Das Ji, 679 of Guru Ram Das Ji and 2216 hymns of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Later on, in Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s time 116 hymns and two salokas of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji were also included.
  • Bhagats and Saints : The Adi Granth Sahib includes the hymns of 15 Hindu Bhagats and Muslim Saints, whose teachings were similar to the teachi ngs of the Sikb Gurus. These Saints and Bhagats are Kabir Ji, Farid Ji, Namdev Ji, Ravidas Ji, Dhanne Ji, Ramanand Ji and Jaidev Ji. Out of them the maximum hymns numbering 541 belonged to Bhagat Kabir Ji.
  • Bhats : Adi Granth also includes the hymns of 11 famous Bhats (Bards). Thesi hymns are 125 in total. The famous Bhats are Nal, Bal, Jalap, Bhikha and HarbAnswer:
  • Others : The hymns of Satta, Balwand, Sunder and Mardana are also includec in the Adi Granth Sahib.

5. Arrangement of the Matter : Adi Granth Sahib has a total of 1430 pages. Th( hymns of Adi Granth have been divided into three parts. The first part consists of If pages contains the daily prayers like Japji Sahib, Rehras Sahib and Sohila. Second part is the main part of Granth Sahib. The hymns in this part have been divided into 31 parts based on 31 Ragas. As all the hymns contain the name of ‘Nanak’ therefore the word ‘Mahala’ has been used to indicate which Guru’s composition it is. The third part contains the swayyas of Bhats, and those salokas of Sikh Gurus and Bhagats which could not be described in Ragas. Adi Granth Sahib ends with an epilogue called ‘Mundavani’ which has two salokas.

6. Subject: In Adi Granth Sahib, there are hymns in praise of God. It throws light on the importance of the remembrance of the Holy Nam, which is a kind of meditation, attainment of Sach Khand and importance of Guru. It gives us the message of welfare for all human beings, oneness of God and brotherhood of mankind.

7. Language : Adi Granth Sahib is written in Gurmukhi script. In it, the words from Punjabi, Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati, Sanskrit and Persian languages spoken in 15th, 16th and 17th centuries were used.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 17.
Describe the causes for the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Was he a political offender?
Or
Discuss in brief the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji and its impact on Sikhs.
Or
Narrate the circumstances leading to the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. What is the significance of his martyrdom?
Or
Guru Arjan Dev Ji’s martyrdom indicated a new trend in Sikh Movement. Explain.
Answer:
In 1606 A.D., Guru Arjan Sahib sacrificed his life for the sake of religion and truth. His martyrdom started a new era in Sikh history. Now Sikhs began to arm themselves to face the Mughals with bravery and courage. Many factors were responsible for the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, which are discussed as below :

1. Fanaticism of Jahangir : Jahangir’s fanaticism was the main reason for Guru Arjan Sahib’s martyrdom. He could not bear to see any other religion more prosperous than Islam. He could not tolerate the growing popularity of Sikhs in Punjab. So, he was looking for a chance to hamper their development. He wanted to put a stop to all this. He has written about it in his autobiography Tuzak-i-Jahangiri, “In Goindwal on the banks of the river Beas lived a Hindu named Arjan in the garb of ‘Pir’ or ‘Sheikh’. By bis ways and manners he captured the fancy of many of the simple hearted Hindus and 3ven many ignorant Muslims. He had loudly sounded the drum of his being Pir and a loly person.

They called him Guru and from all sides innocent and foolish people crowded ;o manifest their complete faith in him. For three or four generations they had kept their shop warm. Many times I thought of putting a stop to this vain affair or to bring him to Islam.” These words of Jahangir clearly show that his religious fanaticism was the main reason behind the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Sahib.

2. Development of Sikh Panth: In Guru Arjan Sahib’s time, Sikhism progressed considerably. It got a new impetus with the construction of Harmandir Sahib and establishment of the cities like Tarn Taran, Kartarpur and Hargobindpur. Masand system played a significant role in the development of Sikhism. The compilation of Guru Granth Sahib helped in propagating Sikh religion. This was something intolerable and unbearable for the Mughals. They, therefore, thought of crushing the growing power of the Sikhs.

3. Enmity of Prithi Chand : Prithi Chand alias Prithia was the eldest brother of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. He was a very greedy and selfish person. For this reason only Guru Ram Das Ji appointed Guru Arjan Sahib as his successor in 1581 A.D. Prithia could not tolerate that the Gurgaddi had passed on to somebody else. He then made a firm decision that he would not sit at ease until he had dethroned Guru Arjan Sahib and received Gurgaddi for himself. So, he started opposing Guru Arjan Sahib openly. He collected money from Masands meant for Langar and used it for his own personal use.

He tried to popularise his own compositions naming them as those of Guru Arjan Sahib’s. He started planning a conspiracy against Guru Arjan Sahib with the help of some Mughal officials. It further strained the relationship between the Mughals and Guru Arjan Sahib.

4. Enmity of Chandu Shah : Chandu Shah was the Diwan of Lahore. He was looking for a suitable match for his daughter. Many advisors suggested him to marry his daughter with Hargobind, the son of Guru Arjan Sahib. He said he would never let the stone of a drain to be the honour of his palace. Afterwards, when Chandu Shah’s wife convinced him, he was ready to accept this relation. By this time, Guru Arjan Sahib came to know about all those abusive words Chandu Shah had used for him.

So, he refused to accept shagun sent by Chandu Shah. When Chandu Shah came to know about this, he was determined to avenge the insult. He started poisoning Jahangir’s ears and he succeeded in getting what he wanted. Jahangir made up his mind to take a strict action against Guru Arjan Sahib.

5. Opposition of Naqshbandis : Naqshbandis played an important role in the martyrdom of Guru Sahib. Naqshbandi was an order started by fanatic Muslims. Muslims could never see any other religion prospering and developing. Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi, the leader of Naqshbandis, had great influence in Mughal Darbar. So he also instigated Jahangir against Guru Sahib. Therefore, Jahangir decided to take action against Guru Sahib.

6. Compilation of Adi Granth Sahib : The compilation of Adi Granth Sahib was another important reason of Guru Arjan Sahib’s martyrdom. Opponents of Guru Arjan Sahib complained against him to Jahangir saying that he had written many things against Islam. Jahangir instructed Guru Arjan Dev Ji to remove all anti-Islamic points from the Granth Sahib. But Guru Arjan Dev Ji said that Guru Granth Sahib contained nothing against Islam. Then Jahangir asked him to write something about Hazrat Mohammad in this scripture. But Guru Arjan Dev Sahib said that he could not do any such thing without Almighty’s permission. This enraged Jahangir all the more.

7. Help of Khusrau : Help of Khusrau by Guru Arjan Sahib became the immediate cause of Guru Arjan Sahib’s martyrdom. Prince Khusrau had revolted against his father some time after his enthronement. On reaching Punjab Khusrau came to Tarn Taran to seek Guru Arjan Sahib’s blessings. It is said that Guru Arjan Sahib put a tilak on his forehead and gave him all sorts of help required to go to Kabul. When Jahangir came to know about all this he got a golden opportunity to take stern action against Guru Arjan Sahib. He ordered Lahore Governor, Murtaza Khan to execute him by giving severe physical tortures, and to confiscate the whole of his property.

On Jahangir’s order Guru Arjan Sahib was arrested on 24th May, 1606 A.D. and brought to Lahore. Here Muslim Sufi Saint Mian Mir requested Jahangir to spare his life. Jahangir asked Guru Arjan Sahib to pay a fine of Rs. 2 lakh for sparing his life. But Guru Arjan Sahib refused to pay this fine. As a result, the Mughals made Guru Arjan Sahib to sit in a vessel of boiling water. Then Guru Arjan Sahib was made to sit on hot iron-bars and hot sand was thrown on his naked body. The Guru Arjan Sahib bore all the tortures cheerfully by uttering the following verse :
“Whatever you ordain appears sweet. I supplicate for the gift of Nam.”
Thus, Guru Arjan Sahib immersed in Eternal light on 30th May,’ 1606 A.D. at Lahore.
Significance of the Martyrdom
The martyrdom of Guru Arjan was an event of tremendous importance in the evolution of the Sikh movement and in the history of Punjab.,

1. New Policy of Guru Hargobind Sahib : The martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji proved a turning point in the development of the Sikh community. Guru Hargobind Sahib decided to adopt a New Policy in order to turn his followers into saint soldiers. He constructed Akal Takht with a view to impart military training to the Sikhs. He asked his followers to bring him horses and arms and join his army. It changed the entire character of the reformatory religious movement.

According to famous historian K.S. Duggal, “Guru Arjan’s martyrdom precipitated the issues. It gave a new complexion to the shape of things in the Punjab and the Sikh Policy.”

2. Unity among the Sikhs : The martyrdom of Guru Arjan Sahib infused a new spirit among the Sikhs. Now, they felt the need of joining their hands in order to put an end to the tyrannical rule of the Mughals. The Sikhs, henceforth, began to assemble under one banner. It created a glorious tradition in Sikh history. Undoubtedly its credit goes to the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

3. Change in relationship between Mughals and the Sikhs : Before the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, there were cordial relations between the Sikh Gurus and the Mughal emperors. But, now with the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, the position had been completely reversed. The Sikhs became the sworn enemy of the Mughals. They were now looking for an opportunity to avenge the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Sahib. On the other hand, the Mughal emperors also did not like that the Sikhs should take to arms. Thus, it strained the relationship between the Sikhs and the Mughals.

4. Persecution of the Sikhs : After the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, the Mughals started a reign of terror against the Sikhs. Jahangir had put Guru Hargobind Sahib in prison in the fort of Gwalior. During the reign of Shah Jahan, Guru Hargobind Sahib was forced to fight four battles with the Mughals. In 1675 A.D., Aurangzeb got Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji martyred in Delhi. During his rule, he left no stone unturned to convert the whole of India into Islam. A large number of people were put to sword for refusing to embrace Islam. To face boldly the tyrannies of the Mughals, Guru Gobind Singh Ji, Banda Singh Bahadur and thousands of other Sikhs laid down their lives. In fact, the Sikhs got this, inspiration of self-sacrifice from the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

5. Popularity of Sikhism : With the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, Sikhism became more popular. This incident infused a new vigour, love and reverence for Sikhism, not only among the Hindus, but also among the Muslims. Consequently, they began to join Sikhism in larger numbers. Thus, the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji proved a milestone in the development of Sikhism. According to famous historian Dr. G.S. Mansukhani, “The martyrdom of Guru Arjan marks a turning point in the development of Sikh religion.”

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 18.
Write a detailed note on the life of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Or
Describe the life of Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji.
Answer:
1. Birth and Parentage: Guru Hargobind Ji was born on 19th June, 1595 A.D. at village Wadali in Distt. Amritsar. He was the only son of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. His mother’s name was Ganga Devi.

2. Childhood and Marriage : Guru Hargobind Ji was very promising right from his childhood. He had a profound knowledge of Punjabi, Sanskrit and Prakrit literature. Baba Buddha Ji not only gave him religious education, but also made him expert in horsemanship and use of weapons. After marriage, he was blessed with five sons— Baba Gurditta, Ani Rai, Suraj Mai, Atal Rai and Tegh Bahadur Ji, and one daughter, Bibi Viro.

3. Change in relationship between Mughals and the Sikhs : Before the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, there were cordial relations between the Sikh Gurus and the Mughal emperors. But, now with the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, the position had been completely reversed. The Sikhs became the sworn enemy of the Mughals. They were now looking for an opportunity to avenge the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Sahib. On the other hand, the Mughal emperors also did not like that the Sikhs should take to arms. Thus, it strained the relationship between the Sikhs and the Mughals.

4. Persecution of the Sikhs : After the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, the Mughals started a reign of terror against the Sikhs. Jahangir had put Guru Hargobind Sahib in prison in the fort of Gwalior. During the reign of Shah Jahan, Guru Hargobind Sahib was forced to fight four battles with the Mughals. In 1675 A.D., Aurangzeb got Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji martyred in Delhi. During his rule, he left no stone unturned to convert the whole of India into Islam.

A large number of people were put to sword for refusing to embrace Islam. To face boldly the tyrannies of the Mughals, Guru Gobind Singh Ji, Banda Singh Bahadur and thousands of other Sikhs laid down their lives. In fact, the Sikhs got this inspiration of self-sacrifice from the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

5. Popularity of Sikhism : With the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, Sikhism became more popular. This incident infused a new vigour, love and reverence for Sikhism, not only among the Hindus, but also among the Muslims. Consequently, they began to join Sikhism in larger numbers. Thus, the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji proved a milestone in the development of Sikhism. According to famous historian Dr. G.S. Mansukhani, “The martyrdom of Guru Arjan marks a turning point in the development of Sikh religion.”

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 18.
Write a detailed note on the life of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Or
Describe the life of Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji.
Answer:

  • Birth and Parentage: Guru Hargobind Ji was born on 19th June, 1595 A.D. at village Wadali in Distt. Amritsar. He was the only son of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. His mother’s name was Ganga Devi.
  • Childhood and Marriage : Guru Hargobind Ji was very promising right from his childhood. He had a profound knowledge of Punjabi, Sanskrit and Prakrit literature. Baba Buddha Ji not only gave him religious education, but also made him expert in horsemanship and use of weapons. After marriage, he was blessed with five sons— Baba Gurditta, Ani Rai, Suraj Mai, Atal Rai and Tegh Bahadur Ji, and one daughter, Bibi Viro.
  • Assumption of Guruship : Before proceeding to Lahore in 1606 A.D. where Guru Arjan Dev Ji offered himself to be martyred, he nominated Hargobind Ji as the next successor of the Sikhs. Harbobind Sahib at that time was barely 11 years old. Thus, Guru Hargobind Sahib became the Sixth Sikh Guru. He held the Guruship from 1606 A.D. to 1645 A.D.
  • New Policy of Guru Hargobind Ji : For answer to this question students are requested to see the answer of Question No. 19.
  • Guru Hargobind Ji’s Relations with the Mughals: For answer to this question students are requested to see the answer of Question No. 20.

Question 19.
Examine critically the new method ‘Miri-Piri’ adopted by Guru Hargobind Ji.
Or
What is meant by the New Policy of Guru Hargobind Ji? Describe its main
features and importance.
Or
Discuss the new method ‘Miri and Piri’ adopted by Sri Guru Hargobind Ji for the development of Sikhism.
Or
What was the contribution of Guru Hargobind Ji to Sikh Movement?
Or
Guru Hargobind introduced militant (Miri) element alongwith spirituality (Piri) in the Sikh Movement. Explain.
Or
What is Miri and Piri? Explain.
Or
Discuss the method ‘Miri-Piri’ in Sikhism.
Or
What do you mean by ‘Miri and Piri’? Study the main features of the New Policy of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Or
What do you know about the New Policy of Guru Hargobind Ji? Describe its main features and significance towards the transformation of Sikhism.
Or
What do you know about the New Policy of Guru Hargobind Ji? Explain in brief its main features.
Or
Write a critical note on the New Policy of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Or
Describe the circumstances leading to the adoption of New Policy by Guru Hargobind Ji. What were the main features of this policy?
Or
What do you understand by Miri and Piri? Explain its main features.
Or
Discuss the concept of Miri and Piri.
Or
How Guru Hargobind Ji changed the Sikhs into Sant Sipahi?
Answer:
With the commencement of Guru Hargobind Ji Guruship in 1606 A.D. the Sikh Panth ventured into a new era of its history. During his Guruship he transformed the nature of the Sikh sect by turning the Sikhs into saint soldiers. Guru Hargobind Ji had to adopt New Policy owing to the following reasons :

1. Change in the Religious Policy of the Mughals : Before Jahangir, the relations between the Mughals and the Sikhs were very cordial. During the Saidpur invasion by Babar in 1520 A.D., the Mughal army had taken Guru Nanak Dev Ji as prisoner. When Babar came to know about it; he ordered the immediate release of Guru Nanak Sahib. He said that he would not have attacked Saidpur, if he had known that it was inhabited by such a holy man. In a bid to re-capture power, Humayun had sought the blessings of Guru Angad Dev Ji During that time Akbar himself came to Goindwal Sahib and partook Langar. He donated 500 bigha land to Guru Ram Das Ji and waived off the revenue of farmers in Punjab for one year. In 1605 A.D. Jahangir ascended the throne of the Mughal empire. He was a fanatic Sunni Muslim. He could not tolerate the flourishing of any other religion except Islam. In the changed circumstances, Guru Hargobind Sahib had to adopt New Policy.

2. Martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji : Being a fanatic Sunni Muslim, Jahangir could not tolerate the increasing popularity of the Sikhs in Punjab. In a bid to crush this movement, he martyred, Guru Arjan Sahib in 1606 A.D. The martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, a saintly personality who wished well for all, infuriated the Sikhs and aroused anger in them. Now, it became apparent to them that they would have to arm themselves against the Mughals for their survival. In this way the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji was largely responsible for the adoption of New Policy by Guru Hargobind Ji.

3. Last Message of Guru Arjan Dev Ji : Before his martyrdom, Guru Arjan Dev Ji sent a message through his Sikhs to his son, Hargobind Ji, “Let him sit fully armed on his throne and maintain an army to the best of his ability.” These words of Guru Arjan Dev Ji kept echoing in the ears of Hargobind Sahib and he adopted the New Policy by giving it a practical shape.

4. Character of the Jats : The Jats were in majority among those, who joined the Sikh Panth. These Jats were very brave, fearless, freedom loving and self-respecting. They never bowed before oppression and repression. The martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji greatly inflammed them. They not only inspired the Guru to arm himself, but

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism 1469-1708 A.D. Img 9

also actively participated in this task. In this way, the Jats made a significant contribution towards adopting New Policy.

Main Features of the New Policy:

1. Wearing of Miri and Piri Swords : At the time of assuming Guruship, Guru Hargobind Sahib decided to wear the swords of Miri and Piri. The sword of Miri was a symbol of temporal power and the sword of Piri a symbol of religious leadership. Guru Hargobind ji enjoined on his Sikhs to recite the name of God on one hand, and to wear arms for self-defence on the other. In this way Guru Hargohind Ji turned the Sikhs into saint soldiers. This policy of Miri and Piri as adopted by Guru Hargobind Ji exercised a deep impact on the Sikh History.

2. Organisation of Army : For the protection of the Sikh Panth, Guru Hargobind Ji decided to organise an army. By issuing a Hukamnama, he directed the Sikhs to join Guru Hargohind Ji’s army. Consequently, 500 soldiers joined his army. Guru Ji classified these soldiers into five Jathas (groups). Each Jatha was put under the charge of five Jathedars (group leaders). Besides these soldiers, Guru Hargobind Sahib also recruited 52 bodyguards. Guru Hargobind Ji’s army continued to swell gradually and their number rose to 2500. A separate regiment of the Pathans was organised and Painda Khan was made its commander.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

3. Collection of Arms and Horses : Guru Hargobind Sahib issued a Hukamnama to the Masands that he wohld be pleased with those Masands, who brought him offerings of arms and horses instead of money. He also told the Sikhs that they should offer arms and horses to the Masands. The Masands and the Sikhs hailed this decision of Guru Ji . This added to the military strength of Guru Hargobind Ji.

4. Construction of Akal Takht Sahib : The construction of Akal Takht proved very helpful in the evolution of the New Policy. In fact, it was a great task of Guru Hargobind Sahib. The construction of Akal Takht (Seat of the Almighty) was begun by Guru Hargobind Sahib in front of Harmandir Sahib in 1606 A.D. This stupendous task was completed in 1609 A.D. Inside it was built a 12 feet high rostrum, which was like a throne. Guru Hargobind Ji used to guide the political and military affairs of the Sikhs by occupying the throne. Here, he would give military training to the Sikhs and watch their wrestling and other military feats. Here, too, he would accept horses and arms from the Masands.

In order to, infuse a new spirit among the Sikhs, the professional bards sang ballads of unrivalled heroism. Besides, here Guru Hargobind Ji would settle the mutual disputes of the Sikhs. According to H.S. Bhatia and S.R. Bakshi, “Sri Akal Takht is one of the most sacred institutions of Sikhism. It has played historic role in the socio-political transformation of the Sikh community.”

5. Adoption of Royal Symbols : While following New Policy, Guru Hargobind Ji adopted many paraphernalia of sovereignty. In place of a woollen rosary he hung two swords from his waist. Like the kings, Guru Hargobind Ji started wearing a royal aigrette on his headgear. A sort of umbrella was also swung over him. He also assumed the title of Sacha Padshah (True Emperor). He also started wearing costlier costumes. Like the Mughals, he also started keeping bodyguards.

6. Fortification of Amritsar: Amritsar was not only, the most sacred place of the Sikhs, but also was a famous centre for their military training. Therefore, Guru Hargobind Ji got constructed a wall around the city of Amritsar for its defence. Besides this, in 1609 A.D. he also got constructed a fort which was named, Lohgarh.

7. Changes in the daily life of the Guru : With the adoption of the New Policy, the daily life of Guru Hargobind Sahib underwent a number of changes. He started hunting. He engaged Abdula and Natha Mai to recite ballads of unrivalled heroism in his court. Guru Hargobind Sahib raised a special music party, which went around Harmandir Sahib, singing inspirational ‘Sabads’ loudly, to the accompaniment of drum¬beats and torch-lights. Guru Hargobind Ji had brought about these changes in his life, only with a view to. infuse a spirit of fearlessness among the Sikhs.

Critical Estimate of the New Policy:

At first when Guru Hargobind Sahib adopted the New Policy, it created doubts in the minds of many Sikhs about the aims and objectives of Guru Hargobind Sahib. Bhai Gurdas Ji and Dr. Trump were of the opinion that, Guru Hargobind Ji had abandoned the high ideals of his predecessors. In fact, Guru Hargobind Sahib has been totally misunderstood. Firstly, Guru Hargobind Sahib had no political motive. Secondly, he had not abandoned the Sikh code of conduct. He used to listen to ‘Asa Di War’ every morning in Harmandir Sahib and give religious guidance to the Sikhs.

During his pontificate, he sent many missionaries in the different corners of Panjab to preach Sikhism. If Guru Hargobind Ji made certain changes in his routine, it was only to enthuse the Sikhs. With the passage of time, all doubts among the Sikhs about the New Policy of Guru Hargobind Sahib began to be dispelled. Afterwards, Bhai Gurdas Ji who had at first criticized the New Policy of Guru Hargobind Sahib, wrote “Guru Hargobind Ji had to do all the things for the defence of Sikh religion.”
In the words of H.S. Bhatia and S.R. Bakshi,
“Though outwardly, it may appear that Guru Hargobind persued a slightly different course for fulfilling the mission of Guru Nanak, yet, basically, it was Guru Nanak’s ideals that he preached.”
Thus we see that Guru Hargobind Sahib continued the policy of the old Gurus and also made new additions to it.

Importance of the New Policy:

The New Policy of Guru Hargobind Sahib brought a radical transformation in Sikhism. The Sikhs, became saint soldiers. Consequently, with the passage of time the Sikhs became fearless warriors. It infused the feelings of self-confidence and self-respect among the Sikhs. If Guru Hargobind Ji had not followed the New Policy, the pious brotherhood of the Sikhs would have either not survived or at any rate relapsed into the limited merits of monks and mendicants.

It was due to the New Policy of Guru Hargobind Ji, that a large number of Jats embraced Sikhism. The New Policy widened the gulf between the Sikhs and the M Shah Jahan, the Mughals fought four battles with Guru Hargobind Sahib. Besides these, the New Policy of Guru Hargobind Ji provided the basis of the creation of Khalsa by Guru Gobind Singh Ji in 1699 A.D. K.S. Duggal aptly says, “Guru Hargobind’s greatest contribution is that he gave a new turn to the Sikh way of life. He turned saints into soldiers and yet remained a man of God.”

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 20.
Describe briefly the relationship of Guru Hargobind Ji with Jahangir and Shah Jahan.
Or
Write a detailed note on relations between Guru Hargobind Ji and the Mughals.
Or
Explain the relations of Guru Hargobind Ji with the Mughals.
Answer:
The period of Guru Hargobind Ji’s pontifica’tion was from 1606 A.D. to 1645 A.D. During his pontificate the relations with the Mughals are divided in two periods :

First Period (1606-27):

1. Imprisonment of Guru Hargobind Ji at Gwalior : Immediately after the assumption of Guruship by Guru Hargobind Ji, Jahangir called Guru Hargobind Sahib to Delhi and imprisoned him in the fort of Gwalior. There is a difference of opinion among historians on the point of Guru Hargobind being taken as prisoner. Some historians are of the view that Chandu Shah’s conspiracy was responsible for it. Guru Sahib had refused to accept the proposal of his daughter’s marriage.

Therefore, he instigated Jahangir against Guru Hargobind Ji. Consequently, Jahangir imprisoned the Guru. Most of the historia agree to the view that Jahangir imprisoned Guru Hargobind Sahib for adopting the New Policy. It had aroused suspicions in the mind of Jahangir and the detractors of Guru Arjan Sahib poisoned his ears that Guru Hargobind Ji was preparing for a rebellion.

2. Period of Imprisonment: The historians differ on the point as to how long Guru Hargobind Ji was kept in prison in the fort of Gwalior. According to the writer of Dabistan-i-Majahib, Guru Hargobind Ji remained in prison for 12 years. Dr. Indu Bhushan Banerjee stated that the term of imprisonment was 5 years. Teja Singh and Ganda Singh put it to be two years. The Sikh chronicles mentioned that the period of imprisonment was 40 days. It is assessed from the historical facts that Guru
Hargobind Ji remained imprisoned in the fort of Gwalior for two years i.e. from 1606 to 1608 A.D.

3. Release of the Guru Ji : The historians have also expressed different views about Guru Hargobind Sahib’s release from the fort of Gwalior. Sikh chronicles wrote that after putting Guru Hargobind Ji in prison Jahangir began to feel uneasy. Bhai Jetha Ji, a devotee of Guru Hargobind Ji, cured him completely. At the instance of Bhai Jetha Ji, Jahangir released Guru Hargobind Ji. Some historians say that Jahangir took this decision on the request of a famous Sufi saint named, Mian Mir. According to some other historiAnswer: Jahangir was greatly impressed by the profound devotion of the Sikhs.

As a result, Jahangir ordered his release. Whatever be the reason, when the order of Guru Hargobind Sahib’s release was issued, Guru Hargobind Ji refused to get his freedom as long as 52 other kings, who were imprisoned in the Gwalior fort were also not released. Consequently, Jahangir released these 52 kings also. Because of this, Guru Hargobind Ji began to be called “Bandi Chhor Baba” (emancipator of captives).

4. Friendly Relations with Jahangir: Jahangir became convinced that Chandu Shah was at the back of Guru Hargobind Ji’s woes. So Jahangir handed Chandu Shah over to the Sikhs in order to give him punishment for his misdeeds. Jahangir offered to bear the entire expenditure to be incurred in the construction of the Akal Takht, but Guru Ji refused it. Whatever be the case, there is no doubt that after the release of Guru Hargobind Ji, till Jahangir’s death, the relations between the two continued to be cordial.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Second Period (1628-35):

Shah Jahan became the new Mughal emperor in f628 A.D. After he ascended the throne, the relations between the Sikhs and the Mughals once again became strained owing to the following reasons :

1. Shah Jahan’s Fanaticism : Shah Jahan was a great orthodox. He got many famous Hindu temples demolished. He got Guru Aijan Dev Ji’s bstoli at Lahore converted into a mosque. This act of Shah Jahan sent a wave of resentment among the Sikhs.

2. Opposition of Naqshbandis: Naqshbandi was a movement launched in Punjab, by fanatic Muslims. After Shah Jahan had ascended the throne, the Naqshbandis again instigated Shah Jahan against Guru Hargobind Ji. Being an orthodox, he was easily influenced by their words and turned against Guru Hargobind Ji.

3. New Policy of Guru Hargobind Ji : The New Policy of Guru Hargobind Ji became the major factor in widening the gulf between Guru Ji and Shah Jahan. This policy largely added to the military power of Guru Hargobind Ji. Guru Hargobind Sahib had assumed some royal symbols and Sikh devotees had started addressing him as Sacha Padshah (true emperor). Shah Jahan looked upon this policy of Guru Hargobind Ji as a danger to the Mughal empire. So, he decided to take action against Guru Hargobind Ji.

4. Kaulan’s Affair: The Kaulan’s affair further embittered the relationship between Guru Hargobind Ji and Shah Jahan. Kaulan was the daughter of Qazi Rustam Khan of Lahore. She was very religious minded. She was greatly impressed by the teachings of Guru Arjan Dev Ji and used to read them with fondness. Qazi Rustam Khan, a fanatic Sunni Muslim could not tolerate it. As a result he imposed many restrictions on his daughter. She left her home and took refuge with Guru Hargobind Ji. When the Qazi came to know about it, he started poisoning Shah Jahan’s ears against Guru Hargobind Ji.

Battles Between The Sikhs And The Mughals:

Gradually the relations between the Mughals and the Sikhs became so strained that in 1634-35 A.D., four battles were fought between them. A brief description of these battles is as follows :

1. Battle of Amritsar 1634 A.D.: The first battle between the Mughals and the Sikhs was fought in 1634 A.D. at Amritsar. At that time Shah Jahan with his soldiers was on a hunting tour near Amritsar. While hunting, a special hawk of Shah Jahan, flew away. The Sikhs caught this hawk. While searching for it some Mughal soldiers happened to come there. When they saw the hawk with the Sikhs, they demanded it back.

The refusal by the Sikhs resulted in a clash. Some Mughal soldiers were killed in the clash. Shah Jahan sent a troop of 7,000 soldiers, under the leadership of Mukhlis Khan from Lahore to teach a lesson to Guru Hargobind Sahib and his Sikhs. This army made a great deal of plundering after reaching Amritsar.

The Sikh soldiers stoutly resisted the Mughal army. Besides Guru Hargobind Ji, Bhai Bidhi Chand, Bhai Jetha and Painda Khan showed,/eats of bravery. Mukhlis Khan was killed, while he was fighting with Guru Hargobind Ji. As a result, the rest of the Mughal army fled from the battlefield. The victory in this battle greatly boosted the morale of the Sikhs. About this battle Prof. Harbans Singh aptly says, ” This Amritsar action was a small incident, but its implications were far- reaching.”

2. Battle of Lahira 1634 A.D.: Soon after the battle of Amritsar, second battle was fought between the Mughals and the Sikhs at a place called Lahira (near Bathinda). The immediate cause of this battle was two horses named Dilbag and Gulbag. Two Masands named Bakht Mai and Tara Chand were bringing these horses from Kabul to present them to Guru Hargobind Ji. On the way the Mughals dispossessed them of these horses and sent them to the royal stable. Bhai Bidhi Chand, a devotee of Guru Ji went in disguise of a grass cutter and brought out both the horses from the royal stable and sent them to Guru Hargobind Ji.

When Shah Jahan heard this news. He immediately sent a large army under the command of Lala Beg and Qamar Beg to crush the power of the Sikhs. A fierce battle was fought between the Mughals and the Sikhs at a place called Lahira. The Mughals had to suffer a heavy loss of life and both their commanders Lala Beg and Qamar Beg were killed. Bhai Jetha, too was martyred in this battle. The Sikhs emerged victorious in this battle.

3. Battle of Kartarpur 1635 A.D.: The third battle between the Mughals and the Sikhs was fought at Kartarpur in 1635 A.D. The cause of this battle was Painda Khan. He was the commander of the Pathan troop in the army of Guru Hargobind Sahib. He stole a hawk of Guru Sahib and gave it to his son-in-law. When Guru Ji enquired about it, he pretended ignorance. Later on when Guru Hargobind Ji came to know about his lie, Guru Hargobind Ji dismissed him from the job. He sought refuge with Shah Jahan.

On his instigation Shah Jahan sent an army under Painda Khan and Kale Khan to take action against Guru Hargobind Ji. A fierce battle was fought between the two armies at Kartarpur. In this battle Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji showed rare feats of bravery. In this battle Kale Khan, Painda Khan and his son Qutub Khan were killed, while fighting with Guru Hargobind Sahib. The Mughal army too suffered heavy losses and had to face a crushing defeat.

4. Battle of Phagwara 1635 A.D.: After the battle of Kartarpur, Guru Hargobind Sahib stayed at Phagwara for some time. Here some Mughal soldiers under the command of Ahmed Khan attacked Guru Hargobind Ji. Guru Hargobind Ji was not prepared for this attack, but on the other hand the Mughal army was very small in number. Therefore, there was only a skirmish between the two armies near Phagwara. This battle is not considered so significant. The battle of Phagwara was the last battle fought between the Mughals and the Sikhs during the pontificate of Guru Hargobind Ji.

Importance of the Battles:

In the battles, between the Mughals and the Sikhs mentioned above the Sikhs emerged victorious. These battles were fought at a time, when the resources of the Sikhs were very limited, as compared to those of the Mughals. The victories in these battles increased the self-confidence and infused a new spirit among the Sikhs. Owing to these victories the fame of Guru Hargobind Ji spread far and wide. Many people embraced Sikhism. Consequently, the Sikh Panth began to flourish rapidly. Patwant Singh aptly says,  ” The historical importance of these battles did not lie in their scale, but in the fact that the aggressor’s writ was rejected and his power scorned. A mood of defiance was generated against the Mughals and an example set for others.”

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 21.
What do you know about life and achievements of Guru Har Rai Ji?
Answer:
Guru Har Rai Ji was the seventh Guru of the Sikhs. The period of his pontificate (1645 to 1661 A.D.) is called the period of peace for the Sikhism. A brief account of Guru Har Rai Ji’s early career and the development of Sikh Panth under him is as ahead :

1. Birth and Parentage : Guru Har Rai Ji was born on 30th January, 1630 AD. at a place known as Kiratpur Sahib. His mother’s name was Bibi Nihal Kaur. He was the grandson of Guru Hargobind Ji and the son of Baba Gurditta Ji.

2. Childhood and Marriage: Right from his childhood he possessed saintly nature, sweet tongue and soft heart. It is said that once Guru Har Rai Ji was strolling in a garden when some flowers got entangled with his cloak and fell off. He was moved to tears when he saw this. Har Rai Ji was married to Sulakhni, daughter of Daya Ram of Anup city in U.P. He was blessed with two sons, Ram Rai and Har Krishan.

3. Assumption of Guruship : The sixth master, Guru Hargobind Sahib, had five sons : Baba Gurditta, Ani Rai and Baba Atal Rai had passed away during his own life¬time. Of the remaining two, Suraj Mai was involved in worldly matters more than was essential, and Tegh Bahadur Ji was disenchanted with worldly affairs. So at that time Guru Hargobind Ji deemed it fit to bestow Guruship on Baba Gurditta’s younger son, Har Rai. The ceremony of his assuming Guruship was performed on 8th March, 1645 A.D. Thus, Guru Har Rai Ji became the 7th Guru of the Sikhs.

4. Development of Sikhism under Guru Har Rai Ji : The pontificate of Guru Har Rai Sahib lasted from 1645 to 1661 A.D. To carry on his propagation work, he set up three famous centres which were known as ‘bakhshishes’ or the missionary centres. The first ‘bakhshish’ was that of an ascetic named Bhagat Gir. Pleased with his devotion Guru Har Rai Sahib re-christened him Bhagat Bhagwan. He set up many centres for the propagation of Sikhism in East India. Of these, Patna, Bereilley and Rajgir are the famous ones. The second “bakhshish’ was that of Suthra Shah.

He was sent to Delhi for the propagation of Sikhism. The third ‘bakhshish’ was that of Pheru. He was sent to Rajasthan. Likewise Bhai Gonda Ji was sent to Kabul, Bhai Natha Ji to Dacca and Bhai Jodha Ji to Multan. Guru Har Rai Jitnmself travelled to different places of Punjab namely Jalandhar, Kartarpur, Palahi, Hakimpur, Mukandpur, Gurdaspur, Amritsar, Ferozepur, Patiala, Ambala, Kamal, Hissar etc.

5. Phul Blessed : One day a devotee named Kala with his nephew, Phul came to visit Guru Har Rai Sahib. Guru Ji’s eyes fell on Phul, who was slapping his belly with his hand. On enquiry, Kala told Guru Sahib that he was hungry and wanted something to eat. The Guru took compassion on him and said, “He shall become great, famous and wealthy. His descendants shall drink water as far as the Jamuna. They shall have sovereignty for many generations and be honoured in proportion as they serve the Guru.”
The blessing of Guru Har Rai Ji proved to be true. Phul laid the foundation of Phulkian Misl.

6. Help to Prince Dara : During the pontificate of Guru Har Rai Sahib, Dara Shikoh was the Governor of Punjab. He was the elder brother of Aurangzeb. In a bid to capture power Aurangzeb poisoned Dara’s food. Consequently, he fell seriously ill. Dara begged Guru Har Rai Ji to treat him. Guru Har Rai Ji cured Dara with the rarest of herbs. As a result Dara felt deeply obliged to Guru Har Rai Ji. He would often come to pay a visit to Guru Har Rai Ji.

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7. Glint Har BLai Ji Summoned to Delhi : Aurangzeb had suspicion that some hymns in the Guru Granth Sahib were against Islam. In order to, get it confirmed, he asked Guru Har Rai Ji to appear in his court. Guru Sahib sent his son, Ram Rai. Pointing out a Shloka in the Asa Di Var, Aurangzeb asked him why Muslims had been opposed to it. The Shaloka mean : “The clay of a Muslim’s grave falls into the hands of a potter; pots and bricks out of it he makes; in the fire bums the poor clay. As it burns it weeps and wails.” In order to escape the royal wrath, Ram Rai wrongly interpreted it.

He explained that Guru Nanak Sahib said nothing against the MusalmAnswer: In fact, he had written the word beiman which had been corrupted by some ignorant persons as Musalman. Gum Har Rai Ji felt indignant, when he heard about it. He considered it a great insult of Guru Granth Sahib. Consequently, Ram Rai was declared unworthy of Guruship.

8. Nomination of the Successor : Realising that his end was approaching, he nominated his younger son, Har Krishan to Guruship. On 6th October, 1661 A.D. Guru Har Rai Ji immersed in Eternal Light at Kiratpur Sahib.

9. Estimate of Guru Har Rai Ji : It is true that Guru Har Rai Ji left this mortal worl d at the young age of 31, but after the assumption of Guruship he did great deeds for the dissemination of Sikhism. He set up many propagation centres in the Majha, Doaba and Malwa regions. He maintained with gusto the practice of ‘Sangat’ and ‘Pangat’. At his dispensary free medical aid was provided to one and all irrespective of their caste and creed or status. Through these services Guru Sahib strengthened the foundations of Sikhism all the more.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 22.
Give a brief account of the development of Sikhism during the pontificate of Guru Har Krishan Ji.
Answer:
Guru Har Krishan Ji was the eighth Guru of the Sikhs. He is also known as ‘Bal Guru’ in the Sikh history. His period of pontificate was from 1661 to 1664 A.D. A brief description of development of Sikhism during the pontificate of Guru Har Krishan Ji is as under:

1. Birth and Childhood : Guru Har Krishan Ji was born on 7th July, 1656 AD. at Kiratpur Sahib. He was the younger son of Guru Har Rai Ji. His mother’s name was Sulakhni. Ram Rai was his elder brother.

2. Assumption of Guruship : Guru Har Rai Ji had disinherited his elder son, Ram Rai of Guruship, after declaring him ineligible, because he had misinterpreted the Gurbani in Aurangzeb’s court. In 1661 A.D., Guru Har Rai Sahib handed over the Guruship to Har Krishan Ji. At that time, Guru Har Krishan Ji was barely five years old. That is why Guru Har Krishan Ji is also known as Bal Guru (child Guru) in Sikh History. Even at such a young age, he possessed a charismatic personality. He was endowed with qualities like unique sense of service, respect towards elders, humility and compassion. It was owing to these qualities that Guru Har Rai Ji nominated him as his successor. Thus, he became the 8th Sikh Guru in 1661 A.D. He held Guruship till 1664 A.D.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism 1469-1708 A.D. Img 11

3. Opposition of Ram Rai : Ram Rai being the elder son of Guru Har Rai Ji, considered himself to be the rightful claimant to Gurgaddi. But Guru Har Rai Ji had already disinherited him of the Guruship. When he came to know that Guruship had been assigned to Har Krishan Ji, he could not tolerate it. He started hatching conspiracies to acquire Guruship. He won many selfish and dishonest ‘Masands’ over to his side. He had it announced through these ‘Masands’ that the real Guru was Ram Rai and all the Sikhs should accept him as such. However, he could not succeed in his designs. He, then tried to elicit Aurangzeb’s help. Aurangzeb called Guru Har Krishan Sahib to Delhi so that things might be settled between the two factions through arbitration.

4. Guru Ji’s visit to Delhi : Aurangzeb assigned the task of bringing Guru Har Krishan Ji to Delhi to Raja Jai Singh. Raja Jai Singh sent his Diwan, Paras Ram to Guru Har Krishan Ji. Guru Har Krishan Ji declined to go to Delhi to see Aurangzeb. But when Paras Ram said that the sangat at Delhi were keen on seeing Guru Har Krishan Ji, Guru Har Krishan Ji agreed to go to Delhi, but refused to see Aurangzeb. He went to Delhi in 1664 A.D. and agreed to stay at Raja Jai Singh’s residence. There is a difference of opinions among historians on the point whether any meeting took place between Guru Har Krishan Sahib and Aurangzeb or not.

5. Immersion in Eternal Light: In those days cholera and small-pox had broken out in Delhi. Guru Har Krishan Ji served the sick, the poor and the orphans with heart and soul. He cured many patients of small-pox and cholera. But, he himself fell a victim to small-pox. This disease proved fatal for him. Seeing his serious condition, the devotees asked him who would lead them. He asked for a coconut. By placing five paise and the coconut he paid obeisance and said ‘Baba Bakala’ and breathed his last. In this way he immersed in Eternal Light on 30th March, 1664 A.D. at Delhi.

6. Estimate of Guru Har Krishan Ji. Guru Har Krishan Ji held Guruship for about two and a half years and discharged his responsibilities as a Guru very intelligently. Even at such a small age he possessed keen intelligence, sublime thoughts and divine knowledge.

Question 23.
Give a brief description of the early life of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji.
Answer:
Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was the ninth Guru of the Sikhs. The period of his pontificate was from 1664 to 1675 A.D. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji undertook tours to various places in and outside Punjab to spread Sikhism. He commenced a new era in the history of India by courting martyrdom for the protection of Hinduism. A brief description of early career of Guru Tegh Bahabur is as under :

1. Birth and Parentage : Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was born on 1st April, 1621 AD. at Amritsar. He was the fifth and the youngest son of Guru Hargobind Ji. His mother’s name was Nanaki. His father predicted that this child would follow the path of truth and religion. He would save the country from disaster and cut the roots of tyranny and oppression. Guru Hargobind Ji’s prediction proved to be true.

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2. Childhood and Education : The childhood name of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was Tyag Mai. When he was five, arrangement was made for his education. He had the good fortune of getting education from Bhai Buddha Ji and Bhai Gurdas Ji. He acquired the thorough knowledge of Punjabi, Brij and Sanskrit, History, Philosophy, Arithmetic and Music. He was also imparted training in horse-riding and use of weapons. In the battle of Kartarpur, he found the opportunity to display his bravery. His father Hargobind Sahib was greatly impressed by it and he changed his name to Tegh Bahadur.

3. Marriage : Tegh Bahadur Ji was married to Gujari who was the daughter of Lai Chand, a resident of Kartarpur. He was blessed with a son named Gobind Das.

4. Settlement at Baba Bakala : Before he immeresed in Eternal Light in 1645 A.D. Guru Hargobind Ji nominated his grandson Har Rai Ji as his successor. At this instance, Tegh Bahadur Ji with his wife Gujari and mother Nanaki came to settle at Bakala. Here Tegh Bahadur Ji lived for 20 years.

5. Assumption of Guruship : In 1664 A.D. at Delhi, before breathing his last, Guru Har Kishan Sahib gave a hint to the Sikh Sangat that their next Guru would be found at Bakala. When the news reached Baba Bakala twenty two Sodhis, set up theii twenty two ‘ManjisL Everyone declared himself to be the real Guru. At this juncture s Sikh named Makhan Shah Lubana found a solution. He was a trader. Once when his ship was caught in a sea-storm and was about to sink, he prayed faithfully, that if hif ship reached the shore safely, he would offer 500 gold-mohars (coins) at his Guru’s feet In order to keep his word, he along with his family came to Baba Bakala to offer 50′ mohars at Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji’s feet.

He was bewildered to see 22 impostor Gurus He conceived of an idea to find out the real Guru. One by one, he went to each Guru an offered two mohars. The imposter gurus were delighted to receive two mohars. Where Makhan Shah finally reached Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji and offered him two mohars, Gur Sahib said, “You promised to offer 500 mohars, when your ship was about to sink bi now you are offering only two mohars.” On hearing this Makhan Shah felt very glad ar shouted loudly from the roof of the house : “Guru ladho re, Guru ladho re’” which meai Guru has been found, Guru has been found.” In this way, the Sikhs accepted Guru Tej Bahadur Ji as their ninth Guru. He held Guruship from 1664 A.D. to 1675 A.D.

6. Opposition of Dhir Mai: Dhir Mai, the elder brother of Guru Har Rai Ji, h, been seeking for Guruship for long. One of the twenty-two ‘Manjis’ set up at Ba Bakala, was that of Dhir Mai also. When Dhir Mai received the news that the Sik had accepted Tegh Bahadur Ji as their Guru he along with hundred armed men raid the house of the Guru. This incident provoked the Sikhs. They arrested and produc Dhir Mai before Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji but he forgave Dhir Mai when the lat begged to be pardonded.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 24.
Give a brief account of the religious tours of Guru Tegh Bahadur

2. Childhood and Education: The childhood name of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was Tyag Mai. When he was five, arrangement was made for his education. He had the good fortune of getting education from Bhai Buddha Ji and Bhai Gurdas Ji. He acquired the thorough knowledge of Punjabi, Brij and Sanskrit, History, Philosophy, Arithmetic and Music. He was also imparted training in horse-riding and use of weapons. In the battle of Kartarpur, he found the opportunity to display his bravery. His father Hargobind Sahib was greatly impressed by it and he changed his name to Tegh Bahadur.

3. Marriage: Tegh Bahadur Ji was married to Gujari who was the daughter of Lai Chand, a resident of Kartarpur. He was blessed with a son named Gobind Das.

4. Settlement at Baba Bakala : Before he immeresed in Eternal Light in 1645 A.D. Guru Hargobind Ji nominated his grandson Har Rai Ji as his successor. At this instance, Tegh Bahadur Ji with his wife Gujari and mother Nanaki came to settle at Bakala. Here Tegh Bahadur Ji lived for 20 years.

5. Assumption of Guruship : In 1664 A.D. at Delhi, before breathing his last, Guru Har Kishan Sahib gave a hint to the Sikh Sangat that their next Guru would be found at Bakala. When the news reached Baba Bakala twenty two Sodhis, set up their twenty two ‘Manjis’. Everyone declared himself to be the real Guru. At this juncture a Sikh named Makhan Shah Lubana found a solution. He was a trader. Once when his ship was caught in a sea-storm and was about to sink, he prayed faithfully, that if his ship reached the shofe safely, he would offer 500 gold-mohars (coins) at his Guru’s feet. In order to keep his word, he along with his family came to Baba Bakala to offer 500 mohars at Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji’s feet.

He was bewildered to see 22 impostor Gurus. He conceived of an idea to find out the real Guru. One by one, he went to each Guru and offered two mohars. The imposter gurus were delighted to receive two mohars. When Makhan Shah finally reached Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji and offered him two mohars, Guru Sahib said, “You promised to offer 500 mohars, when your ship was about to sink but now you are offering only two mohars.” On hearing this Makhan Shah felt very glad and shouted loudly from the roof of the house : “Guru ladho re, Guru ladho re ” which meant Guru has been found, Guru has been found.” In this way, the Sikhs accepted Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji as their ninth Guru. He held Guruship from 1664 AD. to 1675 AD.

6. Opposition of Dhir Mai: Dhir Mai, the elder brother of Guru Har Rai Ji, had been seeking for Guruship for long. One of the twenty-two ‘Manjis’ set up at Baba Bakala, was that of Dhir Mai also. When Dhir Mai received the news that the Sikhs had accepted Tegh Bahadur Ji as their Guru he along with hundred armed men raided the house of the Guru. This incident provoked the Sikhs. They arrested and produced Dhir Mai before Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji but he forgave Dhir Mai when the latter begged to be pardonded.

Question 24.
Give a brief account of the religious tours of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji.
Answer:
Soon after assuming Guruship, Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji undertook travels in and out of Punjab. The aim of these travels was to spread Sikhism and convey the message of truth and love to the people. Writing about the purpose of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji’s travels, S.S. Johar aptly says, “Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji thought it necessary to infuse a new life and rekindle a new spirit among the people.”

Travels of the Punjab:

1. Amritsar: First of all Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji reached Amritsar from Baba Bakala in November, 1664 A.D. At that time, the Harmandir Sahib was under the control of Prithi Chand’s grandson, Haiji Mina. He, with the help of some corrupt Masands had declared himself the Guru. When, he heard the news of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji’s arrival, So, he closed all the doors of the Harmandir Sahib so that Guru Ji might not enter it. When Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji reached there and found the door closed, he patiently sat for some time under a tree near the Akal Takht Sahib. Today at this place there is a small Gurdwara which is known as “Tham Sahib” or ‘Thara Sahib’.

2. Walla and Ghuke-wali: From Amritsar Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji went to a village named Walla. The women of this place vigorously participated in the Sangat and Pangat. Consequently, the Guru blessed them. After Walla, Guru Ji went to a village called Ghuke-wali. Since there were many trees in this village, Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji named it‘Guru Ka Bagh’.

3. Khadur Sahib, Goindwal Sahib, Tam Taran, Khem-Karan etc : From Khadur Sahib and Goindwal Sahib, Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji reached Tam Taran. Tam Taran had become a famous propagation centre of Sikhism. Afterwards Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji went to Khem-Karan. Here a devout named, Chaudhary Raghupat Raipfesented Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji a mare.

4. Kiratpur Sahib and Bilaspur : After his travels in the Majha region, Gum Sahib reached Kiratpur Sahib. At the invitation of Rani Champa, he reached Bilaspur. Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji stayed here for three days. During his stay Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji purchased a piece of land at Makhowal for Rs. 500 from the Rani. Here Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji founded a new town in June 1665 A.D. which was named ‘Chak Nanaki’ after the name of his mother. Later on, it became famous as Anandpur (The City of Bliss) Sahib.

Travels of the Eastern India:

After the travels of Punjab, Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji started his travels of Eastern India. A brief account of these travels is as follows :

5. Saifabad and Dhamdhan: In August 1665 A.D. Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji reached Saifabad and Dhamdhan, Here the people congregated in large numbers to pay respect to Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. Aurangzeb could not tolerate the increasing propagation of Sikhism. He sent Alam Khan Rohilla to Dhamdhan to arrest Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. Consequently, Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib was apprehended in November 1665 A.D. . and brought to Delhi.

6. Mathura and Brindaban: From Delhi Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji went to Mathura and Brindaban. Here the Guru explained to his audience the virtue of prayer and the value of service to the people.

7. Agra and Prayag: From Mathura, Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji reached Agra. Here, he stayed at the house of an aged devotee, Mai Jassi. After this, Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji went to Prayag. Here Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji met a group of saints and yogis. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji preached them ‘Sadho Man Ke Maan Tiyago’ (O saints shun your pride).

8. Banaras : After the travel of Paryag, Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji reached Banaras. Here, the Sikh devotees thronged in large numbers to pay respect to Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji and listen to his exhortations. The people of this place held the view that a bath in the Karamnash river washes away all the good deeds of a person. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji bathed in this river and said that nothing could be achieved or lost with a bath. As a man sows, so does he reap.

9. Sasram and Gaya. From Banaras Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji reached Sasram. Here a devotee Sikh ‘Masand Phaggu Shah’ served Guru Ji very sincerely. Then Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji visited Gaya which was the chief centre of Buddhism. Here Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji denounced casteism and preached worship of one God.

10. Patna : In 1666 A.D. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji reached Patna. Here the Sikh. Sangat gave him a rousing reception. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji told the people the real meaning of life and enlightened them with principles of Sikhism. He sublimated Patna . by calling it ‘Guru Da Ghar’ (the home of God). Leaving his wife and mother here, Guru •’ Tegh Bahadur Ji proceeded to Munghyr.

11. Dhaka : Dhaka was a chief centre of Sikhism. When Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji,_ reached here the masses gave him a warm welcome. As a result of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji’s propagation, people in large number embraced Sikhism. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji enjoined on the Sangats to rise above worldly attachments and bonds of casteism, and recite God’s name.

12. Assam: On the request of Ram Singh, the ruler of Ambar, Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji went with him to Assam. The Assamese were deft at sorcery. Out of this fear the. Mughal forces were always defeated by the Assamese rulers. This time in the presence of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji, their sorcery failed and they had to face defeat. They came to pay obeisance to this great man, who frustrated their sorcery, and also begged pardon of him. After this Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji with his family returned to Punjab and settled at, ChakNanaki.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Tours of Malwa and Bangar Region:

In the middle of 1673 A.D. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji revisited fhp Malwa and Bangar – regions of Punjab. During this tour, Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji visited many places. Of these Saifabad, Mallowal, Sekha, Dhilwan Joga, Khiwa, Khiala, Maur, Talwandi Sabo, Bathinda and Damdhan were prominent. During these travels, Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib completely identified himself with the sorrows and sufferings of the people. Through his message and teachings, he tried to awaken the people to their responsibility and grim realities of human existence. Impressed by the multifaceted personality of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib thousands of people embraced Sikhism. Harbans Singh aptly says, “Guru Tegh Bahadur’s tour left the country in ferment. It was not the same country again, nor the same people. A new awakening had spread.”

Question 25.
Give an account of the early career and travels of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji.
Answer:
Note: For answer to this question students may refer to Question No. 23 and 24.

Question 26.
Critically examine the circumstances leading to the martyrdom of the 9th Guru. Also discuss its results.
Or
Discuss the causes and results of the martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji.
Or
Explain the circumstances which led to the martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji.
Or
What were the causes responsible for the martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji? When, where and how he was executed?
Or
Give a brief account of the circumstances leading to the martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. Also explain the effects of his execution on the country and the society.
Or
Describe the causes and significance of the martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji.
Or
Discuss the martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji.
Answer:
Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji’s martyrdom is a unique event of world history. History is replete with many examples of such great men, who sacrificed their lives for the protection of their religion or their country. But it is difficult to find an example of martyr like Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji, who sacrificed his life for the protection of others’ religion.

I. Causes of Martyrdom

1. Enmifty between the Mughals and the Sikhs : The relations between the Si khs and the Mughalls were cordial till 1605 A.D. But, when in 1606 A.D., the Mughal
emperor martyred Guru Arjan Dev Ji, the situation took a new turn. He detained Guru Hargobind Ji in the fort of Gwalior for two years. During the reign of Shah Jahan, Guru Hargobind Ji had to fight four battles against the Mughals. During the reign of Aurangzeb, the ehmity between the Sikhs and the Mughals was further intensified. This growing bitterness became the most potent cause of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji’s martyrdom.

2. Fanaticism of Aurangzeb : In 1658 A.D., Aurangzeb became the new emperor of the Mughals. He was a staunch Sunni Muslim. He wanted to see Islam flourish in every nook and corner of India. He got many famous temples of the Hindus demolished and mosques built in their places. Restrictions were imposed on Hindu festivals and ceremonies. In 1679 A.D. Jaziya was reimposed on the Hindus. People were forced to embrace Islam at the point of sword. Aurangzeb ordered a decree that all Sikh Gurdwaras should be demolished and the Masands who collected money for the Sikhs be exiled. According to Dr. I.B. Banerjee, “Necessarily on the accession of Aurangzeb the entire policy of the Empire was reversed and a new era commenced.”

3. Impact of Naqshbandis on Aurangzeb : Naqshbandi was a sect of fanatic Muslims. This sect exercised a great influence upon Aurangzeb. The growing popularity of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib was intolerable for this sect. The Naqshbandis panicked lest the awakening among the masses and development of Sikh religion can endanger Islam. So they started instigating Aurangzeb.

4. Spread of Sikhism : Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji undertook a number of travels in states like Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, Bihar, Assam etc. Impressed by his teachings thousands of people embraced Sikh religion. In order to accelerate the propagation of Sikh religion, he appointed Sikh missionaries. It was all beyond Aurangzeb’s power of tolerance to see the rapidly growing power of Sikhism.

5. Enmity of Ram Rai : Ram Rai was the elder brother of Guru Har Krishan Ji. When Sikh Sangat accepted Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji as their next Guru, he could not reconcile with the turn of the tide. He wanted to snatch the Gurgaddi by force. However, when all his tactics to capture Gurgaddi failed, he started poisoning Aurangzeb’s ears against Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji.

6. Call of Kashmiri Pandits : The Pandits living in Kashmir were firm believers in their religion and culture. The Hindus all over India revered them. Aurangzeb thought if these Kashmiri Pandits were converted to Islam the Hindus living in other parts of India would readily follow their example. With this object in view Aurangzeb appointed Sher Afghan as the Governor of Kashmir. Sher Afghan forced the Pandits to embrace Islam. When they found no way out to save their faith, a sixteen member deputation led by Pandit Kirpa Ram met Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji at Anandpur Sahib on 25th May, 1675 A.D. They sought Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji’s help. When Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji heard the heart-rending atrocities being committed on the Kashmiri Pandits, he was deeply touched. It was the Gordian knot that had to be cut.

The Guru sat in deep ” thought. At that moment the young Gobind Rai, who was at that time 9 years old, entered the chamber where the Guru sat along with the Kashmiri Pandits. He was struck with the unusual stillness of the room and enquired from his father what had happened. The Guru told Gobind Rai that Aurangzeb had let loose a reign of terror. Someone had to face the emperor and tell him that he was treading a wrong path. It was a stupendous task. It called for a great holy man, who was willing to sacrifice himself on the altar of religion. Without hesitation, Gobind Rai replied, “Who can be nobler than you, father?” On hearing this reply from the child, Guru felt greatly pleased and advised the Pandits to make a representation to the emperor stating that if the Guru could be converted to Islam they would, of their own accord, accept Islam.

. H. How was Guru Martyred?

Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji with his three companions Bhai Mati Das, Bhai Sati Das and Bhai Dyala Ji proceeded from Anandpur Sahib to Delhi on July 11,1675 A.D. Mughal official arrested Guru Tegh Bahadur JI and his companions near Ropar. He was kept in a prison at Sirhind for four months. As ordered by Aurangzeb, he was taken to Delhi on 6th November, 1675 A.D. and produced in his court. Aurangzeb suggested him to embrace Islam and also threatened to put him to death in case, he refused to do so. But, Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib and his three companions categorically refused to embrace Islam. In order to demoralise Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji, his three companions Bhai Mati Das Ji, Bhai Sati Das Jfi and Bhai Dyala Ji were tortured to death before him. After this Guru Ji was asked to show some miracle but Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib refused to oblige.

Consequently, on 11th November, 1675 A.D. he was beheaded at Chandni Chowk in Delhi. According to the famous historians Harbans Singh and L.M. Joshi, “This was a most moving and earthshaking event in the history of India.” At the place, where Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was martyred, stands the Gurdwara Sis Ganj. On the fateful night, a devotee, Bhai Lakhi Shah, with the help of his sons brought the body of the Guru to his home in a cart covered with heavy cotton bales. In order to cremate the body of the Guru, he instantly set his house on fire. Gurdwara Rakab Ganj stands here, today.

Significance of the Martyrdom:

The great martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji shook the whole humanity. This martyrdom marked the beginning of a new era npt only in the history of Punjab, but also in the history of India. In the words of Dr. Trilochan Singh, “The impact of the great sacrifice of Guru Tegh Bahadur was extremely powerful and far-reaching in its consequences on the Sikh people.”

1. Great, Historical Event : The history of file world is replete with sacrifices. These sacrifices were made either for the protection of one’s religion or for the sake of .the country. But Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji made supreme sacrifice for the protection of the downtrodden and for the protection of that religion to which, he himself did not belong. This example hasmo parallel in the histoiy of the world. That is, why Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji is called ‘Prince of Martyrs’ and ‘Hind Di Chadar’.

2. Feeling of Revenge among Sikhs : The martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji sent a wave of hatred and revenge in the whole Punjab against the Mughal empire. The people swore to put an end to the tyrannical rule of the Mughals.

3. Protection of Hinduism : Aurangzeb wanted to convert the whole of India to Islam. With this end in view he had let loose a reign of terror. A large number of Hindus were daily put to death. Consequently, many Hindus had started adopting Islam. The very existence of the Hindu religion was exposed to a great danger. Under such times, when the Hindus saw no ray of hope, Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji gave his own sacrifice in order to protect the Hindu faith. This martyrdom made it clear to Aurangzeb, that it was totally impossible to convert the whole Hindu community to Islam.

4. Creation of the Khalsa : The martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji made it clear to the Sikhs that in order to defend their religion it was most essential for them to wear arms. With this end in view and to infuse a new spirit in the Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh performed a great deed by creating the Khalsa Panth on the day of Baisakhi in 1699 A.D. The creation of the Khalsa gave birth to such a fearless community, which thoroughly smashed the powerful rule of the Mughals and the Afghans in Punjab.

5. Beginning of the Tradition of SacrificeAfter the martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji, a tradition of making sacrifice for religion started among the Sikhs. While treading this path, Guru Gobind Singh Ji underwent several untold sufferings. His younger sops were bricked up alive in a wall. The elder sons and many devoted Sikhs, who were beloveds of Guru Sahib fell martyrs in battles. After Guru Gobind Singh Ji, Banda Singh Bahadur along with hundreds of Sikhs gave their sacrifices. After Mughals, the Afghans subjected the Sikhs to untold and unbearable sufferings. The blood of the martyrs infused a new confidence amongst the Sikhs.

6. Battles between the Sikhs and the Mughals : A long drawn battle started between the Sikhs and the Mughals in the wake of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji’s martyrdom. In these battles, the Sikhs had to face innumerable hardships but they stood firm like a rock. Despite their limitecf resources, the Sikhs with their matchless bravery shook the very foundations of the great Mughal empire. Finally, we agree to these words of famous historian, S.S. Johar, “The Martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur was an event of great significance in the history of India. It had far reaching consequences.”

Question 27.
The martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji had far-reaching consequences on Sikh History. Discuss.
Answer:
3. Protection of Hinduism : Aurangzeb wanted to convert the whole of India to Islam. With this end in view he had let loose a reign of terror. A large number of Hindus were daily put to death. Consequently, many Hindus had started adopting Islam. The very existence of the Hindu religion was exposed to a great danger. Under such times, when the Hindus saw no ray of hope, Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji gave his own sacrifice in order to protect the Hindu faith. This martyrdom made it clear to Aurangzeb, that it was totally impossible to convert the whole Hindu community to Islam.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 28.
What do you know about the early life of Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
Or
Throw light on the life of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Or
Write about the life of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji was one of the greatest personlities not only of Panjab but also of the world. He led the Sikhism with much ability and vigour that it is very difficult to find any other example. The foundation of Khalsa led to a new epoch in Sikhism. A brief description of early career of Guru Gobind Singh Ji is as under :

1. Birth and Parentage : Guru Gobind Singh Ji was born on 26th December, 1666 A.D. at Patna. He was the only son of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. His mother’s name was Gujari. He was first named Gobind Das or Gobind Rai. After the creation of Khalsa in 1699 A.D. his name was changed to Gobind Singh. At the time of Gobind Das’s birth, a Muslim faqir had predicted: “This child would grow into a great man and lead the people.” His prediction proved to be true.

2. Childhood : Gobind Das spent the first six years of his childhood at Patna. Right from his childhood, he possessed the qualities of becoming a leader. Like other children, he did not play with toys, but with bows and .arrows and other weapons. He would divide his companions into groups and then arrange mock-battle shows. He would act as a judge and settle-his companions’ disputes. He was very fearless from his childhood. Kirpal Chand, the maternal uncle of Gum Gobind Singh Ji, was his virtual guardian, when he was a minor.

3. Education : In the beginning of 1672 A.D. Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji with his family came to settle at Anandpur Sahib. Here Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji made a special arrangement for Gobind Das’s education. He got the knowledge of Gurmukhi from Bhai Sahib Chand, Sanskrit from Pt. Haijas and Persian and Arabic from Qazi Pir Mohammad. He learnt riding and use of weapons from a Rajput named Bajjar Singh.

4. Assumption of Guruship : Having grown sick of Aurangzeb’s cruelties, a group of Kashmiri Pandits with a woeful appeal approached Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji in May 1675 A.D. at Anandpur Sahib. On hearing their harrowing tale, Gum Sahib fell thinking for a while. He decided to sacrifice his life. Before proceeding to Delhi in July 1675 A.D., Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji, bestowed the Guruship on Gobind Das. Thus, Gobind Das became the tenth and the last Gum of the Sikhs at the age of 9. He held the Guruship till 1708 A.D.

5. Marriage : It is said that Gobind Das was married to Bibi Jito, Bibi Sundri and Bibi Sahib Devan. Guru Sahib was blessed with four sons. Their names were

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism 1469-1708 A.D. Img 13

Sahibzada Ajit Singh, Sahibzada Jujhar Singh, Sahibzada Zorawar Singh and Sahibzada Fateh Singh,

6. Army Organisation : After assuming Guruship in 1675 A.D., Guru Gobind Singh Ji declared that those Sikhs, who had four sons should get one of their sons recruited in the Guru Sahib’s army for the service of Sikhism. Along with this, Guru Sahib also advised the Sikhs to offer him horses and weapons in place of money. The Sikhs complied with this advice of Guru Gobind Sahib with great enthusiasm. Soon a large number of Sikhs enlisted themselves in the Guru Gobind Sahib’s army and enormous weapons and horses were collected.

7. Adoption of Royal Symbols : Like his grandfather Guru Hargobind Sahib, Guru Gobind Singh Ji too adopted royal symbols. He would decorate ‘kalgi’ (aigrette) in his turban. He began to make use of throne and royal umbrella. Besides, Guru Sahib, like the kings, had a special drum made, which was named ‘Ranjit Nagara’.

8. Invitation from Nahan : On seeing, Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s activities, the ruler of Kahlur, Bhim Chand grew jealous of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Guru Gobind Singh Ji could not afford to fight with him a^ that time. Guru Gobind Singh Ji was just thinking of shifting to some other place when the king of Nahan, Medni Parkash, invited him to Nahan. Guru Gobind Singh Ji at once accepted this invitation and went with his family from Makhowal to Nahan. Here, at a lonely but beautiful place on the bank of river Jamuna, Guru Gobind Sahib got constructed a fort which was named, Paonta Sahib. The word Paonta means a foothold ‘or a place to stay on’.

9. Activities at Paonta Sahib : At Paonta Sahib, Guru Gobind Singh Ji started giving military training to the Sikhs. They were made skilful in the art of horse¬riding and musketry. On the recommendation of Pir Buddhu Shah of Sadhaura, he enlisted 500 Pathans in his army. Guru Gobind Singh Ji created high class literature at Paonta Sahib. Guru Sahib had given patronage to 52 eminent poets in his court. The purpose of Guru Sahib’s literary compositions was to sing praises of the Almighty and to generate a new enthusiasm among the Sikhs to stand up against injustice and tyranny. Guru Sahib’s contribution to literature is unique.

Question 29.
Decribe the important battles of Guru Gobind Singh Ji,
Or
Give a brief account of the pre-Khalsa and post-Khalsa battles of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
What were the causes of the pre-Khalsa and post-Khalsa battles of Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji held the Guruship from 1675 to 1708 A.D. He had to fight many battles against the Hill Chiefs and the Mughals. During tfiis period, the Sikhs not only showed the feats of their bravery in these battles, but they were also able to shake the very roots of the powerful Mughal Empire. The battles of Guru Gobind Singh Ji is divided into two phases—the battles of pre- Khalsa period and the battles of post-Khalsa period.

Battles of Pre-Khalsa Period

1. Battle of Bhangani 1688 A.D.: The Hill Chiefs were alarmed to see the military preparations of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Consequently, they forged a joint front against Guru Gobind Singh Ji under the combined leadership of Bhim Chand, the ruler of Kahlur and Fateh Shah, the ruler of Sri Nagar. On September 22,1688. A.D. the joint forces of the Hill Chiefs attacked the army of Guru Gobind Singh Ji at Bhangani. A pitched battle ensued. Pir Buddhu Shah of Sadhaura rendered valuable help to Guru Ji in this battle with his forces. The army of Hill Chiefs could not stand ground against enthusiastic Sikhs, though the latter were less in number. As a result the Hill Chiefs were forced to flee the field. This grand victory indeed infused a new spirit among the Sikhs.

2. Battle of Nadaun 1690 A.D.: After suffering a humiliating defeat in the battle of Bhangani, the Hill Chiefs entered into a friendly alliance with Guru Gobind Singh Ji. They refused to pay the annual Khiraj (tax) to the Mughals. Therefore, an army under the command of Alif Khan was sent against the Hill Chiefs. He attacked the army of Bhim Chand (leader of the Hill Chiefs) at Nadaun on March 20, 1690 A.D. Guru Gobind Singh Ji sided with Bhim Chand in this battle. Their joint army pushed back the Mughal army. Alif Khan had to run away from the battlefield to save his life. After this battle, the Hill Chiefs again made a treaty with the Mughals.

3. Some Mughal Expeditions 1694-96 A.D. : During the period from 1694 to 1696 A.D. the Mughals sent military expeditions under Khanzada, Hussain Khan, Jujhar Singh and Prince Muazzam against Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Somehow or the other, these military expeditions failed in their mission.

Battles of Post-Khalsa Period

4. First Battle of Anandpur Sahib, 1701 A.D. : Guru Gobind Singh Ji laid the foundation of Khalsa Panth at Anandpur Sahib in 1699 A.D. As a result, people started coming to the fold of Sikhism in a large number. The Hill Chiefs saw in it, a great danger to their freedom. So, Bhim Chand, the ruler of Kahlur asked Guru Gobind Singh Ji to vacate the fort of Anandpur Sahib. When Guru Ji declined to do so, Bhim Chand along with a few other Hill Chiefs invaded the fort of Anandpur in 1701 A.D. When they got no success they made peace with Guru Gobind Singh Ji.

5. Battle of Nirmoh, 1702 A.D. : After the first battle of Anandpur Sahib, Guru Gobind Singh Ji went to a village, Nirmoh near Kiratpur Sahib. Joining hands with the Mughal army, Bhim Chand attacked the army of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. The Sikhs, under the command of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, gave a crushing defeat to the joint army.

6. Battle of Basoli, 1702 A.D.: On the invitation of Dharampal, the ruler of Basoli, Guru Gobind Singh Ji went there. Here also, the army of Bhim Chand attacked Guru Ji’s army, but had to face defeat.

7. Second Battle of Anandpur Sahib, 1704 A.D.: The Hill Chiefs wanted to take revenge from Guru Gobind Singh Ji for their insult due to continuous defeats. Thus, they attacked the fort of Anandpur Sahib for the second time, in collaboration with Mughal forces in 1704 A.D. The Sikhs put up strong resistance from within the fort, but the seizure prolonged and the Sikhs felt the shortage of food in the fort. Consequently, some of the Sikhs requested Guru Ji to vacate the fort. When Guru Ji refused to do so, 40 Sikhs wrote a Bedawa and left Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s company. In spite of this, Guru Gobind Singh Ji continued fighting. The royal army played a trick to attain success. They took false vows to assure Guru Ji that they would not cause any harm, if he left the fort. So Guru Ji decided to leave the fort.

8. Battle of Shahi Tibbi, 1704 : As soon as, Guru Gobind Singh Ji came out of the fort, the royal army pursued them hotly. Consequertly, there was confusion and consternation. A battle took place at Shahi Tibbi, where Bhai Udai Singh put up strong resistance along with his 50 companions and ultimately became martyrs.

9. Battle of Chamkaur Sahib, 1704 A.D. : Guru Gobind Singh Ji reached the fortress of Chamkaur Sahib along with his 40 Sikhs. No sooner, did they reach there, a huge Mughal army beseiged them. A pitched battle took place. In this battle, Sahibzada Ajit Singh and Sahibzada Jujhar Singh, the two elder sons of Guru Gobind Singh Ji fought with unparalleled example of bravery. Both of them killed a large number of enemy soldiers and ultimately became martyrs. Guru Gobind Singh Ji could escape with only three of his Sikhs.

10. Battle of Khidrana, 1705 A.D.: On December’29, 1705 A.D., Wazir Khan, the Mughal Faujdar of Sirhind, attacked Guru Gobind Singh Ji with a large army. In this battle, the Sikhs showed rare feats of bravery. They fought so daringly that the Mughals could not stand before them and fled away. Those 40 Sikhs, who had parted company with Guru Ji in the second battle of Anandpur Sahib, also fought in this battle and became martyrs. Guru Gobind Singh Ji accorded them the boon of Mukti (salvation) seeing their sacrifice. As a result, Khidrana acquired the name of Sri Mukatsar Sahib. It was the last battle fought between Guru Gobind Singh Ji and the Mughals.

Question 30.
Describe about the creation of Khalsa Panth.
Or
Why was Khalsa created by Guru Gobind Singh Ji? Explain its main principles and importance?
Or
What do you know about the creation of Khalsa Panth? Name the Panj Piaras (Five Beloved Ones).
Or
How did Guru Gobind Singh create Khalsa?
Or
How was Khalsa Panth created? Answer briefly.
Or
Guru Gobind Singh completed the Sikh Movement with the creation of the Khalsa. Explain.
Or
Discuss the effects of creation of Khalsa.
Answer:
The greatest achievement of Guru Gobind Singh Ji was the creation of the Khalsa on the day of Baisakhi in 1699 A.D. With the creation of the Khalsa such a brave and self-sacrificing community of saint-soldiers was born, which completely uprooted the powerful empires of the Mughals and the Afghans in Punjab. That is why the creation of the Khalsa is considered as the beginning of a new era. According to famous writer Harbans Singh, “It was a grand creative deed of history which wrought revolutionary change in men’s minds.”

I. Why was the Khalsa Created?

1. Tyrannical Rule of the Mughals : Since the days of Jahangir the cruelties of the Mughals had been increasing day-by-day. Aurangzeb crossed all the limits. He got many famous Hindu temples demolished in the country. He had imposed several restrictions on the performance of their religious ceremonies. The Mughal emperor, Akbar had waived off the Jaziya tax, which had been imposed on the Hindus, but Aurangzeb reimposed this, hateful tax. He issued orders to demolish the Sikh Gurdwaras. He butchered a large number of non-Muslims, who refused to embrace Islam. On top of all this he got Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji martyred on 11th November, 1675 A.D. Guru Gobind Singh Ji. created the Khalsa to put an end to the growing cruelties of the Mughals.

2. Treachery of Hill Chiefs : Guru Gobind Singh Ji wanted to put an end to the Mughal empire with the help of Hill Chiefs. But Guru Gobind Singh Ji felt that the Hill Chiefs could not be trusted any more. Therefore, Guru Gobind Singh Ji/decided to prepare such soldiers as might stoutly resist the Mughals. As a result, Guru Gobind Singh Ji brought the Khalsa into existence.

3. Shackles of Caste System : The caste system had been in vogue for centuries in the Indian society. The Indian society was divided into several castes and sub¬castes. The higher-caste people treated the low-caste people like beasts. He, who violated these caste rules was ostracised from his caste. This caste-system was, in fact, eating into the very vitals of the Indian society. All the Sikh Gurus before Guru Gobind Singh Ji had dealt a severe blow at the caste-system through Sangat and Pangat institutions but it had not yet been totally smashed. Guru Gobind Singh Ji wanted to organise the society which would be free from the shackles of caste system and socially well-knit.

4. Defective Masand System : The defective Masand system proved an important factor responsible for the creation of the Khalsa. With the passage of time, Masands forgot their basic ideals, became corrupt and arrogant. Instead of leading the Sikhs, they started looting them. They began to say that they were the makers of Gurus. Many influential Masands had set up their separate Gurgaddis. In order to get rid of these Masands, Guru Sahib thought of organising the Sikhs into a new form. So a drastic remedy was needed.

5. Hereditary Nature of Guruship : Guru Amar Das Ji had made Guruship hereditary. It created many problems. He, who did not get Guruship, formed his separate sect and started opposing the Guru. In a bid to get Guruship, Prithi Chand, Dhir Mai and Ram Rai hatched conspiracies with the Mughals against Gurus. So, Guru Gobind Singh Ji wanted to set up a society, which had no place for Minas, Dhirmalias and Ramraias.

6. Nature of the Jats : Right from the times of Guru Hargobind Sahib, the Jats in a large number had started adopting Sikh religion. The Jats were great fighters by nature. They were fearless, self-respecting and brave. Guru Gobind Singh Ji wanted the co-operation of such warriors to face the powerful Mughal empire. So, he created the Khalsa.

7. Mission of Guru Gobind Singh Ji : Guru Gobind Singh Ji wrote in the ‘Bachitar Natak.’ “I assumed birth for the purpose of spreading Dharma (faith), saving the saints and exterpating all tyrants. For this purpose resort to the sword is legitimate.” To realize this mission Guru Gobind Singh Ji created the Khalsa.

How was the Khalsa Created?

On the day of Baisakhi on 30th March, 1699 A.D. Guru Gobind Singh Ji held a congregation at Kesgarh at Anandpur Sahib. 80000 Sikhs attended the congregation. When all people sat down, Guru Ji appeared on the stage. With his sword unsheathed he spoke, “Is there any Sikh who would sacrifice his life for Dharma”. When Guru Gobind Sahib repeated his call for the third time, Bhai Daya Ram Ji offered himself for sacrifice. Guru Ji took him to a nearby tent. Guru Ji made Bhai Daya Ram Ji sit there and returned with his sword dripping with the blood. Guru Ji demanded another head. This time Bhai Dharam Das Ji stood up.

This process was repeated three more times. In order to comply with Guru Ji’s desire, Bhai Mohkam Chand Ji, Bhai Sahib Chand Ji and Bhai Hinunat Rai Ji presented themselves for sacrifice. What Guru Gobind Singh Ji had done with them in the tent is better known to him. In this way, Guru Gobind Singh Ji selected the Tanj Payaras’, the five beloveds. Guru Sahib gave the Nectar of Immortality to the five beloved ones and then begged to be baptised by them. For this reason Guru Gobind Singh Ji is also called ‘Aape Gur Chela’. In this way, Guru Gobind Singh Ji laid the foundation of the Khalsa.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism 1469-1708 A.D. Img 14

Principles of the Khalsa:

Guru Gobind Singh Ji laid down certain principles for the Khalsa. It was obligatory for every Khalsa to obey those principles. The following were the main principles :

  • For every person who wishes to join the Khalsa Panth, it is essential to drink the Nectar of Immortality (Sikh baptism).
  • Every Khalsa man will use ‘Singh’ as suffix with his name and Khalsa woman ‘Kaur’ with her name.
  • Every Khalsa will worship only one God and no other god or goddess.
  • Every Khalsa will wear the five emblems i.e. Kes (hair), Kangha (comb), Kara (iron bangle), Kachha (underwear) and Kirpan (sword).
  • Every Khalsa will sacrifice his all for the protection of his Dharma and country.
  • Every Khalsa will wake up at dawn, take a bath and recite Gurbani.
  • Every Khalsa will earn his livelihood by the sweat of his brow and donate l/10th of his earnings for the spread of Dharma.
  • Every Khalsa will wear weapons and be ready to fight for righteous causes.
  • The Khalsa while meeting each other will hail, ‘Wahe Guru Ji Ka Khalsa, Wahe Guru Ji Ki Fateh.’
  • No Khalsa will smoke, make use of intoxicants and have extra-marital relations.
  • No Khalsa will believe in caste system and think in terms of high and low.

Importance of the Creation of the Khalsa:

The creation of the Khalsa is considered to be an important event in the Sikh history. It was a turning point not only in the history of Punjab, but also in the history of India. In fact, the creation of the Khalsa had far-reaching consequences.

1. Increase in the number of Sikhs : With the establishment of the Khalsa, there was an appreciable increase in the number of the Sikhs. Guru Gobind Singh Ji not only gave Khande-da-Pahul (Nectar of Immortality) to a large number of Sikhs, but authorised any five ‘payaras’ to admit any person into the fold of the Khalsa after giving him Khande-da-Pahul. Consequently, the number of the Khalsa  increased day by day. Its fame, too, spread far and wide.

2. Creation of an Ideal Society : By creating the Khalsa, Guru Gobind Singh Ji laid the foundation of an ideal society. He established ideal moral standards for everyone. He advised to practise truth, to live by honest means, to abstain from covetousness, to avoid immoral association with women, to act according to the Guru Granth Sahib, to share the same kitchen, to help fellowmen in trouble and not to take wine and other intoxicants. Members of the Khalsa brotherhood were to consider their previous castes erased and deem themselves brothers belonging to one family. In the words of Dr. Inderpal Singh, “The grandeur of Khalsa is that it is above all notions of caste and creed and speaks only of universal brotherhood.”

3. End of Masand System and Sects which were against Khalsa : After Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji, the Masand system was afflicted with many evils. So, when Guru Gobind Singh Ji created the Khalsa, he gave them no place in it. Guru Gobind Singh Ji enjoined on the Sikhs to have no concern with them.

4. Change in the Tone of National Character : With the creation of the Khalsa, a tremendous change was effected in the whole tone of national character. Even those people, who had been considered as dregs of humanity were changed, as if by magic. The sweepers, barbers, confectioners, who had never touched the sword and whose generations had lived as gravelling slaves of the so called higher classes, became under the stimulating leadership of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, doughty warriors, who never shrank from fear and who were ready to rush into the jaws of death at the bidding of their Guru.

5. Upliftment of the Down—trodden People : As a result of the creation of the Khalsa, the down—trodden people were uplifted. Prior to this, the ‘shudras’ and the people of other low castes were looked down upon and were badly treated. Guru Gobind Singh Ji gave them equal status with the high castes. This infused a new spirit among the people of low castes. They played a vital role in the battles fought against the Mughals and the Afghans under the command of Guru Gobind Singh Ji and other Sikh leaders.

6. Democracy in Khalsa Panth: In 1699 A.D. Guru Gobind Singh Ji requested the five beloved ones to give him the Nectar of Immortality. To do so was a radical step on the part of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Guru Gobind Singh Ji declared that any five Khalsa assembled at a place could give the Nectar of Immortality to other Sikhs and admit them into the Khalsa fold. Thus, Guru Gobind Singh Ji gave a new direction to the Indian society.

7. Rise of Political Power of the Sikhs : By creating the Khalsa, Guru Gobind Singh Ji infused a spirit of unique bravery and fearlessness among the Sikhs. They made innumerable sacrifices, but did not falter in their Dharma. At last the Sikhs’ dream came true and they succeeded in establishing their independent Misls in Punjab. In the 19th century, Maharaja Ranjit Singh succeeded in establishing an independent Sikh State. It was the result of indefatigable efforts of the Khalsa. Dr. G. S. Dhillon aptly says, “Creation of the Khalsa was a unique phenomenon in the annals of mankind.”

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 31.
Discuss the importance of creation of Khalsa in Sikhism.
Answer:

The creation of the Khalsa is considered to be an important event in the Sikh history. It was a turning point not only in the history of Punjab, but also in the history of India. In fact, the creation of the Khalsa had far-reaching consequences.

1. Increase in the number of Sikhs : With the establishment of the Khalsa, there was an appreciable increase in the number of the Sikhs. Guru Gobind Singh Ji not only gave Khande-da-Pahul (Nectar of Immortality) to a large number of Sikhs, but authorised any five ‘payaras’ to admit any person into the fold of the Khalsa after giving him Khande-da-Pahul. Consequently, the number of the Khalsa  increased day by day. Its fame, too, spread far and wide.

2. Creation of an Ideal Society : By creating the Khalsa, Guru Gobind Singh Ji laid the foundation of an ideal society. He established ideal moral standards for everyone. He advised to practise truth, to live by honest means, to abstain from covetousness, to avoid immoral association with women, to act according to the Guru Granth Sahib, to share the same kitchen, to help fellowmen in trouble and not to take wine and other intoxicants. Members of the Khalsa brotherhood were to consider their previous castes erased and deem themselves brothers belonging to one family. In the words of Dr. Inderpal Singh, “The grandeur of Khalsa is that it is above all notions of caste and creed and speaks only of universal brotherhood.”

3. End of Masand System and Sects which were against Khalsa : After Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji, the Masand system was afflicted with many evils. So, when Guru Gobind Singh Ji created the Khalsa, he gave them no place in it. Guru Gobind Singh Ji enjoined on the Sikhs to have no concern with them.

4. Change in the Tone of National Character : With the creation of the Khalsa, a tremendous change was effected in the whole tone of national character. Even those people, who had been considered as dregs of humanity were changed, as if by magic. The sweepers, barbers, confectioners, who had never touched the sword and whose generations had lived as gravelling slaves of the so called higher classes, became under the stimulating leadership of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, doughty warriors, who never shrank from fear and who were ready to rush into the jaws of death at the bidding of their Guru.

5. Upliftment of the Down—trodden People : As a result of the creation of the Khalsa, the down—trodden people were uplifted. Prior to this, the ‘shudras’ and the people of other low castes were looked down upon and were badly treated. Guru Gobind Singh Ji gave them equal status with the high castes. This infused a new spirit among the people of low castes. They played a vital role in the battles fought against the Mughals and the Afghans under the command of Guru Gobind Singh Ji and other Sikh leaders.

6. Democracy in Khalsa Panth: In 1699 A.D. Guru Gobind Singh Ji requested the five beloved ones to give him the Nectar of Immortality. To do so was a radical step on the part of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Guru Gobind Singh Ji declared that any five Khalsa assembled at a place could give the Nectar of Immortality to other Sikhs and admit them into the Khalsa fold. Thus, Guru Gobind Singh Ji gave a new direction to the Indian society.

7. Rise of Political Power of the Sikhs : By creating the Khalsa, Guru Gobind Singh Ji infused a spirit of unique bravery and fearlessness among the Sikhs. They made innumerable sacrifices, but did not falter in their Dharma. At last the Sikhs’ dream came true and they succeeded in establishing their independent Misls in Punjab. In the 19th century, Maharaja Ranjit Singh succeeded in establishing an independent Sikh State. It was the result of indefatigable efforts of the Khalsa. Dr. G. S. Dhillon aptly says, “Creation of the Khalsa was a unique phenomenon in the annals of mankind.”

Question 32.
Make an evaluation of the character and personality of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Or
Give an estimate of the character and achievements of Guru Gobind Singh
Or
“Guru Gobind Singh was builder par-excellence”. Do you agree with this view? Give arguments in your favour.
Or
Write a detailed note on the contribution of Guru Gobind Singh Ji in the development of Sikh faith and tradition.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji is ranked with great personalities not only of India, but also of the whole world. His personality had multi-faceted qualities which is beyond the power of a humble writer like me to describe. He was a versatile embodiment of sacrifice, high-class poet, great warrior and general enemy of the tyrant, beneficent, a great social reformer, advocate of democratic principles, matchless organiser and great prophet. Undoubtedly, Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a perfect Guru incarnate.

As a Man:

1. Physical Appearance : Guru Gobind Singh Ji possessed a very impressive and charming personality. He had a tall stature, fair complexion and stout body. His face had a glow and bright eyes. His tongue was superlatively sweet. His robes were extremely beautiful and he was always equipped with arms. He invariably held a white hawk in his right hand. He would ride a beautiful steed while going out.

2. Householder: Guru Gobind Singh Ji was an obedient son, thoughtful father and an ideal husband. Against his own wish, but in compliance with his mother’s desire, he vacated the fort of Anandpur Sahib. After it, he had to face several hardships, but he never grumbled or complained of it. Guru Gobind Singh Ji brought up his sons very carefully.

3. High Character: Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a man of high character. Immoral practices like falsehood, treachery and deceit were alien to his nature. Whether it be peace or war, he always stuck to truth. He had no greed for wealth. In order to, lure him to Islam, the Mughals opened up coffers of money but Guru Gobind Singh Ji was not tempted at all.

4. Embodiment of Sacrifices : Guru Gobind Singh Ji was. an embodiment of sacrifices. At the age of 9, he exhorted his father Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji to sacrifice himself. For the protection of Dharma, he sacrificed all the comforts of his life. While fighting against injustice, Guru Gobind Singh Ji sacrificed his four sons, his mother
and thousands of Sikhs. In fact, the sacrifice, which Guru Gobind Singh Ji made has no parallel in the history of the world.

As a Scholar:

Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a poet and literateur of exceptional order. Guru Gobind Singh Ji made use of languages like Arabic, Persian, Punjabi, Hindi, Sanskrit etc. Among his compositions Jaap Sahib, Bachitar Natak, Zafamama, Chandi Di Var and Akal Ustat are very prominent. These compositions are so thrilling that they had the power to infuse a new life even among the dead. Being a scholar himself Guru Gobind Singh Ji greatly respected other scholars. He had given patronage to 52 top ranking poets in his Darbar. Among these the names of Senapat, Nand Lai, Hans Rig, Gopal and Udai Rai may be prominently mentioned. Devindra Kumar is quite right when he says, “He was a poet par excellence.”

As a Warrior and General:

Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a great warrior and efficient general. He was adept in horse riding and making use of arms. He always himself commanded his army in the battlefield. He always observed moral codes even in battlefields. He never attacked an unarmed and fleeing soldier. Guru Gobind Singh Ji was also a great generals In the battle of Bhangani, Guru Gobind Singh Ji with a handful of his soldiers inflicted a crushing defeat on the combined forces of Hill Chiefs. The same was thg case in the first battle of Anandpur Sahib.

The bravery with which Guru Gobind Singh Ji with his forty Sikhs fought against the heavy Mughal forces in the battle of Chamkaur has no parallel in the history of the world. In the battle of Khidrana too the number of his soldiers was far less than that of Mughal forces. However, the Sikhs inflicted such heavy losses on the Mughals that they not only fled from the battlefield, but also could not dare to fight against Guru Gobind Sahib any more.

As a Religious Leader:

Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a great religious leader. There is, no doubt, about it that Guru Gobind Singh Ji spent a major part of his life in battles, but the aim of these battles was to protect Dharma and extirpate the tyrant. Guru Sahib created the Khalsa Panth to promote religious feelings only. Guru Sahib had advised every Khalsa to get up before sunrise, take a bath and recite Gurbani. They should not worship deities, but one God only. They should lead a simple and pious life. One gets the evidence of his religious greatness when one finds how on receiving the news of his sons martyrdom, he got up at once and thanked God that his sons had laid down their lives for the promotion of religious cause. Dr. I. B. Banerjee, “Whatever else he might have been, Guru Gobind Singh was first and foremost a great religious leader.”

As a Social Reformer

Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a great social reformer. His social reforms are very significant. He radicalized the society by creating the Khalsa Panth. In it, the people of low-castes were placed at the same level as those of high-castes. By doing so, Guru Sahib broke the centuries old shackles of casteism. Women were baptised too and made equal with men. Guru Sahib advised his disciples to shun intoxicants like liquor, ‘bhang’ etc. Guru Ji commanded them not to have any relations with those who killed newborn girls. Guru Sahib strongly condemned sati and purdah evils and declared that such evils had no place in Khalsa society. Guru Ji enjoined on the Sikhs to give full respect to women. In fact, Guru Gobind Singh Ji created an ideal society.

As an Organiser:

Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a top-class organiser. At that time, the Mughal Govt, under Aurangzeb was not prepared to brook any movement especially the Sikh movement. He had martyred Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. The Masand system among the Sikhs had become very corrupt. The Hindus had been demoralised for a pretty long time. The Hill Chiefs had sided with the Mughal Govt, for selfish motives. Despite such adverse elements, Guru Gobind Singh Ji gave an evidence of his organizational skill by creating the Khalsa. Really, it was a great achievement. It infused a new spirit into the people. They became great warriors and got ready to sacrifice their everything ‘ in the name of religion. Famous writer, Prof. Madanjit Kaur is quite right when she says, “Guru Gobind Singh’s contributions had left imprints of deep impact on the canvas of Indian history and world civilisation.”

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Short Answer Type Questions (Type 1):

Question 1.
Give a brief account of the contribution of Guru Nanak Dev Ji to Sikhism.
Answer:
When Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born in the 15th century, the people were groping in the darkness of ignorance. Condition o£ women folk in society was very deplorable. Guru Nanak Dev Ji undertook travels in the various parts of the country and abroad to bring awareness in them. He founded two institutions namely Sangat and Pangat. Before he breathed his last in 1539 A.D. Guru Nanak Dev Ji nominated Bhai Lehna Ji (Gum Angad Dev Ji) as his successor. The nomination of Gum Angad Dev Ji proved very significant for the development of Sikh Panth.

Question 2.
What do you mean by Udasis? What were the aims of Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s Udasis?
Or
What were the aims and importance of the Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
Udasis of Gum Nanak Dev Ji mean the travels undertaken by him. Main objective of Gum Nanak Dev Ji’s Udasis was to dispel ignorance and superstitions of the people. He wanted to convey thb message of universal brotherhood of mankind and worship of the only one God to the people. Gum Nanak Dev Ji started his Udasis to show a new path to the people, who were groping in darkness.

Question 3.
Write a brief note on any two important Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:

  • Gum Nanak Dev Ji started his Udasis from Saidpur. On being asked bj Malik Bhago, he told that we should earn our bread by honest and not by foul means
  • At Talumba, Guru Nanak Dev Ji met Sajjan thug, a cheat. He was so much moved by Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s Bani that he confessed all his misdeeds.

Question 4.
Write an essence of the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Or
Give a brief account of the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:

  • According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is one. He is formless and omnipresent,
  • He is immortal. He is omnipotent and kind.
  • The Guru accepted Maya as the biggest hurdle in the way of salvation.
  • The Guru told that lust, anger, greed, attachment and pride are the five enemies of man.

Question 5.
What was Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s concept of God?
Or
What were the views of Guru Nanak Dev Ji about God?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji believed in one God only. God has two forms. He is Nirguna (without attributes) as well as Saguna (with attributes). By His order (Hukam) the universe came into existence. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is the Sovereign Lord. Everything happens in accordance with His will. Guru Nanak Dev Ji says that the universe created by God is unstable and impermanent but God is immortal. He is beyond the cycle of birth, death and rebirth.

Question 6.
Why did Guru Nanak Dev Ji condemn the Brahmans and Mullas?
Answer:
According to Gpru Nanak Dev Ji, the Brahmin class laid stress on outward show of religion. They lacked in devotion. They recited Vedas and scriptures the whole day, but did not act upon them. Their sole objective was to exploit their followers on one pretext or the other. Similar was the condition of Mullas among the Muslims. They also emphasised useless rituals and conventions. They looked down upon other religions.

Question 7.
What type of religious beliefs and rituals were condemned by Guru . Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji condemned all the blind faiths,of religion prevalent in society. He opposed idol-worship, Vedic rituals, going on the pilgrimages, and other rituals connected with important occasions of life. The Brahmins were the main supporters of these rituals. He did not approve of the ideology of the Jogis for two reasons

  • The Jogis lacked faith in God.
  • They remained away from society and shirked social responsibilities.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 8.
What was Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s concept of Maya? Explain in brief.
Or
Describe Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s Concept of Maya.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji regarded Maya as the biggest hurdle in the way of man’s salvation. The multicoloured Maya allures man to itself. Maya to whom he loves so much does not accompany him after his death. It separates man from God, by keeping him absorbed in worldly things. One who yields to Maya also remains caught in the cycle of transmigration. Thus, he ruins his life.

Question 9.
What is the importance of ‘Guru’ in Guru Nanak Dev’s teachings?
Or
What was the concept of “Guru” according to Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji laid much emphasis on Guru. The Guru is a ladder by means of which one attains salvation. Without the Guru’s guidance, no one can attain salvation. An unregenerate (manmukh) man remains engrossed in worldly enjoyments. It is the Guru, who purifies his mind. The Guru gives knowledge about Truth, Naam and Shabad. The Guru dispels the darkness of ignorance. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, a true Guru is God Himself, who is revealed through the Word (Shabad).

Question 10.
What is the importance of ‘Naam’ in Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s teachings?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji considered the recitation of Naam as the highest form of God-worship. Man can get deliverance through Naam from the world which is full of diseases and sufferings. Those who recite Naam are free from all illusions and all their sorrows come to an end. Such a person’s soul blooms like a lotus. Man remains entrapped in all sorts of sins and in the vicious circle of transmigration without Nam.

Question 11.
What is the importance of Hukam in Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s teachings?
Answer:
The doctrine of Hukam (order) or the will of God occupies a crucial position in the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. The world moves in accordance to the will of God. Birth and death of a creature, appreciation or dishonour, happiness or misery is in accordance with His Hukam. His Hukam cannot be evaded. He who obeys the Hukam of God, is blessed by God and attains salvation.

Question 12.
Write the views of Guru Nanak Dev Ji about the women.
Answer:
The condition of women during Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s time was very miserable. They were considered equal in status to a man’s shoe in society. They were regarded as a commodity of sensual pleasure. Many evils existed arfiong them like child marriage, polygamy, purdah system, sati system and divorce etc. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was in favour of women’s equal rights with men. He was in favour’ of giving education to women also.

Question 13.
What was the social meaning and significance of Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s message?
Or
What was the impact of teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
The social meaning of Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s message is very important. His message was for everyone. Any man or woman could take the path shown by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. The path of salvation was open for all. Guru Nanak Dev Ji preached social equality. Guru Nanak Dev Ji condemned the caste system in strong words. In order to put his message of social equality into practice, he founded two institutions i.e. Sangat and Pangat. No discrimination of caste was observed while preparing the Langar.

Question 14.
How far were the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji different from the Bhakti reformers?
Answer:
According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is formless. He never acquires the human form. The Bhakti preachers regard Krishna and Rama as the incarnations God. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was against idol-worship, while the other religious preachers had full faith in it. Guru Nanak Dev Ji believed in leading a married life. The Bhakti preachers thought it to be a big hurdle, in the way of salvation. Guru Nanak Dev Ji founded two institutions of Sangat and Pangat. The Bhakti preachers did not set up any such institution.

Question 15.
‘Guru Nanak Dev Ji was a revolutionary.’ Give any four arguments in favour of it.
Answer:

  • Guru Nanak Dev Ji rejected the concept of incarnation in strong words.
  • Guru Nanak Dev Ji also raised his voice against idol-worship,
  • Guru Nanak Dev Ji preached against caste system. The Hindu society was based on caste system.
  • Guru Nanak Dev Ji called the Hindu rituals useless.

Question 16.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji was a reformer. Give any four arguments in its favour.
Answer:

  • Guru Nanak Dev Ji was a great reformer. He never spoke ill of any god or goddess,
  • Guru Nanak Dev Ji opposed the jealousy and social division arising out of caste system,
  • Guru Nanak Dev Ji never opposed the observing of rituals hut said that these rituals could not be equal to the true devotional worship of God.
  • He never condemned the knowledge given in Hindu scriptures.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 17.
How and where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji spend last 18 years of his life?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent the last 18 years of his life with his family at Kartarpur. During this period, he set up the institutions of Sangat and Pangat. Sangat meant the congregation, which gathered to hear the Bani of the Guru everyday. Pangat means to sit in a queue and take food together. In this Langar (the community kitchen), no discrimination of caste, creed or religion was observed. Guru Nanak Dev Ji composed 976 Shabads. of Guru Amar Das Ji jmd Guru Ram Das Ji

Question 18.
What was Guru An gad Dev Ji’s contribution to the development of Sikhism?
Or
What did Guru Angad Dev Ji do for the development of Sikhism?
Answer:

  • A new dimension was given to Gurmukhi script, so that people may understand it easily,
  • Sangat and Pangat institutions were further strengthened. These institutions gave a shattering blow to the caste-system,
  • He maintained strict discipline in Guru’s Darbar.
  • He founded Goindwal Sahib.

Question 19.
What contribution was made by Guru Angad Dev Ji to improve Gurmukhi script?
Or
What impact the popularisaiton of Gurmukhi by Guru Angad Dev Ji leave l the growth of Sikhism?
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji made requisite improvements in this script and gave it a new look. As a result, it became easy for people to understand it. All the Sikh scriptures were subsequently written in this script. As this script became popular, the Brahmin class suffered a major set back, because they considered Sanskrit as the only language of religion. The popularity of Gurmukhi proved helpful in the spread of Sikhism. This script also proved very helpful in the spread of education among the Sikhs.

Question 20.
How did Guru Angad Dev Ji denounce the Udasi sect?
Answer:
The Udasi sect was founded by Baba Sri Chand Ji, the elder son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. This sect laid emphasis on ‘Sanyas’ or renunciation, whereas Guru Nanak Dev Ji held strong belief in family life. The remaining tenets of Udasi sect were same as those of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. As a consequence, many people began to join the Udasi sect. Therefore, Guru Angad Dev Ji made it clear in unequivocal terms that Sikhism was essentially a religion of householders and no true Sikh could be an Udasi.

Question 21.
‘Guru Angad Dev Ji was a great disciplinarian.’ Do you agree to it?
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji was a great disciplinarian. Once two Raagis (bards) Satta and Balwand in the Darbar of Guru Ji grew very proud of their melodious voice. In their vanity, they started violating the orders of Guru Angad Dev Ji. As a result, he expelled both the Raagis from the Darbar. Soon they realised their folly. Later on, when they begged pardon, Guru Angad Dev Ji forgave them.

Question 22.
Write a brief note on the meeting between Guru Angad Dev Ji and Humayun.
Answer:
The Mughal emperor Humayun suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Sher Shah Suri in 1540 A.D. After this defeat, Htlmayun reached Khadur Sahib to seek Guru Angad Dev Ji’s blessings. Guru Angad Dev Ji was then in such deep meditation that he did not open his eyes. Humayun took it as his insult. In a fit of anger, he put his hand on the hilt of his sword. Guru Angad’ Dev Ji opened’ his eyes and questioned Humayun where was that sword while fighting against Sher Shah Suri. Humayun felt ashamed and he apologised to Guru Angad Dev Ji.

Question 23.
What do you know about Sangat?
Answer:
Sangat means a congregation of the Sikhs. This Sangat gathered in the morning and evening to listen to the Bani (Hymns) of Guru Angad Dev Ji. This institution of Sangat was established by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji developed it further. Any man or woman could join the Sangat without the discrimination of caste, creed or religion. Sangat was considered as God’s incarnation.

Question 24.
What do you mean by Pangat or Langar?
Or
What do you know about Langar System?
Or
Write a note on Pangat or Langar.
Answer:
Pangat or Langar was established by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Ji continued it and Guru Amar Das Ji further developed this institution. Guru Am Das Ji declared that none could meet him without taking Langar. He gave the slogan of first Pangat and then Sangat. This institution greatly helped in eradicating caste system and untouchability in the society.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 25.
Write a short note on Sangat and Pangat.
Answer:
Sangat means a congregation of the Sikhs. This Sangat gathered in the morning and evening to listen to the Bani (Hymns) of Guru Angad Dev Ji. This institution of Sangat was established by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji developed it further. Any man or woman could join the Sangat without the discrimination of caste, creed or religion. Sangat was considered as God’s incarnation.

Pangat or Langar was established by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Ji continued it and Guru Amar Das Ji further developed this institution. Guru Am Das Ji declared that none could meet him without taking Langar. He gave the slogan of first Pangat and then Sangat. This institution greatly helped in eradicating caste system and untouchability in the society.

Question 26.
What problems had Guru Amar Das Ji to face in the early years of his pontificate?
Answer:

  • Guru Amar Das Ji had to face the opposition of Dasu and Datu, the two sons of Guru Angad Dev Ji. They claimed that being sons of a Guru, they had a right to Gurgaddi.
  • Baba Sri Chand, elder son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, staked his claim to the Gurgaddi. So, he also started opposing Guru Amar Das Ji.

Question 27.
Give the contribution of Guru Amar Das Ji for the development of Sikhism.
Or
Study the contribution of Guru Amar Das Ji to the growth of Sikhism.
Answer:

  • First of all he completed the work on Baoli, initiated at Goindwal Sahib. Soon it became a central place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs,
  • The Langar system was further developed,
  • The Manji system established by the Guru gave a new impetus to the spread of Sikhism,
  • The Guru kept Sikhism aloof from Udasi sect, and thus, saved it from merging into Hinduism.

Question 28.
What was the importance of the construction of the Baoli of Goindwal Sahib in Sikh History?
Or
Why is Goindwal Sahib called the centre of Sikhism?
Answer:
The construction work of the Baoli at Goindwal Sahib was the first significant step of Guru Amar Das Ji towards the development at Sikhism. It was started in 1552 A.D. and it was completed in 1559 A.D. Guru Ji had two objectives in its construction. First, he wanted to give the Sikhs a separate place of pilgrimage so that they could be separated from the Hindus. Secondly, he wanted to solve the water problem of the people of that place. It gave the Sikhs a place of pilgrimage of their own. 1

Question 29.
Describe briefly the social reforms of Guru Amar Das Ji.
Or
Discuss the social reforms introduced by Guru Amar Das Ji.
Or
Why is Guru Amar Das Ji called a social reformer?
Answer:

  • He condemned in strong words the social evil of sati.
  • Guru Ji opposed Id marriage and purdah system also,
  • He was in favour of widow re-marriage. He condemned all kinds of intoxicants.

Question 30.
What do you know about Manji system?
Or
Write a note on Manji system.
Answer:
The setting up of Manji system was a great achievement of Guru Amar Das Ji. The number of the Sikhs had greatly increased during his Gurgaddi. So it was not possible for him to reach every Sikh personally. In order to intensify the propaganda of Sikhism, he created 22 Manjis. Head of each Manji was called Manjidar. He could go anywhere in connection with the propaganda. Manjidar motivated people to come into the fold of Sikhism. Besides, he used to collect money from the Sikhs and passed it on to Guru Amar Das Ji.

Question 31.
What type of relations did Guru Amar Das Ji have with the Mughals?
Or
Explain the relations between Mughal emperor Akbar and Guru Amar Das Ji.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji had good relations with the Mughals. At that time, Akbar was the Mughal ruler of India. Akbar came to Goindwal Sahib to convey his gratitude towards Guru Amar Das Ji in 1568 A.D. He ate Langar with other people before meeting Guru Amar Das Ji and complied with the tradition of partaking food in the Langar. He was very impressed by the personality of Guru Amar Das Ji and the Langar system. Akbar’s visit to Goindwal Sahib enhanced the prestige of Guru Amar Das.

Question 32.
Explain the contribution of Sri Guru Ram Das Ji to the growth of Sikhism.
What was the contribution of Guru Ram Das Ji to Sikh religion?
Or
Give a brief account of the contribution of Guru Ram Das Ji to the growth of Sikhism.
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji remained on Gurgaddi from 1574 A.D. to 1581 A.D. First of all, he set up Ramdaspura (Amritsar). Guru Ji started Masand system for collecting money from the Sikhs, which was required for the preaching and developmental works of the Sikh Panth. Guru Ram Das Ji put an end to the long standing tussle between the Sikhs and the Udasis, thus, ensuring a new era. Guru Ram Das Ji continued the institutions of Sangat and Pangat.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 33.
What is the importance of the foundation of Ramdaspura (Amritsar) in Sikh History?
Answer:
The most important contribution of Guru Ram Das Ji towards the Sik’ Panth was the foundation of Ramdaspura or Amritsar. In 1577 A.D. he found Ramdaspura. He settled fifty two other traders belonging to different trades at the place in order to make it popular. It soon became a famous trade centre. The foundat of Ramdaspura or Amritsar occupies an important place in the history of Sikhisr

Question 34.
Write a note on Udasi Sect.
Or
Write a brief note on Baba Sri Chand Ji.
Answer:
The Udasi sect was founded by Baba Sri Chand Ji, the elder son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Many Sikhs, impressed by the asceticism of Sri Chand Ji, began to join Udasi sect. It stressed on the life of renunciation. Guru Amar Das Ji had strongly opposed the Udasi sect. He said that a true Sikh could not be an Udasi. A settlement was however reached between the Sikhs and the Udasis during Guru Ram Das Ji’s pontificate.

Guru Arjan Dev Ji and His Martyrdom:

Question 35.
What were the difficulties faced by Guru ALT} an Dev Ji immediately after his accession to Gurgaddi? Explain briefly.
Or
What were the difficulties faced by Guru Arjan Dev Ji when he became the Guru?
Answer:
At the time of accession to Gurgaddi, Guru Arjan Dev Ji had to face the opposition firstly of his elder brother Prithi Chand. He vehemently protested against his supersession. The fanatic Muslims of the Punjab could not bear the growing influence of the Sikhs in Punjab. They incited Jahangir against Guru Ji. Chandu Shah was the Diwan of Lahore. He had sent a proposal to Guru Arjan Dev Ji for marriage of his daughter to his son Hargobind Ji. But’Guru Arjan Dev Ji declined the proposal. As a result, Chandu Shah turned a sworn enemy of Guru.Arjan Dev Ji.

Question 36.
What was Guru Arjan Dev Ji’s contribution to the development of Sikhism?
Or
Give a brief account of the organizational works of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:

  • By making Sri Harmandir Sahib at Amritsar, Guru Arjan Dev Ji gave the Sikhs their most sacred place of pilgrimage,
  • He got built three new towns i.e. Tam Taran, Hargobindpur and Kartarpur.
  • He built a Baoli at Lahore,
  • The development of Masand system was one of his greatest achievements.

Question 37.
Write a brief note on Sri Harmandir Sahib.
Or
Describe briefly importance of the foundation of Sri Harmandir Sahib by ru Arjan Dev Ji.
Or
rive a brief account of the foundation and importance of Sri Harmandir ib.
Or
Briefly describe the importance of the foundation of Sri Harmandir Sahib.
Answer:
The building of Sri Harmandir Sahib is one of the greatest achievements of Guru Aijan Dev Ji. It was constructed in the midst of Amrit Sarovar. Guru Arjan Dev Ji got its foundation laid by a famous Sufi saint, Mian Mir Ji in 1588 A.D. Harmandir means “Temple of God”. Guru Aijan Dev Ji kept the height of the building of Sri Harmandir Sahib lower than those erf the surrounding buildings and said, “What is humble, shall be exalted.” Soon, Sri Harmandir Sahib became the leading pilgrimage centre of the Sikhs.

Question 38.
What do you know about Masand system? Explain.
Or
Examine the organisation and development of Masand system.
Or
Who started Masand system? What were its aims?
Or
Write a short note on Masand system.
Or
Write a short note on Masand system and its importance.
Answer:
‘Masand’ is derived from the Persian word Masnad which means ‘a high place’. This system was set up by Guru Ram Das Ji, but its real development took place dining Guru Aijan Dev Ji’s time. Guru Aijan Dev Ji announced that each Sikh should offer Daswandh (one tenth of income) to him. He appointed Masands to collect Daswandh from the Sikh Sangat. The Masands not only collected Daswandh but also preached Sikhism. Masand system played a significant role in the evolution of the Sikh movement.

Question 39.
Write a short note on Tarn Taran and its importance.
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji, founded the city of Tarn Taran in 1590 A.D. Here a Sarovar named as Tarn Taran was also dug. Tam Taran means that any pilgrim, who takes bath in this Sarovar shall get salvation from transmigration. Tam Taran also became a famous holy place of the Sikhs. As a result, thousands of Jats of the Majha became the followers of Gum Aijan Dev Ji and embraced Sikhism. The services of these Jats towards Sikhism was of great value.

Question 40.
Write a note on Prithi Chand.
Or
Who was Prithi Chand? Why did he oppose Guru Aijan Dev Ji?
Answer:
Prithi Chand or Prithia was elder brother of Gum Aijan Dev Ji. He was t! founder of Mina Sect. He was very selfish and cunning. That is why Gum Ram D Ji gave the Gurgaddi to Gum Aijan Dev Ji instead of giving it to him. On hearing t decision, Prithi Chand got furious. He hoped that his son Meharban would get Gurg; after GunT Aijan Dev Ji. But When Gum Aijan Dev Ji was blessed with a Hargobind, all his hopes seemed to dash to the ground. Therefore, he became a sworn enemy of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

Question 41.
Who was Chandu Shah? Why did he oppose Guru Arjan Dev Ji?
Or
Write a short note on Chandu Shah.
Or
Why Chandu Shah opposed Guru Arjan Dev Ji?
Answer:
Chandu Shah was the Diwan of Lahore. He was looking for a suitable match for his daughter. His messengers proposed the name of Hargobind, son of Guru Arjan Dev Ji, for his daughter. On hearing this Chandu Shah was enraged and remarked that brick baked for a palace cannot be used for a gutter. But after being persuaded by his wife, he agreed to the proposal. Again he sent his messengers to Guru Arjan Dev Ji with this proposal. Guru Arjan Dev Ji turned down the proposal. On hearing this Chandu Shah got very angry and became Guru Arjan Dev Ji’s sworn enemy.

Question 42.
Mention the main causes for the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Or
What were the causes of martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:

  • Jahangir could not tolerate the flourshing of Sikhism.
  • Chandu Shah, the Diwan of Lahore sent a proposal of his daughter’s marriage to Hargobind, the son of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. When this proposal was not accepted, Chandu Shah turned Guru Arjan Dev Ji’s sworn enemy.
  • The help rendered to Khusrau, the elder son of Jahangir, by Guru Arjan Ji became an immediate reason for the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
  • Prithi Chand could not succeed the Gurgaddi, so he became a sworn enemy of Guru Arjun Dev Ji.

Question 43.
Describe the role of Naqshbandis in the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Sahib.
Answer:
Naqshabandis played an important role, in the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Sahib. Naqshbandi was an order started by fanatic Muslims. Naqshbandis were rnraged to see the increasing influence of the Sikhs in Punjab. Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi, he leader of Naqshbandis had great influence in Mughal Darbar. So, he also instigated ahangir against Guru Sahib. Therefore, Jahangir decided to take action against urn Arjan Dev Ji.

Question 44.
What was the immediate cause of the martyrdom of. Guru Arjan lib?
Answer:
Help of Khusrau by Guru Arjan Sahib became the immediate cause of Guru a Sahib’s mart clom. Prince Khusrau was the eldest son of Jahangir. He revolted ist his father some time after his enthronement. Khusrau came to seek Guru Arjan Sahib’s blessings. It is said that Guru Arjan Sahib put a tilak on his forehead. When Jahangir came to know about all this he got a golden opportunity to take stem action against Guru Arjan Sahib.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 45.
Was Guru Arjan Dev Ji martyred for political or religious causes? Write briefly.
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji was martyred on May 30,1606 A.D. at Lahore. Religious causes were responsible for this martyrdom. By reading Tuzak-i-Jahangiri, it becomes evident that Jahangir wanted to liquidate Guru Aijan Dev Ji for religious reasons. He wanted to put a check on the growing influence of the Sikhs in Punjab. He wanted only Islam to flourish in India. He falsely implicated Guru Arjan Dev Ji alleging that he had helped Prince Khusrau.

Question 46.
Write the importance of Guru Arjan Dev Ji’s martyrdom.
Or
Briefly describe the importance of martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Or
What is the significance of martyrdom of Guru Aijan Dev Ji.
Answer:
The martyrdom of Gum Arjan Dev Ji gave a new turn to the Sikh history. The peace loving Sikhs flared up as a result of this martyrdom. It became evident to them that taking to dr ms was now essential. That is why Gum Hargobind Ji adopted a New Policy. He carried two swords of Miri and Pirj. In this way, Gum Arjan Dev Ji turned the Sikhs into saint-soldiers. After the martyrdom of Gum Arjan Dev Ji, the era of friendship between the Sikhs and the Mughals came to an end.

Question 47.
What contribution was made by Guru-Hargobind ‘Ji in the transformation of Sikhism?
Or
Briefly describe the achievements of Guru Hargobind Ji’s pontificate.
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji remained on Gurgaddi from 1606 A.D. to 1645 A.D. He wore two swords of Miri and Piri. Gum Ji resolved to organise an army to face the tyrant Mughals. He got a fortress erected called Lohgarh for the protection of Amritsar. Gum Hargobind Ji got Akal Takht Sahib built in front of Sri Harmandir Sahib. Jahangir was alarmed at the growing influence of Sikhism. During the regime of Shah Jahan the Mughals fought four battles with Guru Hargobind Sahib. The Sikhs won all these battles.

Question 48.
What were the mail! causes of adoption of New Policy (Miri ai Piri) by Guru Hargobind Ji?
Or
Why did Guru Hargobind Sahib adopt the New Policy
Answer:

  • Jahangir was a fanatic Sunni Muslim. He could not tolerate the flourisl Guru Arjan Sahib in 1606 A.D. It infuriated the Sikhs and aroused anger in them. So they decided to arm themselves against the Mughals.

Question 49.
What were the main features of Guru Hargobind Ji’s New Policy?
Or
What do you know about the New Policy or Miri and Piri of Guru Hargobind Ji?
Or
What was the New Policy of Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji? What were its main features?
Answer:

  • Guru Hargobind Sahib sat on Gurgaddi with great pomp and show. He wore two swords of Miri and Piri.
  • Guru Hargobind Ji decided to keep an army for the protection of the Sikh Panth.
  • Guru Hargobind Sahib announced that the Sikhs should offer horses and arms in place of money,
  • With the objective of making Amritsar secure and protected, he got a fortress, Lohgarh constructed.

Question 50.
What do you know about the Miri and Piri?
Or
What is ‘Miri’ and ‘Piri’? Describe its historical importance.
Or
What do you mean by Miri and Piri?
Or
Briefly describe the importance of the New Policy of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Answer:
At the time of ascending Gurgaddi Guru Hargobind Ji, he decided to wear two swords of Miri and Piri. The sword of Miri symbolised temporal power and the sword of Piri symbolised the spiritual power. The wearing of these two swords by Guru Hargobind Ji meant that, hence forward, he would guide the Sikhs in both worldly and religious matters. Thus, Guru Hargobind Ji turned the Sikhs into saint- soldiers.

Question 75.
Write a brief note on the creation of Khalsa Panth.
Or
When, where and how was the Khalsa founded?
Or
How was Khalsa sect created?
Answer:
The foundation of Khalsa Panth was laid by Guru Gobind Singh Ji on the 30th of March, 1699 A.D., on the eve of Baisakhi at Kesgarh Sahib in Sri Anandpur Sahib. Guru Ji appeared on the stage with his sword unsheathed and spoke, “Is there any Sikh who would sacrifice his life for Dharma?” When Guru Sahib repeated his call for the third time, Bhai Daya Ram Ji offered himself for sacrifice. Subsequently Bhai Dharam Das Ji, Bhai Mohkam Chand Ji, Bhai Sahib Chand Ji and Bhai Himmat Rai Ji presented themselves for sacrifice. In this way, Guru Gobind Singh Ji selected the ‘Panj Payaras’, and thus laid the foundation of the Khalsa.

Question 76.
Explain the main principles of the Khalsa.
Answer:

  • For every person who wishes to join the Khalsa Panth, it is essential to drink the Nectar of Immortality,
  • Every Khalsa man will use ‘Singh’ with his name and Khalsa woman ‘Kaur’ with her name,
  • Every Khalsa will worship no god or goddess but only one God.
  • Every Khalsa will wear the five emblems i.e.Kes, Kangha, Kara, Kachha and Kirpan.

Question 77. What was the importance of creation of Khalsa Panth in the Sikh History?
Or
Study the importance of the creation of Khalsa.
Answer:

  • With its establishment, a large number of people began to join Sikhism.
  • It also led to the establishment of an ideal society,
  • There was no room for the concept of high and low in it. All the castes were treated equally,
  • Guru Gobind Singh Ji instilled a new spirit among the Sikhs by creating Khalsa.

Question 78.
Write a brief note on the first battle of Sri Anandpur Sahib.
Answer:
The increasing power of Guru Gobind Singh Ji alarmed the Hill Chiefs. Raja Bhim Chand of Kahlur asked Guru Gobind Singh Ji to vacate Sri Anandpur Sahib. Guru Gobind Singh Ji clearly refused to comply with his demand. He clarified that Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib had made full payment for the land, when he founded this town. At this Bhim Chand formed a joint front with the cooperation of other Hill Chiefs. The allied forces under the command of Raja Bhim Chand besieged the fort of Sri Anandpur Sahib in 1701 A.D. When the Hill Chiefs saw that there were no chances of their success they made peace.

Question 79.
Write a brief note on the second battle of Sri Anandpur Sahib.
Answer:
The allied army of Hill Chiefs and the Mughals besieged the fort of S Anandpur Sahib in 1704 A.D. As the siege of the fort got prolonged, 40 Sikhs ga Bedawa to Guru Ji and left the fort. So, the allied army played a trick. They toe oaths on the Quran and the cow to assure Guru Gobind Singh Ji that they would not harm him if he vacated the fort of Sri Anandpur Sahib. But, as soon as Guru Gobind Singh Ji came out of the fort, the joint army fell upon the Sikhs.

Question 80.
Give a brief account of the battle of Chamkaur Sahib.
Answer:
After Guru Gobind Singh Ji left the fort of Sri Anandpur Sahib, Guru Gobind Singh Ji took shelter in a Garhi (mud fortress) in Chamkaur Sahib along with his 40 Sikhs. Soon, thousands of Mughal soldiers laid siege to the Garhi. The battle of Chamkaur Sahib was fought on 22 December, 1704 A.D. It was a bloody battle. In this battle, the two elder sons of Guru Ji, Sahibzada Ajit Singh and Sahibzada Jujhar Singh caused havoc among the allied ranks and ultimately laid down their lives.

Question 81.
Write a brief note on the battle of Khidrana (Sri Mukatsar Sahib).
Answer:
The Faujdar of Sirhind Wazir Khan had made a surprise attack on the army of Guru Gobind Singh Ji at Khidrana on December 29,1705 A.D. The Sikhs exhibited bravery in this battle also. In this battle, Guru Gobind Singh Ji got a glorious victory. Impressed by sacrifice made by the 40 Sikhs and on the request of their dying leader Mahan Singh, Guru Ji blessed them with the boon of salvation (Mukti). In this way Khidrana got the name of Sri Muktsar Sahib.

Question 82.
How did Gurp Gobind Singh Ji settle the sectarian divisions and external dangers to Sikhism?
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji founded Khalsa Panth in 1699 A.D. to deal with the sectarian divisions and external dangers to Sikhism. Guru Ji declared that all his Sikhs were his Khalsa and they were directly related to him. In this way Masands ceased to be the middlemen. Minas, Dhirmalias and Ramraias were expelled from the Sikh Panth. In order to deal with the external dangers, Guru Gobind Singh Ji ordered ‘ all the Sikhs to remain equipped with weapons.

Question 83.
What do you know about literary activities of Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
Or
Describe the literary activities of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Or
Evaluate the literary activities of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s contribution in the field of literature is invaluable. He himself was a poet and a literature of high order. Guru Ji used Punjabi, Hindi, Sanskrit, Persian and Arabic languages in his writings. His great works are Jaap Sahib, Bachitar Natak, Akal Ustat, Zafarnama, Chandi Di Var etc. Guru Gobind lingh Ji had accorded patronage to 52 top-class poets in his Darbar.

Question 84.
What is Zafarnama?
Or
Write a short note on Zafarnama.
Answer:
Zafamama is a letter of victory written by Guru Gobind Singh Ji to Aurangzeb. It was written in Persian. It was written from Dina Kangar. In this letter Guru Gobind Singh Ji boldly explained about his oppression and injustice and breaking of oaths taken on the Quran by his officials. He accused Aurangzeb of betrayal of faith.

Question 85.
What is the importance of social reforms of Guru Gobind Singh Ji in History?
Answer:

  • He created Khalsa Panth and brought about a social revolution. By joining it, people of low castes got an equal status with the people of high castes.
  • Women were also administered Amrit and made equal to men.
  • Guru Gobind Singh Ji told his followers to shim alcoholic drinks and other intoxicants,
  • He instilled a new spirit of bravery and fearlessness in his Sikhs.

Question 86.
“Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a builder par excellence.” Do you agree to this argument?
Answer:
Undoubtedly, Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a great organiser. Guru Gobind Singh Ji gave a proof of his organising ability by creating Khalsa Panth. Really, it was a great wonder that infused a new spirit among people. They became great warriors and were ready to sacrifice everything for the sake of their religion. They did not heave a sigh of relief until they put an end to the Mughal and Afghan rule in Punjab and established their independent rule.

Question 87.
Mention any four characteristics of Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s personality.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a great warrior and general of his time.
He was a great social reformer.
He was a man of high character.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a great religious leader.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Short Answer Type Questions (Type-2):

Question 1.
Give a brief account of the contribution of Guru Nanak Dev Ji to Sikhism.
Answer:
When Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born in the 15th century, the political, social and religious condition of India was pitiable. The Muslims belonged to the ruling class. They hated the Hindus and perpetrated cruelty on them. Religion had been reduced to the level of mere outward show. People were groping in the darkness of ignorance. Condition of womenfolk in society was very deplorable Gum Nanak Dev Ji undertook travels in the various parts of the country and abroad to dispel superstitions prevalent among people and to bring awareness in them. Gum Nanak Dev Ji preached to worship only one God, to lead pious and tmthful life, to give equal rights to women and to shun superstitions.

Wherever he went, he deeply impressed people through his teachings. Gum Nanak Dev Ji raised a voice against the tyranny of the ruling class and officials and injustice. He founded two institutions namely Sangat and Pangat. A new religious brotherhood had come into being in the lifetime of Gum Nanak Dev Ji. Before he breathed his last in 1539 A.D. Gum Nanak Dev Ji appointed Bhai Lehna (Gum Angad Dev Ji) as his successor. The appointment of Gum Angad Dev Ji proved very significant for the development of Sikh Panth.

Question 2.
What do you mean by Udasis? What were the aims of Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s Udasis?
Or
What were the aims and importance of the Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
Udasis of Gum Nanak Dev Ji mean the travels undertaken by him. Main objective of Gum Nanak Dev Ji’s Udasis was to dispel ignorance and superstitions of the people. He wanted to convey the message of universal brotherhood of mankind and worship of the only one God to the people. Both the religions i.e. Hinduism and Islam had gone astray and forgotten their true principles. The Brahmans and Mullas, whose duty was to guide people, had themselves turned corrupt and characterless. When the religious leaders themselves grope in the dark, it is not difficult to ascertain the condition of the common people. The people had started worshipping a number of gods, goddesses, graves, trees, snakes, stones etc.

In this way, the true spirit of religion had disappeared. The society was divided into many castes and sub-castes. People of one caste hated the people of the other castes. Condition of womenfolk in society was pitiable. They were treated as a man’s shoe. Guru Nanak Dev Ji started his Udasis to show a new path to the people, who were groping in darkness.

Question 3.
Write a brief note on any five important Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji started his Udasis from Saidpur. Here, he was invited to a grand feast hosted by Malik Bhago, the prominent landlord of the area. But Guru Nanak Dev Ji declined the invitation and stayed at Bhai Lalo’s house, who was a poor carpenter. It offended Malik Bhago. He asked Guru Nanak Dev Ji to explain his conduct. The Guru explained the difference by saying that Bhai Lalo’s bread had been earned by honest labour, and that of Malik Bhago’s had been obtained by exploitation of the poor. At Talumba, Guru Nanak Dev Ji met Sajjan thug, a cheat.

He used to loot the travellers staying at his inn. He was so much moved by Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s Bani that he fell at the Guru’s feet and confessed all his misdeeds. He spent the rest of his life in preaching Sikhism. At Gorakhmata, Guru Nanak Dev Ji told the Sidh Jogis that man cannot attain salvation by wedring earrings, by blowing horns or by rubbing ashes on the body. Salvation could be attained through purity of seul. At Jagannath Puri, Guru Nanak Dev Ji told that there is no need to offer Aarti to God as the nature is doing this job. At Mecca, Guru Nanak Dev Ji proved that Allah (God) is not confined to any one particular direction, but He is omnipresent.

Question 4.
Write an essence of the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Or
Give a brief account of the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Or
Write any five teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is one. He is formless and omnipresent. He is immortal. He is omnipotent and kind. He is the Creator, Sustainer and Destroyer of the world. So, we should not worship any other god or goddess except Him. The Guru accepted Maya as the biggest hurdle in the way of salvation. A worldly man remains involved in Maya. Maya allures man to itself and in ignorance, he comes and goes. The Guru told that lust, anger, greed, attachment and pride are the five enemies of man. Due to these, man remains trapped in the cycle of birth and death.

Guru Nanak Dev Ji strongly condemned the prevalent superstitions and outward show of religion. Guru Ji deemed that a person is truly religious, who is internally pure. According to him, salvation was not possible without a Guru (a teacher). The real Guru is God Himself, who provides knowledge through Shabad (Word). According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, it -S impossible to attain salvation in the absence of right conduct. “Abide pure amidst the impurities of the world” was the core of his teachings.

Question 5.
What was Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s concept of God?
Or
What were the views of Guru Nanak Dev Ji about God?
Or
Describe the nature of God according to Mul Mantra of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji believed in one God only. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is the Creator, Sustainer and Destroyer of the world. His manifestations may be many, but He is one and only one. God has two forms. He is Nirguna (without attributes) as well as Saguna (with attributes). By His order (Hukam) men, animals, birds, rivers, mountains, forests etc. came into existence. God does not merely create. Having brought the world into being He watches over it and cares for it. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is the Sovereign Lord, the wielder of absolute authority. Everything happens in accordance with His will. Nothing can happen against His will.

Guru Nanak Dev Ji says that the universe created by God is unstable and temporary but God is immortal. He is beyond the cycle of birth, death and rebirth. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is formless. He cannot be described in words. He cannot be seen with human eyes. But, even then, He is omnipresent. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the ways of God are strange and unpredictable. He is present everywhere in the water, in the sky and On the earth. Therefore we should not think Him far from us. He is always within us.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 6.
What type of religious beliefs and rituals were condemned by Guru 1 Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji condemned all the blind faiths of religion prevalent in society. He opposed idol-worship, Vedic rituals, going to the pilgrimages, and other rituals connected with important occasions of life. The Brahmans were the main supporters of these rituals. He did not approve of the ideology of the Jogis for two reasons:

The Jogis lacked faith in God. They remained away from society and shirked social responsibilities. Guru Nanak Dev Ji did not believe in the concept of incarnation. So, he rejected the Vaishnav sect also.

He criticised the religious beliefs of Mullas, the so-called religious leaders of Islam. Guru Nanak Dev Ji did not accept the practice of wearing saffron clothes, putting ear-rings, rubbing ashes all over the body, putting holy mark on forehead, blowing a conch and worshipping of graves etc. Guru Nanak Dev Ji said that a man is truly religious when one is internally pure.

Question 7.
What was Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s concept of Maya?
Answer: Guru Nanak Dev Ji regarded Maya as the biggest hurdle in the way of man’s salvation. The multicoloured Maya allures man to itself. An unregenerate man remains engrossed in worldly things such as wealth, status, beautiful women, sons etc. It is ‘called Maya. In fact, the entire creation is God’s Maya. It is a snare. An unregenerate man does not know the difference between the Creator and His creation. He does not realize that all other than God, is subject to annihilation.

Maya, whom, he loves S’ much does not accompany him after his death. It separates man from God, by keepin him absorbed in worldly things. One who yields to Maya also remains caught in th cycle of transmigration. By accumulating riches i.e. gold, silver etc., a man consider himself to be a great person of the world. But actually, he is collecting poison for himself. Thus, he ruins his life by being caught in ‘dubidha’ (misery arising from affiliation to anything other than God).

Question 8.
What is the importance of ‘Guru’ in Guru Nanak Dev’s teachings?
Or
What was the concept of “Guru” according to Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
In his teachings Guru Nanak Dev Ji laid much emphasis on Guru. The Guru is a ladder by means of which one attains salvation. Without the Guru’s guidance, no one can attain salvation. An unregenerate (manmukh) man remains engrossed in worldly enjoyments. It is the Guru, who purifies his mind. He can become one with God, if he follows the instructions of the Guru. A union with the Guru results in killing the ego.

The misery born of vices ends and the good fortune is awakened. The Guru gives knowledge about Truth, Nam and Shabad. The Guru dispels the darkness of ignorance. Only the Guru leads a man from darkness (ignorance) to light (realisation). It is not easy to get a true Guru. One cannot get Guru without the Nadar (grace) of God. It is worthy to note that when Guru Nanak Dev Ji talks of Guru, he does not refer to arty human Guru. The human-Gurus are blind. A true Guru is God Himself, who is revealed through the Word (Shabad).

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 9.
Write the views of Guru Nanak Dev Ji about the women.
Answer:
The condition_of womenfolk during Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s time was very miserable. They were considered equal in status to a man’s shoe in society. They were regarded as a commodity of sensual pleasure and they could be sold or purchased like animals. Many evils existed among them like child marriage, polygamy, purdah system, sati system and divorce etc. For these reasons, birth of a female child was considered an ill-omen. Guru Nanak Dev Ji strongly criticised the prevalent evils relating to women. He launched a forceful campaign to enhance the respect of women in society.

He opposed , child-marriage, polygamy, purdah system and sati system etc. He was in favour of women’s equal rights to men. In this regard Guru Nanak Dev Ji allowed women to join Sangat and Pangat. Guru Ji said that woman who gave birth to great emperors, should not be called inferior. He was in favour of giving education to women also.

Question 10.
What was the social meaning and significance of Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s message?
Or
What was the impact of teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
The social meaning of Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s message is very important. His message was for everyone. Any man or woman could follow the path shown by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. The path of salvation was open for all. Guru Nanak Dev Ji preached social equality. Guru Nanak Dev Ji condemned the caste system in strong words. In order to put his message of social equality into practice, he founded two institutions i.e. Sangat and Pangat. No discrimination of caste was observed while preparing the Langar. Guru Nanak Dev Ji strongly criticised uryust policies of the riders and corruption existing In his time. Besides the ruling class, Guru Nanak Dev Ji condemned in unequivocal terms the corrupt officials of the government. In this way, Guru Nanak Dev Ji identified himself with the masses.

Question 11.
How far were the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji different from the Bhakti reformers?
Answer:
The teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji were different from the teachings of other religious preachers in many ways. According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji, God is formless. He never acquires the human form. The Bhakti preachers regard Krishna and Rama as the incarnations of God. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was deadly against idol-worship, while the other religious preachers had full faith in it. Guru Nanak Dev Ji appointed Guru Angad Dev Ji, his successor for preaching Sikhism and continuing the Gurgaddi. On the other hand, very few Bhakti preachers continued the tradition of establishing Gurgaddi.

As a result, they could not maintain their identity for long. Guru Nanak Dev Ji believed in leading a married life. The Bhakti preachers thought it to be a big hurdle, in the way of salvation. Guru Nanak Dev Ji founded two institutions of Sangat and Pangat. Anybody could join these without any discrimination of caste and creed. The Bhakti preachers did not set up any such institution. Guru Nanak Dev Ji did not consider Sanskrit a holy language. He preached his teachings in Punjabi, the language of the masses. Most of the Bhakti preachers gave Sanskrit the status of a holy language.

Question 12.
How and where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji spend last 18 years of his life?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dfev Ji established Kartarpur (Abode of God) on the banks of the Ravi in 1521 A.D. He spent the last 18 years of his life with his family at this place. During this period, he set up the institutions of Sangat and Pangat. Sangat meant the congregation, which gathered to hear the Bani of the Guru everyday. Every man or woman could join the Sangat without any discrimination. Only the name of God was recited and chanted in the Sangat. Pangat means to sit in a queue and take food together. In this Langar (the community kitchen), no discrimination of caste, creed or religion was observed.

Both these institutions proved helpful in the spread of Sikhism. Besides, Guru Nanak Dev Ji composed 976 Shabads. This work of the Guru proved extremely useful for the development of Sikhism. Main Bani of Guru Nanak Dev Ji includes Japji Sahib, Var Majh, Sidh Gosht, Var Malhar, Barah Maha and Patti etc.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 13.
What was Guru Angad Dev Ji’s contribution to the development of Sikhism?
Or
What did Guru Angad Dev Ji do for the development of Sikhism?
Or
Write five achievements of Guru Angad Dev Ji for the development o Sikhism.
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji remained on Gurgaddi from 1539 A.D. to 1552 A.D. He took many important steps for the development of Sikhism during his gurgaddi. He made Khadur Sahib his main centre of preaching. A new dimension was given to Gurmukhi script, so that people may understand it easily. Guru Angad Dev Ji compiled the Bani of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and himself which was composed under Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s name. It proved as the first step in Guru Arjan Dev Ji’s compilation of Guru Granth Sahib. Sangat and Pangat institutions were further strengthened. These institutions gave a shattering blow to the caste-system. Guru Angad Dev Ji maintained strict discipline among his followers. He did a praiseworthy work by keeping Sikhism aloof from the Udasi sect.

Question 14.
What contribution was made by Guru Angad Dev Ji to improve Gurmukhi script?
Answer:
Although Gurmukhi script had come into being well before Guru Angad Dev Ji, but anybody could get confused by reading it. So Guru Angad Dev Ji made requisite improvements in this script and gave it a new look. As a result, it became easy for people to understand it. All the Sikh scriptures were subsequently written in this script. As this script became popular, the Brahman class suffered a major setback, because they considered Sanskrit, as the only language of religion.

The popularity of Gurmukhi proved helpful in the spread of Sikhism. This script reminds the Sikhs of their duty towards Guru. This script also proved very helpful in the spread of education among the Sikhs. Besides, a separate identity of the Sikhs from Hindus was established. Undoubtedly, the spread of Gurmukhi script gave a new impetus to the development of Sikhism. „

Question 15.
‘Guru Angad Dev Ji was a great disciplinarian.’ Do you agree to it?
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji was a great disciplinarian. Once two Raagis (bards) Satta and Balwand in the Darbar of Guru Ji grew very proud of their melodious voice. They began to boast that it was on account of their skill in music that the Guru Angad Dev Ji had grown popular. In their vanity, they started violating the orders of the Guru Angad Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji could not tolerate it. As a result, he expelled both the Raagis from the Darbar. Soon they realised their folly. Later on, when they begged pardon and Bhai Ladha Ji intervened, Guru Angad Dev Ji forgave them. In this way, Guru Angad Dev Ji set an example of maintaining strict discipline in Guru’s Darbar (court.)

Question 16.
Write a short note on the importance of Sangat and Pangat.
Or
What do you know about Sangat?
Or
What do you mean by Pangat or Langar?
Or
Write a note on Pangat or Langar.
Answer:
1. Sangat: Sangat means a congregation of the Sikhs. This Sangat gathered in the morning and evening to listen to the Bani (Hymns), and teachings of Guru Angad Dev Ji. This institution of Sangat was established by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji developed it further. Any man or woman could join the Sangat without the discrimination of caste, creed or religion. Sangat was considered as God’s incarnation. This institution greatly helped in eradicating inequality in society and in organising the Sikhs. Undoubtedly, this institution proved very significant in the development of Sikhism.

2. Pangat: Pangat or Langar was established by Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Angad Dev Ji continued it and Guru Amar Das Ji further developed this institution. Guru Amar Das Ji declared that none could meet him without taking Langar. He gave the slogan of first Pangat and then Sangat. The Mughal emperor Akbar and the King of Haripur also had partaken Langar before meeting Guru Amar Das Ji. Langar used to continue till late night.

The left over Langar was given to birds and animals. Langar was open for people of all religions and castes. The contribution of Langar was significant for the spread of Sikhism. This institution greatly helped in eradicating caste system and untouchability in the society. As a result of this institution, a feeling of mutual brotherhood developed among the Sikhs.

Question 17.
What problems had Guru Amar Das Ji to face in the early years of his pontificate?
Answer:
In the early ydars of his pontification, Guru Amar Das Ji had to face the opposition of Dasu and Datu, the two sons of Guru Angad Dev Ji. They claimed that being sons of a Guru, they had a right to Gurgaddi. Therefore, they refused to accept Guru Amar Das Ji as Guru. Baba Sri Chand, elder son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, staked his claim to the Gurgaddi.

So, he also started opposing Guru Amar Das Ji. Guru Amar Das Ji’s growing popularity also made Muslims of Goindwal jealous of the Sikhs. They started harassing the Sikhs in many ways. Guru Amar Das Ji asked the Sikhs to remain calm. The orthodox Hindus also started opposing Guru Amar Das Ji for his social reforms. They considered these reforms an interference in their religion.

Question 18.
Give the contribution of Guru Amar Das Ji for the development of Sikhism.
Or
Write down the five services done by Guru Amar Das Ji for the development of Sikh religion.
Or
Make a mention of the five major contributions of Guru Amar Das Ji to the growth of Sikhism.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji remained on Gurgaddi from 1552 A.D. to 1574 A.D. During this span of time, he did appreciable job for the development of the Sikh Panth. First of all he completed the work on Baoli, initiated at Goindwal Sahib. Eighty four steps were built to reach this Baoli. Guru Sahib declared that anybody who recited Japji on each step and took a dip in the Baoli with pure mind and devotion, will get salvatior from the cycle of 84 lakh lives. It became a central place of pilgrimage for the Sikhs. The Langar system was further developed.

The Guru declared that nobody high or low. could see him, unless he had “partaken Langar. The Manji system established by the. Guru gave a new impetus to the spread of Sikhism. The Guru kept Sikhism aloof from Udasi sect, and thus, saved it from merging into Hinduism. Guru Amar Das Ji strongly. criticised the prevalent social evils like sati system, purdah system, ban on widow- marriage, caste-system and use of intoxicants etc. Guru Amar Das Ji started special rituals suited for the occasions of birth, death and marriage among the Sikhs. He composed Bani under the name of Nanak. Guru Amar Das Ji appointed Bhai Jetha Ji (Guru Ram Das Ji) as his successor.

Question 19.
What was the importance of the construction of the Baoli of Goindwal Sahib in Sikh History?
Answer:
The first significant step undertaken by Guru Amar Das Ji for the development; of Sikhism was the construction of a Baoli at Goindwal Sahib. The construction work of the Baoli was started in 1552 A.D. and it was completed in 1559 A.D. Guru , Ji had two objectives in its construction. First, he wanted to give the Sikhs a separate place of pilgrimage so that they could be separated from the Hindus.

Secondly, he wanted to solve the water problem of the people of that place. Eighty four steps were ; built to reach the Baoli. After its construction was over, Guru Ji declared, “Whoever would attentively and reverently repeat the Japji on every step after a bath. in the Baoli would escape from the wandering in the wombs of the 84 lakhs of living creatures.” The construction of Baoli Sahib proved a very important step in the development of Sikhism. It gave the Sikhs a place of pilgrimage of their own.

Question 20.
Describe briefly the social reforms of Guru Amar Das Ji.
Or
Describe any five reforms of Sri Guru Amar Das Ji.
Or
Discuss the social reforms introduced by Guru Amar Das Ji.
Or
Why is Guru Amar Das Ji called a social reformer?
Or
Give an account of the four major social reforms of Guru Amar Das Ji.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji was a great social reformer. He condemned in strong words the social evil of sati, which was prevalent in society for centuries. According to this system, when some unfortunate woman lost her husband, she was forcibly burnt alive in the burning pyre along with her dead husband. Guru Ji opposed child marriage and purdah system also. These evils had further worsened the condition of the women. Guru Amar% Das Ji was in favour of widow marriage. He emphatically criticised the prevalent caste System and untouchability.

In order to eradicate this evil, he made it obligatory for everyone to partake Langar before meeting him. Thus, Guru Amar Das Ji preached , the message of universal brotherhood of mankind. Guru Amar Das Ji was against the use of wine and other intoxicants. He introduced new rites for thd Sikhs to be followed on the occasions of birth, death and marriage. Thus, Guru Amar Das Ji laid the foundation of a new society.

Question 21.
What was the Manji system? How did it contribute to the development of Sikhism?
Or
What do you know about Manji system?
Or
Write a note on Manji system.
Answer:
The setting up of Manji system was a great achievement of Guru Amar Das Ji. The number of the Sikhs had greatly increased during his Gurgaddi. So it was not possible for him to reach every Sikh personally. In order to intensify the propaganda of Sikhism, he created 22 Manjis. Head of each Manji was called Manjidar. This post of Manjidar was given to very devoted and pious Sikhs only. The area of a Manjidar for propaganda was not restricted to one place.

He could go anywhere in connection with the propaganda. Manjidar motivated people to come into the fold of Sikhism. Besides, he used to collect money from the Sikhs and passed it on to Guru Amar Das Ji. Since the Manjidar sat on a cot (Manji) while addressing congregations, this system came to be known as Manji system in Sikh history. The Manji system gave a big thrust to the missionary activities of the Sikhs.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 22.
What type of relations did Guru Amar Das Ji have with the Mughals?
Or
Explain the relations between Mughal emperor Akbar and Guru Amar Das Ji.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji had good relations with the Mughals. At that time, Akbar was the Mughal ruler of India. As a result of Guru Amar Das Ji’s prayer, Akbar had succeeded in the expedition of Chittor. So Akbar came to Goindwal Sahib to convey his gratitude towards Guru Amar Das Ji in 1568 A.D. He complied with the tradition of partaking food in the Langar with other people before meeting Guru Amar Das Ji. He was very impressed by the personality of Guru Amar Das Ji.and the Langar system. He offered a few villages as Jagir for the conduct of Langar. The offer was declined by Guru Amar Das Ji. Thereupon, Akbar granted this Jagir to Bibi Bhani, daughter of Guru Amar Das Ji. In short, Akbar’s visit to Goindwal not only enhanced the prestige of Guru Amar Das, but it also made Sikhism more popular.

Question 23.
Explain the contribution of Sri Guru Ram Das Ji to the growth of Sikhism.
Or
What was the contribution of Guru Ram Das Ji to Sikh religion?
Or
Give a brief account of the contribution of Guru Ram Das Ji to the growth of Sikhism.
Or
Guru Ram Das Ji played a vital role for the development of Sikhism. Discuss.
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji remained on Gurgaddi from 1574 A.D. to 1581 A.D. First of all, he set up Ramdaspura (Amritsar). Guru Ram Das Ji established 52 trades in this city. This bazaar came to be known as Guru Ka Bazaar. Besides, he initiated the digging of two ponds i.e. Amritsar and Santokhsar here. Guru Ji started Masand system for collecting money from the Sikhs, which was required for the preaching and developmental works of the Sikh Panth. Masand system played a vital role in consolidating the development of Sikhism. Guru Ram Das Ji put an end to the long standing tussle between the Sikhs and the Udasis, thus, ensuring a new era. Guru Ram Das Ji continued the institutions of Sangat and Pangat. He also composed his Bani. He strongly condemned the evils prevalent in society. Before breathing his last in 1581 A.D. Guru Ram Das Ji appointed his younger son, Guru Aijan Dev Ji as his successor. Thus, Guru Ram Das Ji made a significant contribution to the development of Sikhism during his pontificate.

Question 24.
What is the importance of the foundation of Ramdaspura (Amritsar) in Sikh History?
Answer:
The most important contribution of Guru Ram Das Ji towards the Sikh Panth was the foundation of Ramdaspura or Amritsar. After assuming Guruship, he himself settled here. In 1577 A.D. he founded Ramdaspura. He settled fifty two other traders belonging to different trades at this place in order to make it popular and attract people. The market formed by these traders came to be known as ‘Guru Ka Bazaar’. It soon became a famous trade centre.

Guru Ram Das Ji planned to construct two sarovars (tanks) Amritsar and Santokhsar at Ramdaspura. First, the digging of the Amritsar sarovar was started. Baba Buddha Ji was entrusted to look after this project. Later on the name of Ramdaspura came to be known as Amritsar. The foundation of Amritsar occupies an important place in the history of Sikhism. It gave Sikhs a separate place of pilgrimage, which soon developed into the most famous centre of religious propagation.

Question 25.
Write a note on Udasi Sect.
Or
Write a brief note on Baba Sri Chand Ji.
Answer:
The Udasi sect was founded by Baba Sri. Chand, the elder son of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Many Sikhs, impressed by the asceticism of Sri Chand, began to join Udasi sect, which stressed the life of aloofness or renunciation. On the other hand, Guru Nanak Dev Ji was in favour of family life. The other principles of Udasi sect were in tune with the principles of Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Under such circumstances, it was feared that the Sikhs might forget the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and adopt Udasi sect. So Guru Amar Das Ji strongly opposed the Udasi sect. He said that a true Sikh could not be an Udasi. A settlement was however reached between the Sikhs and the Udasis during Guru Ram Das Ji’s pontificate. This settlement ushered in a new era. Now the Udasis left no stone unturned in preaching Sikhism. Consequently, Sikhism made rapid strides.

Question 26.
Write a brief note on the difficulties faced by Guru Arjan Dev Ji immediately after his accession to Gurugaddi.
Or
What were the difficulties faced by Guru Arjan Dev Ji, when he became the Guru?
Answer:
At the time of accession to Gurgaddi, Guru Arjan Dev Ji had to face the opposition firstly of his elder brother Prithi Chand. He vehemently protested against his supersession. He declared that so long as he did not get Gurgaddi, he would not let Guru Arjan Dev Ji take any respite. So, he started instigating the Mughal Emperor, Akbar by every means to take stern action against Guru Aijan Dev Ji. The fanatic Muslims of the Punjab could not bear the growing influence of the Sikhs in Punjab. So, they spoke against Guru Arjan Dev Ji, first to Akbar and then to Jahangir. Akbar had paid no heed to them, while Jahangir was much incited by them. Chandu Shah was the Diwan of Lahore.

He was in search of a groom for his daughter. His messengers recommended the name of Hargobind, the son of Guru Arjan Dev Ji for the proposal. When Chandu Shah heard the name of Hargobind, he flew into a rage and said that he couldn’t lay the ornamental tile of a top storey into a gutter. But being persuaded by his wife, Chandu Shah agreed to the proposal. As the words of Chandu Shah had by now reached Guru Arjan Dev Sahib, so he declined the proposal. As a result, Chandu Shah turned a sworn enemy of Guru Arjan Dev Ji and kept on hatching conspiracies against Guru Arjan Sahib.

Question 27.
What was Guru Aijan Dev Ji’s contribution to the development of Sikhism?
Or
Throw a brief light on five important achievements of Guru Aijan D,ev Ji.
Or
Give a brief account of the organizational works of Guru Aijan Dev Ji.
Answer:
The contribution of Guru Arjan Dev Ji in the development of Sikhism was very significant. During his Gurgaddi (1581-1606) he did admirable job for the development of Sikhism. By making Sri Harmandir Sahib at Amritsar, Guru Arjan Dev Ji gave the Sikhs their most sacred place of pilgrimage. He got built three new towns i.e. Tam Taran, Hargobindpur and Kartarpur in Bari Doab and’Jalandhar Doab regions. He got a Baoli dug at Lahore. The development of Masand System was one of his greatest achievements.

The Masands collected Daswand from the Sikhs’ income besides preaching Sikhism. The compilation of Guru Granth Sahib in 1604 A.D. by Guru Arjan Dev Ji is considered his crowning achievement. The Sikhs consider it their most sacred scripture. Guru Arjan Dev Ji encouraged the trade of horses in order to make his Sikhs prosperous from economic point of view. Guru Arjan Dev Ji infused a new spirit into Sikhism with his martyrdom in 1606 A.D.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 28.
Write a brief note on Sri Harmandir Sahib.
Or
Describe briefly importance of the foundation of Sri Harmandir Sahib by Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Or
Give a brief account of the foundation and importance of Sri Harmandir Sahib.
Or
Briefly describe the importance of the foundation of Sri Harmandir Sahib.
Answer:
The building of Sri Harmandir Sahib is one of the greatest achievements of Guru Aijan Dev Ji. It was constructed in the midst of Amrit Sarovar. Guru Arjan Dev Ji got its foundation laid by a famous Sufi saint, Mian Mir in 1588 A.D. Harmandir means ‘Temple of God’. Guru Arjan Dev Ji kept the height of the building of Sri Harmandir Sahib lower than those of the surrounding buildings and said, “What is humble, shall be exalted.” Four doors were built on four sides of Sri Harmandir Sahib, which meant people could come in this temple from all four comers of the world without any discrimination.

The construction of Harmandir Sahib was completed in 1601 A.D. Guru Arjan Dev Ji declared that every visitor to Sri Harmandir Sahib would get the benefit of 68 Hindu pilgrimages. If a pilgrim baths in Amrit Sarovar with a pure heart, he would get salvation. It deeply impressed the people and they began to come here in a large number. Soon, Sri Harmandir Sahib became the leading pilgrimage centre of the Sikhs.

Question 29.
What do you know about Masand system? Explain.
Or
Examine the organisation and development of Masand system.
Or
Who started Masand system? What were its aims?
Or
Give a brief description of Masand system.
Or
Write a short note on Masand system and its importance.
Answer:
‘Masand’ is derived from the Persian word Masnad which means ‘a high place’. This system was set up by Guru Ram Das Ji, but its real development took place during Guru Aijan Dev Ji’s time. The number of Sikhs had greatly increased by that time. So Guru Aijan Dev Ji needed money for Langar (community kitchen) and other developmental works of the Sikhs. Guru Ram Das Ji announced that each Sikh should offer Daswandh (one tenth of income) to him. He appointed Masands to collect Daswandh from the Sikh Sangat. The Masands not only collected Daswandh but also preached Sikhism.

The Masands deposited the money collected from the Sikhs with Guru Ram Das Ji on the occasions of Diwali and Baisakhi at Amritsar. Masand system proved very useful in the beginning. It played a significant role in the evolution of the Sikh movement. Moreover, the system ensured a steady flow of the resources to the Guru’s treasury. Later on, the Masands turned corrupt and they started creating problems for the Gurus. As a result, Guru Gobind Singh Ji did away with this system.

Question 30.
Write a short note on Tara Taran and its importance.
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji, in order to propagate Sikhism in Majha tract of the Punjab, founded the city of Tam Taran in 1590 A.D. This city is 24 kms to the South of Amritsar. Here a Sarovar named as Tam Taran was also dug. Tarn Taran means that any pilgrim who takes bath in this Sarovar shall get salvation from transmigration. Tarn Taran also became a famous holy place of the Sikhs. As a result, thousands of Jats of the Majha became the followers of Gum Arjan Dev Ji and embi aced Sikhism. The services of these Jats towards Sikhism were of great value. By their nature and habits, these Jats turned Sikhism into a warrior race. Later on, they turned out Mughals and Afghans from Punjab and established an independent Sikh empire.

Question 31.
Write a note on Prithi Chand.
Or
Who was Prithi Chand? Why did he oppose Guru Arjan Dev Ji?
Or
Who was Prithi Chand (Prithia)? How did he act against Guru Arjan Dev Ji?
Answer:
Prithi Chand or Prithia was the eldest son of Guru Ram Das Ji and elder brother of Gum Arjan Dev Ji. He was the founder of Mina Sect. He was very selfish and cunning. That is why Guru Rain Das Ji gave the, Gurgaddi to Gum Arjan Dev Ji instead of giving it to him. On hearing this decision, Prithi Chand got furious. He had been dreaming of getting the Gurgaddi since long. As such, he started opposing Guru Aijan Dev Ji, when the latter got Gurgaddi.

He started grabbing the offerings .meant for Langar. He hoped that his son Meharban would get Gurgaddi after Guru Arjan Dev Ji. But when Gum Arjan Dev Ji was blessed with a son, H&rgobind, all his hopes seemed to dash to the ground. Therefore, he became a sworn enemy of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. He convened with the Mughal officials and started hatching conspiracies against Guru Arjan Dev Ji. These conspiracies became a major cause of Gum Arjan Dev Ji’s martyrdom.

Question 32.
Who was Chandu Shah? Why did he oppose Guru Arjan Dev Ji?
Or
Write a short note on Chandu Shah.
Answer:
Chandu Shah was the Diwan of Lahore. He was looking for a suitable match for his daughter. In connection with this he sent his messengers in different parts. When they returned, they proposed the name of Hargobind, son of Gum Arjan Dev Ji, for his daughter. On hearing this Chandu Shah was enraged and remarked that he couldn’t marry his daughter with the son of a beggar. A brick baked for a palace cannot be used for a gutter. But after being persuaded by his wife, he agreed to the proposal. So, he sent his messengers to Guru Aijan Dev Ji with the proposal of his daughter’s marriage with Hargobind.

By this time the Sikhs had come to know about the remarks of Chandhu Shah against the Guru. So they asked Guru Arjan Dev Ji to turn down this proposal. Consequently, Guru Aijan Dev Ji did the same. On hearing this Chandu Shah got very angry and became Guru Aijan Dev Ji’s sworn enemy. Then, he planned a conspiracy against Guru Aijan Dev Ji. First he incited Mughal Emperor, Akbar and later on Jahangir. Jahangir decided to take stem action against Guru Aijan Dev Ji.

Question 33.
Mention the main causes for the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Or
Examine five major causes of martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
Jahangir’s religious fanaticism was the main cause of Gum Aijan Dev Ji’s martyrdom. He was an orthodox Muslim, so he did not want any religion to flourish except Islam. Influence of the Sikhs in Punjab was growing day by day and it irked him. He was on the look out for an opportunity to check it. It becomes clear by reading his autobiography, Tuzak-i-Jahangiri. The compilation of Adi Granth Sahib by Guru Aijan Dev Ji also became a cause of his martyrdom. The opponents of Gum Aijan Dev Ji started inciting Jahangir by saying that in Adi Granth Sahib much was written against Islam. Jahangir ordered Guru Aijan Dev Ji to delete a few words from Adi Granth Sahib but Guru Aijan Dev Ji declined to comply with his orders.

Chandu Shah, the Diwan of Lahore was also searching for a match for his daughter. His advisors suggested to marry his daughter to Hargobind, son of Gum Aijan Dev Ji. On hearing this proposal he used some derogatory remarks against Gum Aijan Dev Ji. Guru Arjan Dev Ji refused to accept this proposal for his son. Consequently, Chandu Shah turned Gum Aijan Dev Ji’s sworn enemy. ‘The help rendered to Khusrau, the elder son of Jahangir, by Guru Aijan Dev Ji became an immediate reason for the martyrdom of Gum Aijan Dev Ji. It is said that Gum Aijan Dev Ji supported Khusrau in his rebellion against his father, Jahangir.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 34.
Describe the role of Naqshbandis in the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Sahib.
Answer:
Naqshbandis played an important role in the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Sahib. Naqshbandi was an order started by fanatic Muslims. Its headquarters was at Sirhind. Naqshbandis were enraged to see the increasing influence and powers of the Sikhs in Punjab. The main reason was that the Muslims were intolerant to any other religion prospering and developing. Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi, the leader of Naqshbandis had great influence in Mughal Darbar. So, he also instigated Jahangir against Guru Aijan Sahib. Therefore, Jahangir decided to take action against Gum Arjan Sahib.

Question 35.
What was the immediate cause of the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Sahib?
Answer:
Help of Khusrau by Gum Aijan Sahib became the immediate cause of Guru Arjan Sahib’s martyrdom. Prince Khusrau was the eldest son of Jahangir. He revolted against his father some time after his enthronement. When the Mughal forces tried to arrest him, he ran to Punjab. On reaching Punjab, Khusrau came to Tam Taran to seek Guru Arian Sahib’s blessings. Being the grandson of Akbar with whom Guru Aijan Sahib had very good relations, it was but natural that he won Guru Aijan Sahib’s sympathy. Moreover anybody was free to come to the home of Guru Aijan Dev Ji to receive his blessings.

It is said that Guru Aijan Sahib put a tilak on his forehead and gave him all sorts of help required by him to go to Kabul. When Jahangir came to know about all this he got a golden opportunity to take stern action against Guru Aijan Sahib. He ordered Lahore Governor, Murtaza Khan to execute him by giving severe physical tortures, and to confiscate the whole of his property.

Question 36.
When and where was Guru Aijan Dev Ji executed? The main reason of his martyrdom was religious. Give arguments in its favour.
Or
Was Guru Arjan Dev Ji a political offender? Briefly explain.
Or
Was Guru Arjan Dev Ji executed for political or religious causes? Write briefly.
Answer:
Guru Aijan Dev Ji was martyred on May 30,1606 A.D. at Lahore. Religious causes were responsible for his martyrdom. Guru Aijan Dev Ji did not render any help to Khusrau. Question does not arise that Guru Ji put tilak on the forhead of Khusrau, as it was against the Sikh traditions. Jahangir has nowhere mentioned about it in his autobiography, Tuzak-i-Jahangiri, that Guru Aijan Dev Ji had met Prince Khusrau about a month before the martyrdom. Had Guru Aijan Dev Ji committed any crime, he would have invited the royal wrath at once.

By reading Tuzak-i-Jahangiri, it becomes evident that Jahangir wanted to liquidate Guru Aijan Dev Ji for religious reasons. He wanted to put a check on the growing influence of the Sikhs in Punjab. He wanted only Islam to flourish in India. He was in search of an opportunity against Guru Aijan Dev Ji. He falsely implicated Guru Aijan Dev Ji alleging that he had helped Prince Khusrau. Consequently, Guru Aijan Dev Ji was martyred.

Question 37.
Write the importance of Guru Aijan Dev Ji’s martyrdom.
Or
Briefly describe the importance of martyrdom of Guru Aijan Dev Ji.
Answer:
The martyrdom of Guru Aijan Dev Ji gave a new turn to the Sikh history. The peace loving Sikhs flared up as a result of this martyrdom. It became evident to them that taking to arms was now essential for the protection of their religion. That is why Guru Hargobind Ji adopted a New Policy. He carried two swords of Miri and Piri. The Miri sword stood for worldly power, while the Piri sword symbolised religious power. In this way, Guru Hargobind Ji turned the Sikhs into saint-soldiers. After the martyrdom of Guru Aijan Dev Ji, the era of friendship between the Sikhs and the Mughals came to an end.

A long drawn struggle between the Sikhs and the Mughals ensued after this. The struggle proved ruinous for the Mughals. On the other hand, it played the role of organising the Sikhs. Besides, Sikhism gained popularity with the martyrdom of Guru Aijan Dev Ji. Undoubtedly, the martyrdom of Guru Aijan Dev Ji proved a milestone in Singh.

Question 38.
What contribution was made by Guru Hargobind Sahib in the transformation of Sikhsim?
Or
Briefly describe the achievements of Guru Hargobind Sahib’s pontificate.
Or
Discuss the contribution of Guru Hargobind Sahib for the development of Sikhsim.
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Sahib remained on Gurgaddi from 1606 A.D. to 1645 A.D. The contribution of Guru Hargobind Sahib towards the transformation of Sikh Panth was great. He ascended the Gurgaddi with great pomp and show. He acquired the title of‘Sacha Padshah’ and wore two swords of Miri and Piri. Miri was the symbol of temporal power, while Piri stood for spiritual power. Guru Ji resolved to organise an army to face the tyrant Mughals. He ordered his Sikhs to offer him horses and arms. He got a fortress erected called Lohgarh for the protection of Amritsar.

Guru Hargobind Sahib got Akal Takht Sahib built in front of Sri Harmandir Sahib to discuss the political and military problems of the Sikhs. Jahangir was alarmed at the growing influence of Sikhism, so, he detained Guru Sahib for some time in the fort of Gwalior. During the regime of Shah Jahan the Mughals fought four battles with Guru Hargobind Sahib. The Sikhs won all these battles. Guru Hargobind Sahib founded a new town, named Kiratpur. He also did a lot qf work in preaching Sikhism.

Question 39.
What were the main causes of adoption of New Policy (Miri and Piri) by Guru Hargobind Ji?
Answer:
1. Change in the Religious Policy of the Mughals : Before Jahangir, the . relations between the Mughals and the Sikhs were very cordial. The Mughal emperor, Akbar showed great reverence for the Sikh Gurus. During .the time of Guru Amar Das Ji, Akbar himself came to Goindwal Sahib and partook Langar. He donated 500 bigha land to Guru Ram Das Ji and waived off the revenue of farmers in Punjab for one year. In 1605, Jahangir ascended the throne of the Mughal empire. He was a fanatic Sunni Muslim. He could not tolerate the flourishing of any other religion except Islam. In the changed \ circumstances, Guru Sahib had to adopt a New Policy.

2. Martyrdom of Guru Arjan Sahib : Being a fanatic Sunni Muslim, Jahangir martyred Guru Arjan Sahib in 1606 A.D. The martyrdom of Guru Arjan Sahib infuriated the Sikhs and aroused anger in them. Now, it became apparent to them that they would have to arm themselves against the Mughals. In this way, the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Sahib was largely responsible for the adoption of New Policy by Guru Hargobind Ji.

3. Last Message of Guru Arjan Sahib: Before his martyrdom, Guru Arjan Sahib sent a message through his Sikhs to his son, Hargobind Ji, “Let him sit fully armed on his throne and maintain an army to the best of his ability.” These words of Guru Arjan

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 40.
What were the main features of Guru Hargobind’s New Policy?
Or
What do you know about the New Policy or Miri and Piri of Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji?
Or
Discuss the concept of Miri-Piri.
Answer:
Under the changed circumstances, Guru Hargobind Sahib resolved to adopt a New Policy. He sat on Gurgaddi with great pomp and show. He started wearing gaudy clothes like those of emperors and also acquired the title of Sacha Padshah. He wore two swords of Miri and Piri. The sword of Miri stood for worldly power, while Piri sword symbolised the spiritual power. Guru Hargobind Ji decided to keep an army for the protection of the Sikh Panth. Guru Hargobind Sahib announced that the Sikhs should offer horses and arms in place of money. With the objective of making Amritsar secure and protected, he got a fortress, Lohgarh constructed.

He got Akal Takht constructed in front of Sri Harmandir Sahib to guide the Sikhs in political and other worldly matters. In this way, he turned his Sikhs into saint-soldiers. As a result of this New Policy, the relations between the Sikhs and the Mughals grew tense. If Guru Hargobind Sahib had not adopted the New Policy, the sacred brotherhood of the Sikhs would have either not sqrvived or would have relapsed into the class of monks and mendicants.

Question 41.
What do you know about the Miri and Piri?
Or
What is ‘Miri’ and ‘Piri’? Describe its historical importance.
Or
Briefly describe the importance of the New Policy of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Answer:
At the time of ascending Gurgaddi, Guru Hargobind Sahib fully realised the changed circumstances and danger looming ahead for Sikhism. Consequently, he decided to wear two swords of Miri and Piri. The sword of Miri symbolised temporal power and the sword of Piri symbolised the spiritual power, one to smite the oppressor and the other to protect the innocent. The wearing of these two swords by Guru Hargobind Sahib meant that, hence forward, he would guide the Sikhs in both worldly and religious matters. Guru Hargobind Sahib advised the Sikhs to recite True Name on the one hand and to carry arms for their protection on the other hand.

Thus, Guru Hargobind Sahib turned the Sikhs into saint-soldiers. This policy of Miri and Piri exercised a tremendous impact on Sikh history. Firstly, it infused a new spirit of confidence among the Sikhs. Secondly, the Sikhs had taken up arms now, in order to fight against injustice and for the protection of their religion. Thirdly, it sharpened the differences between the Mughals and the Sikhs. Fourthly, Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji founded the Sant Khalsa in accordance with the New Policy. Fifthly, a long drawn out struggle started between the Sikhs and the Mughals. As a consequence of this policy, the Sikhs became victorious.

Question 42.
Write a short note, on the imprisonment of Guru Hargobind Ji at Gwalior.
Or
Why did Jahangir arrest Guru Hargobind Ji?
Answer:
A few years after the assumption of Guruship by Guru Hargobind Ji, Jahangir called Guru Sahib to Delhi and imprisoned him in the fort of Gwalior. Why was Guru Hargobind Sahib taken prisoner? There is a difference of opinion among historians on this point. Some historians are of the view that Chandu Shah’s conspiracy was responsible for it. After the martyrdom of Guru Aijan Sahib, Chandu Shah once again tried to persuade Guru Hargobind Sahib, to accept the proposal of his daughter’s marriage. When Guru Hargobind Sahib replied that he was not prepared to marry the daughter of his father’s assassin, Chandu Shah was enraged beyond measure. He vowed to avenge this insult.

He instigated Jahangir aganist Guru Hargobind Ji. Consequently, Jahangir imprisoned the Guru. Most of the historians agree to the view that Jahangir imprisoned Guru Sahib for adopting the New Policy. It had aroused suspicions in the mind of Jahangir and the detractors of Guru Aijan Sahib poisoned his ears that Guru Hargobind Ji was preparing for a rebellion. The historians differ on the point as to how long Guru Hargobind Sahib was kept in prison in the fort of Gwalior. It is assessed for the historical facts that Guru Hargobind Sahib remained imprisoned in the fort of Gwalior for two years He. from 1606 to 1608 A.D.

Question 43.
Write a short note on relations between.Guru Hargobind Sahib and Mughal emperor Jahangir.
Answer:
In 1605 A.D. Jahangir ascended the throne of Mughal Empire. He was a fanatic Sunni Muslim. In a bid to crush the Sikh Movement, he martyred Guru Arjan Sahib in 1606 A.D. The martyrdom of Guru Aijan Sahib infuriated the Sikhs. Guru Hargobind Ji decided to arm the Sikhs against the Mughals. Guru Hargobind Ji adopted his famous New Policy. This new policy infuriated Jahangir. He called Guru Hargobind Sahib to Delhi and imprisoned him in the fort of Gwalior. The historians differ on the point as to how long Guru Hargobind Sahib was kept in prison in the fort of Gwalior.

At the insistence of Bhai Jetha and Sufi saint, Mian Mir, Jahangir ordered Guru Sahib’s release. Alongwith Guru Hargobind Ji, 52 other kings imprisoned in the fort were also released. Because of this, Guru Hargobind Sahib began to be called as “Bandi Chhor Baba”. After the release, the relation between Guru Hargobind Sahib and Jahangir took a friendly turn.

Question 44.
What were the causes of battles between Guru Hargobind Ji and the Mughals?
Answer:
Following were the causes of battles between Guru Hargobind Ji and the Mughals (Shah Jahan):

(1) Shah Jahan was a great orthodox. He got Guru Arjan Sahib Ji’s baoli at Lahore lied with debris and converted the building meant for Langar (community food) into mosque. This act of Shah Jahan caused a wave of resentment.

(2) Naqashbandi was a movement launched in Punjab by fanatic Muslims. Its leader Sheikh Masoom instigated Shah Jahan against Guru Hargobind Sahib. Being an orthodox, he was easily influenced by their words and turned against Guru Hargobind Sahib.

(3) The New Policy of Guru Hargobind Sahib became the major factor in widening ‘ the gulf between Guru Hargobind Sahib and Shah Jahan. This policy largely added to the military power of Guru Hargobind Sahib. Guru Hargobind Ji recruited many fugitives of the Mughal army in his army. Moreover, Guru Hargobind Sahib had assumed some royal symbols and Sikh devotees had started addressing him as Sacha Padshah (true emperor). Shah Jahan couldn’t tolerate it.

(4) The Kaulan’s affair further embittered the relationship between Guru Hargobind Sahib and Shah Jahan. Kaulan was the daughter of Qazi Rustam Khan of Lahore. She was greatly impressed by the teachings of Guru Aijan Sahib and read them with fondness. How could the fanatic Sunni Muslim tolerate that his daughter in his own home should read ‘bani’ (hymns) of the Sikhs? So he started poisoning Shah Jahan’s ears against Guru Sahib.’ It had its desired impact.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 45.
Give a brief account of the battle of Amritsar fought between Guru , Hargobind Sahib and the Mughals.
Answer:
The first battle between the Sikhs and the Mughals was fought during Guru Hargobind Sahib’s time, at Amritsar in 1634 A.D. A royal hawk was the immediate cause of this battle. It is said that at that time the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan was .hunting in a forest near Amritsar along with his soldiers. On the other hand, Guru Hargobind Sahib was also hunting in the same forest along with his Sikhs. During this hunt a hawk which was presented to Shah Jahan by the emperor of Iran flew away. It fell into the hands of the Sikhs and they refused to give it back to the Mughals.

Consequently, Shah Jahan sent an army of 7000 soldiers under the command of Mukhlis Khan to teach a lesson to the Sikhs. The Sikh soldiers fought with the Mughal army with great valour and determination. Mukhlis Khan was killed in this battle. Consequently, the Mughal army took to its heels. Thus, the Sikhs became victorious in this first battle. This victory enhanced the morale of the Sikhs.

Question 46.
Write a short note on the battle of Lahira fought in the times of Guru ; Hargobind.
Answer:
Soon after the battle of Amritsar, second battle was fought between the Mughals the Sikhs at a place called Lahira (near Bathinda). The immediate cause of this ;. battle was two horses named Dilbag and Gulbag. Two Masands named Bakht Mai and Tara Chand were bringing these horses from Kabul to present them to Guru Hargobind Sahib. On the way, the Mughals dispossessed them of these horses and sent them to the royal stable. Bhai Bidhi Chand, a devotee of Guru Hargobind Ji could no tolerate it. He went in disguise as a grass cutter and brought out both the horses from the royal stable and sent them to Guru Hargobind Sahib. When Shah Jahan heard news, he was very angry.

He immediately sent a large army under the command of Lala Beg and Qamar Beg to crush the power of the Sikhs. A fierce battle was fought between the Mughals and the Sikhs at a place called Lahira. The Mughals had to suffer a heavy loss of life and both their commanders Lala Beg and Qamar Beg were killed. Bhai Jetha too was martyred in this battle. The Sikhs emerged victorious in this battle.

Question 47.
What do you know about the battle of Kartarpur fought between Guru Hargobind Ji and the Mughals?
Answer:
The third battle between the Mughals and the Sikhs was fought at Kartarpur in 1635 A.D. The cause of this battle was Painda Khan. He was the commander of the Pathan troop in the army of Guru Hargobind Sahib. He had given a proof of his bravery in the battle of Amritsar. But, now he had become arrogant. He stole a hawk of Guru Sahib and gave it to his son-in-law. When Guru Hargobind Sahib enquired about it, he pretended ignorance. Later on when Guru Hargobind Sahib came to know about his lie, Guru Hargobind Sahib dismissed him from the job. Painda Khan decided to avenge this insult. He sought refuge with Shah Jahan. He instigated Shah Jahan to take military action against Guru Hargobind Sahib.

As a result, Shah Jahan sent an army under Painda Khan and Kale Khan to take action against Guru Hargobind Ji. A fierce battle was fought between the two armies at Kartarpur. The Sikh soldiers fought very bravely in this battle. Guru Hargobind Sahib’s two sons, Bhai Gurditta Ji and Tegh Bahadur Ji showed rare feats of bravery. Kale Khan, Painda Khan and his son Qutub Khan were killed in this battle while fighting with Guru Hargobind Sahib. The Mughal army too suffered heavy losses and had to face a crushing defeat.

Question 48.
Write briefly about Guru Hargobind’s battles with the Mughals. What is their significance in Sikh History?
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji fought four battles against the Mughals in Shah Jahan’s time from 1634 to 1635 A.D. The first battle was fought at Amritsar in 1634 A.D. A royal hawk proved to be an immediate cause of this battle. This hawk had fallen into the hands of the Sikhs and they refused to give it back to the Mughals. Shah Jahan sent a vast army under the command of Mukhlis Khan to teach the Sikhs a lesson. The Sikhs fought bravely in this battle and became victorious. The second battle was fought at Lahira in 1634 A.D. The two horses, Dilbag and Gulbag became the root cause of this battle.

The Mughals suffered heavy losses in this battle. The third battle was fought at Kartarpur between Guru Hargobind Ji and the Mughals in 1635 A.D. Gurditta and Tegh Bahadur, the two sons of Guru Hargobind displayed their rare feats of bravery in this battle. In the same year, the last battle between the Mughals and Guru Hargobind Sahib was fought at Phagwara. Despite their limited resources, the Sikhs came out victorious in these battles. It spread the fame of Sikhism, far and wide and a large % number of people embraced it.

Question 49.
Why is Guru Hargobind Sahib known as Bandi Chhor Baba?
Answer:
The Mughal emperor Jahangir had detained Guru Hargobind Sahib in the >rt of Gwalior. In this fort were confined 52 other kings for political reasons. These kings were very much impressed by Guru Hargobind Sahib’s personality. They did not feel any difficulty in the company of Guru Hargobind Sahib. But when Jahangir decided to release Guru Hargobind Sahib, these kings became restless at the very thought of separation. Guru Hargobind Sahib had also developed sympathy for these kings.

Therefore, Guru Hargobind Sahib sent a message to Jahangir that he would not get released from the fort of Gwalior as long as 52 kings confined in the same fort were also not released. Consequently, Jahangir had to order the release of these 52 kings also. In this way, Guru Hargobind Sahib came to be known as Bandi Chhor Baba (emancipator of captives.

Question 50.
Write a note on Akal Takht.
Or
Explain briefly the importance of building of Akal Takht in Sikh History.
Or
What is the importance of the construction of Sri Akal Takht?
Answer:
The construction of Akal Takht (The eternal throne) Sahib by Guru Hargobind Sahib was his stupendous work. Its construction was started by Guru Hargobind Sahib in 1606 A.D. in front of Harmandir Sahib. This project was completed in 1609 A.D. It had a 12 feet high platform which resembled the Mughal throne. Here Guru Hargobind Sahib used to sit in a princely attire and guide the Sikhs in political and military affairs. From here he used to witness wrestling bouts and other martial arts of the Sikhs. At this place he recruited soldiers and received arms and horses from the Masands.

The professional bards sang ballads of unrivalled heroism with a view to infuse a new confidence into the Sikhs. At this very place Guru Hargobind Sahib used to settle the disputes of the Sikhs also like a king in court. In fact, Akal Takht served the purpose of supreme court for the Sikhs. Very soon Akal Takht became a famous hub of the . political activities of the Sikhs.

Question 51.
Give a brief account of the relations of Guru Hargobind Ji with the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.
Answer:
Shah Jahan became the new emperor of the Mughals in 1628 A.D. During his time, relations between the Sikhs and the Mughals became strained. Firstly, Shah Jahan was a very orthodox emperor. He got the Baoli, built by Guru Arjan Dev Ji at Lahore, filled with filth and converted the Langar building into a mosque. Secondly, Naqshbandis started inciting Shah Jahan against the Sikhs with redoubled zeal. Thirdly, Shah Jahan did not like Guru Sahib’s keeping an army and the Sikhs calling him Sacha Padshah. Fourthly, Kaulan, daughter of a Qazi of Lahore became Guru Hargobind Ji’s disciple.

For this, the Qazi instigated Shah Jahan to take stem steps against the Sikhs. During 1634-35 A.D. four battles were fought between the Sikhs and the Mughals at Amritsar, Lahira, Kartarpur and Phagwara. In these battles the Sikhs became victorious while the Mughals had to face defeat. As a result, the fame of Guru Hargobind Sahib spread far and wide.

Question 52.
Write a short note on the relations between Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji and the Mughal emperors.
Answer:
The Mughal emperors Jahangir and Shah Jahan were contemporaries of Guru Hargobind Ji. Both of them were religiously intolerant. In order to crush the popularity of Sikh movement J ahangir had martyred Guru Arjan Sahib in 1606 A.D. The relations between the Mughals and the Sikhs became strained. After few years, he detained Guru Hargobind Sahib in the fort of Gwalior. The historians differ on the point as to how long Guru Hargobind Sahib was kept in prison in the fort of Gwalior. After some time, Jahangir ordered his release and the relations between both took a new turn.

In 1627, Shah Jahan became the new Mughal emperor. He was a great orthodox. As a result, the relations between the Sikhs and the Mughals once again became strained. In 1634-35 A.D. four battles at Amritsar, Lahira, Kartarpur and Phagwara were fought between them. In these battles Guru Hargobind Ji emerged victorious. The victories in these battles increased the self-confidence of the Sikhs.

Question 53.
Why is pontificate of Guru Har Rai Ji considered important in the development of Sikhism?
Or
Write a short note on Guru Har Rai Ji.
Answer:
Guru Har Rai Ji remained on Gurgaddi from 1645 to 1661 A.D. His pontificate is considered peaceful in Sikh History. In order to preach Sikhism, Guru Har Rai Ji travelled to different parts of the Punjab i.e. Jalandhar, Amritsar; Kartarpur, Gurdaspur, Ferozepur, Patiala, Ambala, Kamal and Hissar. Besides, he sent his preachers outside Punjab. During his journey to the Malwa region, Guru Sahib blessed Phul, that he would become great and * his descendants would rule. This prophecy of Guru Sahib turned out to be true. Dara Shikoh, the elder son of Shah Jahan was a devoted follower of Guru Har Rai Ji. In 1658 A.D. he was defeated by Aurangzeb. Thereafter, Dara Shikoh visited Guru Har Rai Ji to seek his blessings.

Guru Har Rai Ji boosted his morale. After Aurangzeb firmly established himself on the throne he summoned Guru Har Rai Ji to Delhi. Guru Har Rai Ji sent his elder son Ram Rai to Delhi. In order to save himself from Aurangzeb’s wrath he wrongly interpreted a hymn of Adi Granth Sahib. Consequently, the Guru declared Ram Rai unfit for Guruship and nominated his younger son Har Krishan Ji as the next successor of the Sikhs.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 54.
Write a brief note on Guru Har Krishan Ji. Why was he called Bal Guru?
Or
Write a short note on Guru Har Krishan Ji.
Answer:
Guru Har Krishan Ji was the younger son of Guru Har Rai Ji. His pontificate began in 1661 A.D. Thus, he became the 8th Guru of the Sikhs. At the time of his
assumption of Guruship he was only five years old. That is why Guru Har Krishan Ji is also known as the Child Guru (Bal Guru) in Sikh History. Ram Rai, the elder brother of Guru Har Krishan Ji stoutly opposed him. He considered himself to be the real claimant of Guruship. He tried his best to wrest Guruship from ‘his brother but when he did not succeed, he sought help from Aurangzeb, who called Guru Har Krishan Ji to Delhi. Guru Har Krishan Ji went to Delhi in 1664 A.D.

He stayed at the house of Mirza Raja Jai Singh. Cholera and small pox had broken out in Delhi in those days. Guru Har Krishan Ji devoted himself to the help of the sick, the poor and the orphAnswer: He himself became a victim of small pox and was taken ill. He breathed his last on March 30,1664 A.D., but before that he uttered the words ‘Baba Bakala’ which meant that his successor would be found at Bakala.

Question 55.
Give a brief account of the travels of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji.
Or
What do you know about the travels of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji?
Answer:
During his pontificate (1664-1675 AD.), Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji travelled extensively in and outside Punjab. The object of these travels was to dispel the ignorance of people and to preach Sikhism. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji started his travels in 1664 A.D. from Amritsar. Thereafter, he went to Walla, Ghukewali, Khadur Sahib, Goindwal Sahib, Tam Taran, Khem Karan, Kiratpur and Bilaspur etc. After his travels in the Punjab Guru Ji travelled to the east of India.

During this travel, he visited Saifabad,*Dhamdhan, Delhi, Mathura, Barindaban, Agra, Kanpur, Paryag, Banaras, Gaya, Patna, Dacca (Dhaka) and Assam etc. After these travels, Guru Ji visited many famousplaces of the Punjab along with his family. His travels proved very useful for the development of Sikhism. People in a large number came into the fold of Sikhism.

Question 56
Name the sincere Sikh who searched for the Ninth Guru and why?
Or
Which Sikh devotee identified the ninth Guru and why?
Answer:
Before breathing his last in 1664 A.D., Guru Har Krishan Ji had hinted to the Sikh Sangat that his successor would be found at Baba Bakala. When the news reached Baba Bakala that Guru Sahib had expired without naming the next Guru, 22 impostors grabbed this golden opportunity and established 22 Manjis at Baba Bakala. Each one of them called himself the real Guru. It was a moment of great crisis for the Sikh Panth. At such a time, a sincere Sikh, Makhan Shah Lubana found the solution to this crisis. He was a trader. Once, when his ship was caught in a storm on the high seas, he had prayed to Guru Sahib, with pure heart that he would offer 500 gold mohars at the feet of Guru Ji, if his ship was saved.

With the blessings of Guru Ji, his ship was saved from being sunk. As per his promise, he reached Baba Bakala along with his family to offer 500 gold mohars. He was taken aback, when he found 22 Gurus. He made a plan to search out the real Guru.

He went to every ‘guru’ turn by turn and, offered two mohars each. The impostor gurus gladly accepted these. Last of all when . Makhan Shah Lubana offered two mohars to Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji, the latter said, “When your ship was sinking, youpromised to offer 500 mohars and now you are offering. only two.” On hearing it, he was oveijoyed. He went atop the house and shouted aloud, “Guru Ladho Re, Guru Ladho re,” which meant that I have found the real Guru. In this way, the Sikhs accepted Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji as their Guru.

Question 57.
What were the causes of the martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji?
Or
Highlight the causes of the martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji.
Or
Study the causes responsible for the martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji.
Answer:
Aurangzeb’s fanaticism became the main cause of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji’s martyrdom. Aurangzeb became the emperor of Mughals in 1658 A.D. He could not tolerate the existence of any other religion except Islam. He got many temples of the Hindus razed to the ground and constructed mosques in their place. Restrictions were imposed on the festivals and customs of the Hindus. He also issued the order to demolish many Sikh Gurdwaras. At “this time, Naqashbandis, a fanatic Sunni Muslim sect started poisoning the ears of Aurangzeb and incited him to act against the Sikhs.

They could not bear the growing influence of the Sikhs in and outside the Punjab. Ram Rai started. hatching a conspiracy against Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji to get Guruship, and it had the desired effect on Aurangzeb. The outcry of Kashmiri Pandits became the immediate ‘ cause of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji’s martyrdom. At that time, Aurangzeb was bent oh. converting all the Pandits of Kashmir to Islam. Those, who refused, were slain. Seeing’ no way out, they requested Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji, to come to their rescue and Guru Ji accepted their request.

Question 66.
Write a brief note on the creation of Khalsa Panth.
Answer:
The foundation of Khalsa Panth was laid by Guru Gobind Singh Ji on the 30th of March, 1699 A.D., on the eve of Baisakhi at Anandpur Sahib. Following were the main principles of Khalsa Panth:

  • It was essential for everyone who wanted to join Khalsa Panth to take Khande-da-Pahul.
  • Every Khalsa man would suffix Singh with his name and the Khalsa woman would suffix Kaur with her name.
  • Every Khalsa would not worship any god or goddess other than God.
  • Every Khalsa must wear five K’s i.e. Kes, Kanga, Kara, Kachha and Kirpan.
  • Every Khalsa would get up early in the morning and recite Bani after taking a bath.
  • Each Khalsa would earn his living honestly and give l/10th of his income in charity.
  • Each Khalsa would wield weapons and be always ready to fight for the protection of religion.
  • Every Khalsa would remain away from the use of tobacco and other intoxicants.
  • Every Khalsa would not believe in caste system.
  • Every Khalsa would address one another by uttering “Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa, Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh.” The creation of Khalsa Panth by Guru Gobind Singh Ji ushered a new era in the history of the Sikhs.

Question 67.
When was the Khalsa created by Guru Gobind Singh Ji? What are its main principles?
Or
Explain the main principles of the Khalsa.
Or
Make a brief mention of the main principles of the Khalsa.
Or
Write the main principles of the Khalsa Panth founded by Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji created Khalsa on March 30,1699 A.D. Its main principles were:

  • For every person who wishes to join the Khalsa Panth, it is essential to drink the Nectar of Immortality (Sikh baptism).
  • Every Khalsa man will use ‘Singh’ with his name and Khalsa woman ‘Kaur’ with her name.
  • Every Khalsa will worship no god or goddess but only one God.
  • Every Khalsa will wear the five emblems i.e. Kes (hair), Kangha (comb), Kara (iron bangle), Kachha (underwear) and Kirpan (sword).
  • Every Khalsa will sacrifice his all for the protection of his Dharma and country.
  • Every Khalsa will wake up at dawn, take a bath and recite Gurbani.
  • Every Khalsa will earn his livelihood by the sweat of his brow and donate 0th of his earnings for the spread of Dharma.
  • Every Khalsa will wear weapons and be ready to fight for righteous causes.
  • The Khalsa while meeting each other will hail, “Wahe Guru Ji Ka Khalsa, Wahe Ji Ki Fateh.
  • No Khalsa will smoke, make use of intoxicants and have extra-marital relations.
  • No Khalsa will believe in caste system and think in terms of high and low.

Question 68.
What was the importance of creation of Khalsa Panth in the Sikh History?
Or
Study the importance of the creation of Khalsa.
Answer:
The creation of the Khalsa in 1699 A.D. by Guru Gobind Singh Ji is considered one of the most important events of the Sikh History. With its establishment, a large number of people began to join Sikhism. It also led to the establishment of an ideal society. There was no room for the concept of high and low in it. All the castes were treated equally. Thus, the downtrodden people got an uplift after many centimes. It also gave a rude jolt to the age-old superstitions and customs. Gum Gobind Singh Ji instilled a new spirit among the Sikhs by creating Khalsa.

The weakest of the weak among the Sikhs became a lion in spirit. Sword became his constant companion. To tolerate injustice was now considered a sin by every Sikh. Their bravery set up new examples. Thus, a revolutionary change was effected in their character. In the long run, they succeeded in putting an end to the Mughal rule and established an independent Sikh empire under Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 69.
Write a brief note on the First battle of Anandpur Sahib.
Answer:
After the creation of the Khalsa in 1699 A.D., a-large number of people began to join Sikhism. The increasing power of Gum Gobind Singh Ji alarmed the Hill Chiefs. Raja Bhim Chand of Kahlur, in whose territory Anandpur Sahib was situated, asked Gum Gobind Singh Ji to vacate Anandpur Sahib. Guru Gobind Singh Ji clearly refused to comply with his demand. He clarified that Gum Tegh Bahadur Sahib had made full payment for the land, when he founded this town. At this Bhim Chand formed a joint front with the cooperation of other Hill Chiefs.

The allied forces under the command of Raja Bhim Chand besieged the fort of Anandpur Sahib in 1701 A.D. This siege continued for many days. Though, Gum Gobind Singh Ji had a very limited number of soldiers inside the fort, yet he was able to offer stiff resistance to the aggressors. When the Hill Chiefs saw that there were no chances of their success they made peace with Gum Gobind Singh Ji. It was only a tactic of Hill Chiefs to have time to launch a more vigorous attack on Gum Gobind Singh Ji.

Question 70.
Write a brief note on the Second battle of Anandpur Sahib.
Answer:
Though the Hill Chiefs had made a peace treaty with Gum Gobind Singh Ji in 1701 A.D., yet they wanted to take revenge upon him for their humiliation. With this end in view, they sought the help of the Mughals. The allied army besieged the fort Anandpur Sahib in 1704 A.D. Though, it tried several times to enter the fort yet their efforts were fmstrated by the brave Sikh warriors. As the siege of the for prolonged, the Sikhs felt the shortage of provisions. When the patience of the ‘ began to waver due to hunger, they requested Guru Gobind Singh. Ji to leave the Anandpur Sahib.

Guru Gobind-Singh Ji advised the Sikhs to wait for a few more days and to have patience. But, 40 Sikhs gave Bedawa (Document of Denunciation) to Guru Ji and left the fort. On the other hand, the combined forces were also tired of the prolonged siege of the fort. In the event of defeat, they were to face infamy. So, they played a trick. They took oaths on the Quran and the cow to assure Guru Gobind Singh Ji that they would not harm him if he vacated the fort of Anandpur Sahib. But, as soon as Guru Gobind Singh Ji came out of the fort, the joint army fell upon the Sikhs.

Question 71.
Give a brief account of the battle of Chamkaur Sahib.
Answer:
After Guru Gobind Singh Ji left the fort of Anandpur Sahib, the Mughal army chased him. Guru Gobind Singh Ji took shelter in a Garhi (mud fortress) in Chamkaur Sahib along with his 40 Sikhs. Soon, thousands of Mughal soldiers laid siege to the Garhi. The battle of Chamkaur Sahib was fought in 1704 A.D. It was a bloody battle. In this battle, the two elder sons of Guru Ji, Sahibzada Ajit Singh and Jujhar Singh exhibited such feats of warfare and bravery that the Mughals were taken aback. Both of them caused havoc among the allied ranks and ultimately laid down their lives.

It is impossible to find any other example of such rare bravery as the Sikhs showed in this battle. On the request of five Sikhs, Guru Ji decided to leave the Garhi of Chamkaur. While leaving the Garhi, Guru Gobind Singh Ji challenged the Mughal army that it could cause no harm to him.

Question 72.
Write a brief note on the battle of Khidrana (Sri Mukatsar Sahib).
Answer:
The battle of Khidrana was the last and decisive battle fought between Guru Gobind Singh Ji and the Mughals. Facing severed hardships in the forests of Machhiwara, Guru Gobind Singh Ji reached Khidrana. When theTVIughal army came to know about it, the Faujdar of Sirhind, Wazir Khan planned to attack Guru Ji at Khidrana. Taking a vast army, he attacked the army of Guru Gobind Singh Ji at Khidrana on December 29, 1705 A.D. The Sikhs exhibited bravery in this battle also. They launched such a fierce attack on the Mughal army that it fled from the field. In this way, in the last battle Guru Gobind Singh Ji got a glorious victory.

The 40 Sikhs who had parted company with Guru Ji in the second battle of Anandpur Sahib also fought to their last in this battle. Impressed by their sacrifice and on the request of their dying leader Mahan Singh, Guru Ji tore away the Bedawa (Document of Denunciation) and blessed them with the boon of salvation (Mukti). In this way Khidrana got the name of Sri Mukatsar Sahib.

Question 73.
What do you know about literary activities of Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
Or
Describe the literary activities of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Or
‘valuate the literary achievements of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s contribution in the field of literature is invaluable. He elf was a poet and a literateur of high order. Most of his literature was lost in the Sirsa river at the time of his retreat from Anandpur Sahib to Chamkaur Sahib. Still the literature that survived and reached us, is a sufficient proof of his being a great scholar. Guru Ji used Punjabi, Hindi, Sanskrit, Persian and Arabic languages in his writings. His great works are Jaap Sahib, Bachitar Natak, Akal Ustat, Zafamama, Chandi Di Var etc. These writings are so forceful that they even arouse the dormant energies of depressed people. Guru Gobind Singh Ji had accorded patronage to 52 top- class poets in his Durbar. Among these, the names of Senapat, Nand Lai, Gopal and Udai Rai are very prominent.

Question 74.
What is Zafamama?
Or
Write a note on Zafamama.
Answer:
Zafamama is a letter of victory written by Guru Gobind Singh Ji to Aurangzeb. It was written in Persian. It was written from Dina Kangar. It was sent through Bhai Dayala to Aurangzeb who was in Deccan at that time. In this letter Guru Gobind Singh Ji boldly explained about his oppression and injustice and breaking of oaths taken on the Quran by his officials. He accused Aurangzeb of betrayal of faith. Guru Ji writes, “O Aurangzeb you call yourself a religious man, but you don’t have a grain of truth in you. You don’t have any faith in Khuda (God) and Mohammad. Is it bravery that your army of lakhs, invades our fort and starving Sikhs? You and your army officials, all are traitors and cowards.

Though you are a king of kings and a renowned army commander, you are miles and miles away from religion. You have one thing on the lips and quite another in the heart.” This letter of Guru Gobind Singh Ji deeply impressed the mind of Aurangzeb. He sent a message to Guru Gobind Singh Ji for a personal meeting. Guru Sahib was yet on his way, when Aurangzeb expired.

Question 75.
“Gum Gobind Singh Ji was a builder par-excellence.” Do you agree to this argument?
Answer:
Undoubtedly, Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a great organiser. The Mughal government of Aurangzeb was not at all prepared to tolerate any movement, especially the Sikh movement. It brought about the martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. Masand system among the Sikhs had become thoroughly corrupt. The Hindus had been crestfallen since long. The Hill Chiefs had connived’with the Mughal government due to their vested interests. Despite these adverse factors Guru Gobind Singh Ji gave a proof of his organising ability by creating Khalsa Panth.

Really, it was a great wonder that infused a new spirit among people. They became great warriors and were ready the sacrifice everything for the sake of their religion. They did not heave a sigh of rel until they put an end to the Mughal and Afghan rule in Punjab and established t) independent rule. It was indeed a great contribution of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 76.
Mention any five characteristics of Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s personality.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a great warrior and general of his time. He was expert in horse-riding, deft in the use of bow and arrow, and other weapons. He himself commanded his army in every battle. He used to remain unnerved in the battlefield despite heavy odds. In spite of limited resources, Guru Sahib gained glorious success against the Hill Chiefs and the Mughals. Guru Gobind Singh Ji was as brave and fearless as a lion.

Although, he had to undergo innumerable hardships, he never reconciled with oppression and tyranny. Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s Zafamama addressed to Aurangzeb is a testimony of his fearlessness. Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a great religious leader. He fought against the Mughals for the protection of religion and sacrificed everything. He persuaded his followers to worship only God and to recite Gurbani. He was also a superb scholar. His great works include Jaap Sahib, Bachitar Natak and Zafamama. In these works, he used Punjabi, Hindi, Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian languages. Undoubtedly, the literary heritage of Guru Gobind Singh was very rich.

Answer in One Word to One Sentence:

Question 1.
Mention the total number of Gurus of the Sikhs.
Answer:
The total number of Gurus of the Sikhs is ten.

Question 2.
Who was the founder of Sikhism?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji was the founder of Sikh religion,

Question 3.
Who started Sikh religion and when?
Answer:
Sikh religion was started by Guru Nanak Dev Ji in 1469 A.D.

Question 4.
When and where was Guru Nanak Dev Ji born?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born in 1469 A.D. at Talwandi (in Pakistan).

Question 5.
Who is the author of “Satgur Nanak Pargatiya Miti Dhund Jag Chanan Hoa”?
Answer:
Bhai Gurdas Ji is the author of these words.

Question 6.
What is the present name of Guru Nanak’s birth place?
Answer:
Nankana Sahib.

Question 7.
Name the parents of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Or
What was the name of Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s father?
Or
What was the name of Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s mother?
Answer:
Mehta Kalu and Tripta Devi.

Question 8.
To which clan did the father of Gum Nanak Dev Ji belong?
Answer:
The father of Guru Nanak Dev Ji belonged to Khatri clan of Bedi caste.

Question 9.
Who was Mehta Kalu?
Answer:
He was the fathefr of Gum Nanak Dev Ji.

Question 10.
Who was Tripta Devi?
Answer:
She was the mother of Gum Nanak Dev Ji.

Question 11.
Why was Gum Nanak Dev Ji named ‘Npnak’?
Answer:
Gum Nanak Dev Ji got this name, because he was born at the place of his mother’s parents.

Question 12.
What was the name of the sister of Gum Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
The name of Gum Nanak Dev Ji’s sister was Nanaki.

Question 13.
Name any two teachers of Gum Nanak Dev Ji from whom he got education in childhood.
Answer:
Pt. Gopal and Maulvi Qutub-ud-din.

Question 14.
To whom was Gum Nanak Dev Ji married?
Answer:
Bibi Sulakhni.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 15.
Name the sons of Gum Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Sri Chand and Lakhmi Das.

Question 16.
Why was Gum Nanak Dev Ji sent to Sultanpur?
Answer:
Gum Nanak Dev Ji was sent to Sultanpur to do a job.

Question 17.
To whom was Gum Nanak Dev Ji sept at Sultanpur?
Answer:
To his brother-in-law Jairam at Sultanpur.

Question 18.
At which place did Guru Nanak Dev Ji get the enlightenment?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji got the enlightenment in 1499 A.D in Kali Bein rivulet at Sultanpur.

Question 19.
What was the first utterance of Guru Nanak Dev Ji after enlightenment?
Or
Where from and with which words did Guru Nanak Dev Ji start his preaching work?
Answer:
“Na Ko Hindu, Na Ko Musalman”.

Question 20.
What is meant by the Udasis of Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s Udasis were his travels.

Question 21.
What was the purpose of Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s Udasis?
Answer:
To dispel the ignorance and superstitions prevalent among people and to preach Holy Name.

Question 22.
When and from where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji start his first Udasi?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji started his first Udasi from Saidpur (Eminabad) in 1499 A.D.

Question 23.
How many years Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent in Udasis?
Answer:
21 years.

Question 24.
Which was the constant companion of Guru Nanak Dev ji during his Udasis?
Or
Who was the Companion of Guru Nanak Dev Ji at the time of Udasis (Religions Tour).
Answer:
Bhai Mardana Ji.

Question 25.
Who became the first follower of Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
Bhai Lalo.

Question 26.
Why did Guru Nanak Dev Ji refuse the food of Malik Bhago*?
Answer:
It was not earned by honest meAnswer:

Question 27.
Where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji meet Sajjan Thug (Cheat)?
Answer:
Talumba.

Question 28.
What lesson was given to the people of Kurukshetra by Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
They should concentrate on the internal purity rather than external things.

Question 29.
How did Guru Nanak Dev Ji condemn the blind faith of the Hindus at Haridwar?
Answer:
Their throwing of water would reach the other world.

Question 30.
Where Guru Nanak Dev Ji watered to sun towards west instead of East?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji watered to sun towards west instead of East at Haridwar.

Question 31.
What message did Guru Nanak Dev Ji give to the Yogis at Gorakhmata?
Answer:
At Gorakhmata Guru Nanak Dev Ji gave the message to the Yogis that salvation can be attained by not external show off but by internal purity of soul.

Question 32.
Who was Nur Shahi?
Answer:
Nur Shahi was the famous witch of Kamrup.

Question 33.
With which Pandit Guru Nanak Dev Ji held discussion at Banaras?
Answer:
Pandit Chattar Dass.

Question 34.
At which temple of Orissa Guru Nanak Dev Ji told the real meaning of Aarti?
Answer:
Jagan Nath Puri temple in Orissa.

Question 35.
What was told to the Siddhas of Kailash Parbat by Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
To serve the humanity.

Question 36.
Which ruler of Ceylon met Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
Shivnath.

Question 37.
Which incident took place with Guru Nanak Dev Ji at Mecca?
Or
Narrate the incident which happened with Guru Nanak Dev Ji at Mecca.
Answer:
Qazi Rukun-ud-Din shifted Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s feet to the other side, Kaba also shifted to that side.

Question 38.
With what name is Hasan Abdal now known?
Answer:
Panja Sahib.

Question 39.
Which Mughal king arrested Guru Nanak Dev Ji for some time?
Answer:
Babar.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 40.
What was the concept of God of Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
According to Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s views, God is one.

Question 41.
Write two prominent teachings of Guru Nanak Dev ji.
Answer:
God is one and He is omnipotent.

Question 42.
Explain the concept of Kirat by Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
One should earn his bread by honest labour.

Question 43.
How many enemies of man have been indentified by Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
Five.

Question 44.
What is the concept of Guru in Sikh religion, according to Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
Guru is the ladder by means of which one reaches God.

Question 45.
What is the importance of meditation of God according to Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
Without the meditation of God the coming of man into this world is fruitless.

Question 46.
Name any one trait of Manmukh (Unregenerate Man).
Answer:
A Manmukh is always surrounded by sensual lust.

Question 47.
What is self-surrender?
Answer:
Self-surrender means to give up ego. It is very essential to reach God.

Question 48.
What is Nadar?
Answer:
Nadar means the benevolence of God.

Question 49.
What is Hukam?
Answer:
Hukam means the decree of God.

Question 50.
What is the concept of Kirat?
Answer:
Kirat means the earning by one’s honest labour.

Question 51.
What is meant by ‘Anjan Mahe Niranjan’?
Answer:
It means leading a simple and pious life amidst the impurities of the world.

Question 52.
Give the substance of Guru Nanak Dev ji’s teachings in three words.
Answer:
Do honest labour, utter Nam and eat after distributing.

Question 53.
Who started the tradition of Kirtan?
Answer:
The institution of Kirtan was started by Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

Question 54.
Guru Nanak Dev Ji was a social reformer. Write a point in your favour.
Answer:
He strongly opposed and criticised child marriage, purdah system and sati system among women.

Question 55.
When and which town was set up by Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji established Kartarpur in 1521 A.D.

Question 56.
Which Guru established a town on the bank of Ravi? Also write the name of the town.
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji established Kartarpur on the bank of Ravi.

Question 57.
What does the word Kartarpur stand for?
Answer:
Kartarpur means the abode of God.

Question 58.
Which two institutions were established at Kartarpur by Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
Sangat and Pangat.

Question 59.
Which Guru created the institution of Sangat and Pangat and at which place?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji created the institution of Sangat and Pangat at Kartarpur Sahib.

Question 60.
What is the meaning of Sangat?
Answer:
Sangat means the congregation which listens to the hymns of Guru.

Question 61.
What is the meaning of Pangat?
Answer:
Pangat means a group of people sitting in a queue to eat Langar.

Question 62.
Which Guru started the Langar system?
Answer:
Guru Ka Langar was started by Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

Question 63.
Where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji spend his last years?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent his last years in Kartarpur (Pakistan).

Question 64.
Name only two compositions of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:

  • Japji Sahib,
  • Barah Maha.

Question 65.
Which Guru Sahib pronounces Babar-Bani?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji pronounced Babar-Bani.

Question 66.
In which year and where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji inmersed in Eternal Light?
Answer:
1539 A.D.

Question 67.
Whom did Guru Nanak Dev Ji appoint his successor?
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji.

Question 68.
Who gave the name of Guru Angad to Bhai Lehna Ji?
Answer:
Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

Question 69.
What is the importance of the appointment of successor by Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
Answer:
It led to the continution of Gurugaddi in Sikhism.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 70.
Who was the second Guru of Sikhism?
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji.

Question 71.
What was the period of Guruship of Guru Angad Dev Ji?
Answer:
1539 to 1552 A.D.

Question 72.
When and where was Guru Angad Dev Ji born?
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji was born in 1504 A.D. at Matte-di-Sarai in Mukatsar.

Question 73.
Who was the father of Guru Angad Dev Ji?
Answer:
Pheru Mai was the father of Gum Angad Dev Ji.

Question 74.
Name the mother of Guru Angad Dev ji.
Answer:
Sabhrai Devi.

Question 75.
What was the original name of Guru Angad Dev Ji?
Answer:
Gum Angad Dev Ji’s original name was Bhai Lehna Ji.

Question 76.
Which was the religious headquarter of Guru Angad Dev Ji?
Answer:
Khadur Sahib (Amritsar) was the religious headquarter of Guru Angad Dev Ji.

Question 77.
Guru Angad Dev Ji improved which script?
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji improved Gurmukhi script.

Question 78.
Which town second Guru established?
Answer:
Second Gum established Goindwal Sahib.

Question 79.
Who laid the foundation of Goindwal Sahib and when?
Or
Who founded Goindwal Sahib?
Answer:
Gum Angad Dev Ji laid the foundation of Goindwal Sahib in 1546 A.D.

Question 80.
Which two institutions were developed by Guru Angad Dev Ji?
Answer:
Sangat and Pangat.

Question 81.
Name one important contribution of Guru Angad Dev Ji to the development of Sikh Panth.
Or
How did Guru Angad Dev Ji spread Sikhism?
Answer:
He made the Gurmukhi script popular.

Question 82.
Who managed Langar system at Khadur Sahib during Guru Angad Dev Ji’s time?
Or
Guru Angad Dev Ji appointed his wife as incharge of which institution at Khadur Sahib?
Answer:
Bibi Khivi Ji.

Question 83.
What was the effect of Langar system?
Answer:
Langar system gave a crushing blow to the caste system of the Hindus.

Question 84.
Who was the founder of Udasi sect?
Answer:
Baba Sri Chand Ji.

Question 85.
What do you mean by Udasis sect?
Answer:
This sect laid emphasis on asceticism.

Question 86.
Name the two singers (Ragis) punished by Guru Angad Dev Ji with a view to infuse discipline in the Sikh religion.
Or
Who were the important Kirtan reciters of Guru Angad Dev Ji’s period who defied the discipline of the Sangat?
Answer:
Satta and Balwand.

Question 87.
Which Mughal emperor came to Khadur Sahib, to see Guru Angad Dev Ji?
Answer:
Humayun.

Question 88.
Whom did Guru Angad Dev Ji appoint his successor?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji.

Question 89.
Who was the third Guru of the Sikhs?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji.

Question 90.
What was the period of his pontificate?
Answer:
1552 to 1574 A.D.

Question 91.
What was the name of father and mother of Guru Amar Das Ji?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji’s mother was Sulakhni Devi and father was Tej Bhan Bhalla.

Question 92.
When was Guru Amar Das Ji born?
Answer:
1479 A.D.

Question 93.
How old was Guru Amar Das Ji when he succeeded to Guruship?
Answer:
73 years.

Question 94.
Name the sons of Guru Amar Das Ji.
Or
Who were Mohan and Mohri?
Answer:
The names of Guru Amar Das Ji’s sons were Mohan and Mohri.

Question 95.
Name the daughters of Guru Amar Das Ji.
Answer:
The names of Guru Amar Das Ji’s daughters were Bibi Bhani and Bibi Dani.

Question 96.
Who was Bibi Bhani?
Answer:
Bibi Bhani was the daughter of Guru Amar Das Ji.

Question 97.
Who got the Baoli of Goindwal Sahib constructed?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji.

Question 98.
What was the purpose of the construction of the Baoli at Goindwal Sahib?
Answer:
Its purpose was to give the Sikhs a pilgrimage of their own.

Question 99.
How many steps were built in the Baoli of Goindwal Sahib?
Answer:
84 steps of the Baoli were constructed.

Question 100.
Mention any one contribution of Guru Angad Dev Ji.
Answer:
Contsruction of Baoli at Goindwal Sahib.

Question 101.
By which Guru was Manji system raised and why?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji raised Manji system to carry on the missionary work of Sikhism.

Question 102.
Which Guru started Manji system and how many Manjis were there?
Answer:

  • Manji system was started by Guru Amar Das Ji.
  • There were 22 Manjis.

Question 103.
What contribution was made by Manji system to the development of Sikhism?
Answer:
Manji system made praiseworthy contribution towards making Sikh religion popular.

Question 104.
Which is the famous Bani of Guru Amar Das ji?
Answer:
Anand Sahib.

Question 105.
Which Guru Sahib pronounced Anand Sahib Bani?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji pronounced Anand Sahib Bani.

Question 106.
Write any one work done by Guru, Amar Das Ji to improve the condition of society.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji advocated equal rights of women as men.

Question 107.
Write any one work done by Guru Amar Das Ji to improve the condition of womanhood.
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji abolished the sati system.

Question 108.
Which Mughal emperor came to Goindwal Sahib to see Guru Amar Das Ji?
Answer:
Akbar.

Question 109.
Which Mughal emperor took Langar sitting in Pangat at Goindwal Sahib?
Answer:
Mughal emperor Akbar took Langar in Pangat at Goindwal Sahib.

Question 110.
Which Guru made the Guruship hereditary?
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji.

Question 111.
Whom did Guru Amar Das Ji appoint his successor?
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji,

Question 112.
When did Guru Amar Das Ji die?
Answer:
1574 A.D.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 113.
Who was the fourth Guru of the Sikhs?
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji.

Question 114.
What was the duration of pontificate of Guru Ram Das Ji?
Answer:
1574 A.D. to 1581 A.D.

Question 115.
When and where was Guru Ram Das Ji born?
Answer:
1534 A.D.

Question 116.
What was Guru Ram Das Ji’s original name?
Answer:
Bhai Jetha Ji.

Question 117.
What was the name of the father of Guru Ram Das Ji?
Answer:
The name of his father was Hari Das Ji.

Question 118.
Name the wife of Gum Ram Das Ji.
Answer:
Bibi Bhani Ji.

Question 119.
Who was Prithi Chand?
Answer:
Prithi Chand was the eldest son of Guru Ram Das Ji and the eldest brother of Guru Aijan Dev Ji.

Question 120.
When did Gum Ram Das Ji occupy the Gum’s seat?
Answer:
1574 A.D.

Question 121.
Mention any one achievement of Gum Ram Das Ji.
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji founded Ramdaspura.

Question 122.
Who founded Ramdaspura?
Or
Which town was established by fourth Gum Ram Das Ji?
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji founded the city of Ramdaspura.

Question 123.
What is the importance of founding Ramdaspura?
Answer:
The Sikhs got their sacred place of worship.

Question 124.
When and which Gum laid the foundation of Amritsar?
Answer:
The foundation of Amritsar was laid in 1577 A.D. by Guru Ram Das Ji.

Question 125.
During which Guru’s time was the settlement between the Sikhs and Udasis made?
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji.

Question 126.
Who started Masand system?
Or
Who started Masand system in Shikhism?
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji started Masand system

Question 127.
Give any one aim of the Masand system.
Answer:
To collect offerings from Sikh Sangat.

Question 128.
Which Mughal king visited Guru Ram Das Ji?
Answer:
Akbar.

Question 129.
Which Sikh Guru started Lavan system of marriage?
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji.

Question 130.
Whom did Guru Ram Das Ji appoint his successor?
Answer:
Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

Question 131.
Who was the fifth Guru of the Sikhs?
Answer:
Guru Aijan Dev Ji,

Question 132.
When and where Guru Aijan Dev Ji was born?
Answer:
Goindwal Sahib.

Question 133.
Give the names of the father and mother of Gum Aijan Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji was the father of Guru Aijan Dev Ji and that of his mother’s name was Bibi Bhani Ji.

Question 134.
Mention the pontificate of Gum Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
1581 to 1606 A.D.

Question 135.
Who was Prithi Chand?
Answer:
Prithi Chand was Guru Aijan Dev Ji’s elder brother.

Question 136.
Which sect was founded by Prithi Chand?
Answer:
Mina sect.

Question 137.
Why was Prithi annoyed with Gum Arjan Dev Ji?
Answer:
Prithi was annoyed with Guru Arjan Dev Ji, because he considered himself the real claimant of the Gurgaddi.

Question 138.
Whose son was Meharban?
Answer:
Meharban was the son of Prithi Chand.

Question 139.
Name any one important achievement of Gum Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
Guru Aijan Dev Ji founded Sri Harmandir Sahib at Amritsar.

Question 140.
What is meant by Sri Harmandir Sahib?
Answer:
By Sri Harmandir Sahib is meant the place of God’s residence.

Question 141.
By which Guru was Sri Harmandir Sahib got built?
Answer:
Guru Aijan Dev Ji got built Sri Harmandir Sahib.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 143.
Who was the first Head Granthi of Sri Harmandir Sahib?
Answer:
The first Head Granthi of Sri Harmandir Sahib was Baba Buddha Ji.

Question 144.
Why four doors have been built on four sides of Sri Harmandir Sahib?
Or
What do the four doors of Sri Harmandir Sahib indicate?
Answer:
The four doors indicated that the doors of Sri Harimandir Sahib were open for people coming from all four directions without any discrimination.

Question 145.
What is meant by the word ‘Kartarpur’?
Answer:
The word Kartarpur means ‘The abode of God’.

Question 146.
What is meant by Tam Taran?
Answer:
Tarn Taran means that a person can swim across the world by bathing in the tank of Tam Taran.

Question 147.
Who founded the town of Tam Taran?
Answer:
Gum Arjan Eev Ji founded Tam Taran.

Question 148.
Define the word ‘Masand’.
Answer:
The word Masand is derived from Persian word Masnad which means ‘high place’.

Question 149.
Point out any one main cause which led to the starting of Masand system.
Answer:
To collect money from the Sikhs.

Question 150.
Give any one aim of the Masand System.
Answer:
To preach Sikh religion.

Question 151.
What was the need of the compilation of Adi Granth Sahib?
Answer:
To provide the Sikhs their separate religious scripture.

Question 152.
When and where was Adi Granth Sahib compiled?
Answer:
The Adi Granth Sahib was compiled in 1604 A.D. at Ramsar.

Question 153.
When and by whom was Adi Granth Sahib compiled?
Answer:
The Adi Granth Sahib was compiled in 1604 A.D. by Gum Arjan Sahib.

Question 154.
Who helped Gum Arjan Dev Ji in compiling the Adi Granth Sahib?
Answer:
Bhai Gurdas Ji.

Question 155.
When was Adi Granth Sahib installed in Sri Harmandir Sahib?
Answer:
The Adi Granth Sahib was installed in Sri Harmandir Sahib on 16 August, 1604 A.D.

Question 156.
Who. was the first Head Granthi of Sri Harmandir Sahib?
Answer:
Baba Buddha Ji.

Question 157.
Which Guru composed the maximum Shabads (Hymns) for Adi Granth Sahib?
Answer:
Guru Aijan Dev Ji.

Question 158.
The Bani of how many Bhagats have been included in Adi Granth Sahib.
Answer:
The Bani of 15 Bhagats is included in the Adi Granth Sahib.

Question 159.
Name any two Bhagats whose compositions are included in Adi Granth Sahib.
Answer:

  • Bhagat Kabir Ji,
  • Baba Farid Ji.

Question 160.
Name the main religious book of the Sikhs.
Answer:
The main religious book of the Sikhs is Adi Granth or Guru Granth Sahib.

Question 161.
Who was Baba Buddha Ji?
Answer:
Baba Buddha Ji was the first Head Granthi of Sri Darbar Sahib, Amritsar.

Question 162.
Name the central shrine of the Sikhs.
Answer:
Sri Harmandir Sahib, Amritsar is the central shrine of the Sikhs.

Question 163.
Who was Chandu Shah?
Answer:
Chandu Shah was the Diwan of Lahore.

Question 164.
Who was Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi?
Answer:
Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi was the head of Naqashbandi order.

Question 165.
Who was Prince Khusrau?
Answer:
Prince Khusrau was the eldest son of Jahangir.;

Question 166.
Who was the first martyr among the Sikh Gurus?
Answer:
The first martyr among the Sikh Gurus was Guru Aijan Dev Ji.

Question 167.
During which Mughal emperor’s period Guru Aijan Dev Ji was martyred?
Answer:
Guru Aijan Dev Ji was martyred during Mughal emperor Jahangir’s period. Question 168. Describe the main reason for the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. Answer: The main reason for the martyrdom of Guru Aijan Dev Ji was the religious fanaticism of Jahangir.

Question 169.
When was Guru Arjan Dev Ji martyred?
Answer:
May 30,1606 A.D.

Question 170.
When and where was Guru Arjan Dev Ji martyred?
Answer:
Guru Aijan Dev Ji was martyred on May 30,1606 A.D. at Lahore.

Question 171.
Write down the result of the martyrdom of Guru Aijan Dev Ji.
Answer:

  • The martyrdom inflammed the sentiments of the Sikhs.
  • It entirely changed the character of the peaceful Sikh movement.

Question 172.
Who was the sixth Guru of the Sikhs?
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji.

Question 173.
What was the name of new system started by sixth Guru?
Answer:
Miri and Piri.

Question 174.
Give the period of Guruship of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Answer:
1606 A.D. to 1645 A.D.

Question 175.
When and where was Guru Hargobind Ji born?
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji was born at Wadali village in Amritsar in 1595 A.D.

Question 176.
Name the parents of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Answer:
Mother Ganga Devi Ji and Father Guru Aijan Dev Ji.

Question 177.
Who was Bibi Veero?
Answer:
Bibi Veero was the daughter of Guru Hargobind Ji.

Question 178.
Give any one reason which led to the adoption of New Policy by Guru Hargobind Ji.
Answer:
The martyrdom of Guru Aijan Dev Ji.

Question 179.
Give any one feature of Guru Hargobind Ji’s New Policy.
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji wore two swords of Miri and Piri.

Question 180.
What is meant by the Miri?
Answer:
The sword of Miri symbolised worldly power.

Question 181.
What is meant by Piri?
Answer:
The sword of Piri stood for spiritual power.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 182.
State the importance of the New Policy of Guru Hargobind’Ji.
Answer:

  • Sikhs became Saint-Soldiers.
  • The Jats of Punjab embraced Sikhism in great number.

Question 183.
By whom was the Akal Takht Sahib built and when?
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji got built the Akal Takht Sahib in 1606 A.D.

Question 184.
What is meant by the Akal Takht?
Answer:
The Akal Takht means the seat of God.

Question 185.
Which main works were done by Guru Hargobind Ji at Akal Takht Sahib?
Answer:
He used to consider political and worldly affairs of the Sikhs.

Question 186.
By which Mughal emperor and where was Guru Hargobind Ji kept as a prisoner?
Answer:
The Mughal emperor Jahangir got Guru Hargobind Ji imprisoned in the fort of Gwalior.

Question 187.
Why did the Mughal emperor Jahangir get Guru Hargobind Ji imprisoned in the fort of Gwalior?
Answer:
It was due to the political and military activities of Guru Hargobind Ji.

Question 188.
Which king imprisoned 6th Guru Hargobind Sahib and where?
Answer:
Mughal king Jahangir imprisoned Guru Hargobind Sahib in the fort of Gwalior.

Question 189.
Why is Guru Hargobind Ji called Bandi-Chhor (emancipator) Baba?
Or
Who is called Bandi-Chhor Baba and why?
Or
Which Guru is addressed as ‘Bandi-Chhor’?
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji is called ‘Bandi-Chhor Baba’, because he got 52 other imprisoned kings released along with his own release from the fort of Gwalior.

Question 190.
Who was Kaulan?
Answer:
Kaulan was the daughter of Qazi Rustum Khan.

Question 191.
Describe any one reason for straining of relations between Sikhs and Shah Jahan.
Answer:
Religious fanaticism of Shah Jahan.

Question 192.
When and where was the first battle between Guru Hargobind Ji and Mughals (Shah Jahan) fought?
Answer:
Amritsar in 1634 A.D.

Question 193.
Who won the battle of Amritsar?
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji.

Question 194.
Which new town was established by Guru Hargobind Ji?
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji established the new town of Kiratpur Sahib.

Question 195.
What does the word ‘Kiratpur’ mean?
Answer:
Kiratpur means a place where God is praised.

Question 196.
When and where did Guru Hargobind Ji immersed with immortal?
Answer:
In 1645 A.D. at Kiratpur Sahib.

Question 197.
Who was Guru Hargobind Ji’s successor?
Or
Whom did Guru Hargobind Sahib appoint his successor?
Answer:
Guru Har Rai Ji.

Question 198.
When and where was Guru Har Rai Ji born?
Answer:
January 30, 1630 A.D at Kiratpur Sahib.

Question 199.
What is the name of the seventh Guru of the Sikhs?
Answer:
Guru Har Rai Ji was the seventh Guru of the Sikhs.

Question 200.
What is the period of Guruship of seventh Guru Har Rai Ji?
Answer:
He remained on Gurgaddi from 1645 A.D. to 1661 A.D.

Question 201.
When did Guru Har Rai Ji leave this mortal world?
Answer:
Guru Har Rai Ji left this mortal world in 1661 A.D.

Question 202.
Whom did Guru Har Rai Ji appoint his successor?
Answer:
Guru Har Krishan Ji.

Question 203.
Who was the eighth Guru of the Sikhs?
Answer:
Guru Har Krishan Ji was the eighth Guru of the Sikhs.

Question 204.
When and where Guru Har Krishan Ji was born?
Answer:
He was born on 7th July, 1656 A.D. at Kiratpur Sahib.

Question 205.
Who was the ‘Bal Guru’ of the Sikhs?
Answer:
Gum Har Krishan Ji was the ‘Bal Gum’ of the Sikhs.

Question 206.
What is the period of Guruship of seventh Gum Har Krishan Ji?
Answer:
1661 to 1664 A.D.

Question 207.
When and where did Guru Har Krishan Ji immersed with immortal?
Answer:
Gum Har Krishan Ji immersed with immortal in Delhi in 1664 A.D.

Question 208.
When and where was Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji born?
Answer:
Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji was born on April 1, 1621 A.D. in Amritsar.

Question 209.
Name the parents of Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji.
Answer:
The name of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji’s mother was Nanaki, while his father’s name was Gum Hargobind Ji.

Question 210.
What was the childhood’s name of Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji?
Or
What was the former name of Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji?
Answer:
Tyag Mai.

Question 211.
What was the name of Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji’s son?
Answer:
The name of Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji’s son was Gobind Das.

Question 212.
Who said, “Gum Ladho Re, Gum Ladho Re” and for which Gum?
Answer:
Makhan Shah Lubana said these words for Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji.

Question 213.
For how long did Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji remain on Gurgaddi?
Answer:
1664 A.D. to 1675 A.D.

Question 214.
Who was Dhir Mai?
Answer:
Dhir Mai was the eldst son of Baba Gurditta Ji.

Question 215.
Who was Ram Rai?
Answer:
Ram Rai was the eldest son of Gum Har Rai Ji.

Question 216.
What was the objective of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji’s travels?
Answer:
The objective of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji’s travels was to preach Sikhism and to dispel the ignorance of the people.

Question 217.
Name two famous places out of Punjab visited by Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji.
Answer:
Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji visited (i) Delhi (ii) Assam.

Question 218.
Name two famous places of Punjab visited by Guru Tegh Bahadur.
Answer:
Two famous places of Punjab visited by Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji are (i) Amritsar, (ii) Goindwal Sahib.

Question 219.
What was the original name of Anandpur Sahib?
Answer:
The original name of Anandpur Sahib was Makhowal.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 220.
What was the main cause of the martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji?
Answer:
Aurangzeb couldn’t tolerate the increasing power of the Sikhs.

Question 221.
What was the main reason for martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji?
Answer:
Over the appeal of Kashmiri Pandits.

Question 222.
Who was the Governor of Kashmir at the time of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji?
Answer:
Sher Afghan.

Question 223.
Who was the ruler at the time of martyrdom of Ninth Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji?
Answer:
Aurangzeb was the ruler at the time of martyrdom of Ninth Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji.

Question 224.
When, where and in which Mughal ruler’s regime the execution of Guru Tegh Bahadur took place?
Answer:
The Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb, got Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji executed on November 11, 1675 A.D. in Delhi.

Question 225.
When and where was Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji martyred?
Answer:
Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was martyred on November 11,1675 A.D. at Chandani Chowk, Delhi.

Question 226.
Mention any one important result of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji’s martyrdom.
Answer:
A chapter of long drawn struggle between the Sikhs and the Mughals started.

Question 227.
Name the Guru known as “Hind-Di-Chadar”.
Answer:
Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji is known as Hind-Di-Chadar.

Question 228.
Who was the 10th and last Guru of the Sikhs?
Answer:
The 10th and the last Guru of the Sikhs was Guru Gobind Singh Ji.

Question 229.
When and where was Guru Gobind Singh Ji born?
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji was born on December 26, 1666 A.D. at Patna.

Question 230.
Name the parents of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s mother’s name was Gujari and father’s name was Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji.

Question 231.
What was the original name of Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
Answer:
The original name of Gum Gobind Singh Ji was Gobind Das.

Question 232.
Where did Guru Gobind Singh Ji spend his childhood?
Answer:
He spent his childhood in Patna Sahib.

Question 233.
For how long did Guru Gobind Singh Ji remain on Gurgaddi?
Answer:
Gum Gobind Singh Ji remained on Gurgaddi for 33 years from 1675 A.D. to 1708 A.D.

Question 234.
Name the four sons of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Answer:
The four sons of Gum Gobind Singh Ji were

  • Ajit Singh,
  • Jujhar Singh,
  • Zorawar Singh and
  • Fateh Singh.

Question 235.
Who was the ruler of Kahlur (Bilaspur) during Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s time?
Answer:
Bhim Chand.

Question 236.
Give the name of the Nagara (Drum) of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Answer:
Ranjit Nagara.

Question 237.
When and where was the first battle between Guru Gobind Singh Ji and Hill Chiefs fought?
Or
When and between whom was the battle of Bhangani fought?
Answer:
The battle of Bhangani was fought between Guru Gobind Singh Ji and HiH Chiefs in 1688 A.D.

Question 238.
When and between whom was the battle of Nadaun fought?
Answer:
The battle of Nadaun was fought between Gum Gobind Singh Ji and the Mughals in 1690 A.D.

Question 239.
What was the first name of Anandpur Sahib?
Answer:
Makhowal.

Question 240.
State the importance of Anandpur Sahib.
Answer:
Gum Gobind Singh Ji laid the foundation of Khalsa here.

Question 241.
Which Guru, where and when did the Khalsa Srijana?
Answer:
Gum Gobind Singh Ji did the Khalsa Srijana at Keshgarh Sahib on March 30, 1699 A.D.

Question 242.
Where and which Guru laid the foundation of the Khalsa?
Answer:
Gum Gobind Singh laid the foundation of the Khalsa at Anandpur Sahib.

Question 243.
When and where was the Khalsa founded?
Answer:
The foundation of the Khalsa was laid on March 30, 1699 A.D. at Anandpur Sahib.

Question 244.
Write the main reason of the creation of Khalsa.
Answer:
To defend dharma and finish tyranny.

Question 245.
How many Pyaras were blessed by Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
Answer:
Five.

Question 246.
Name one principle of the Khalsa.
Answer:
Each Khalsa will worship only one God and none else.

Question 247.
How do Khalsa men greet one another?
Answer:
The Khalsa men greet one another with “Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa, Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh”.

Question 248.
How many symbols was each Khalsa enjoined to wear by Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
Answer:
Five.

Question 249.
Which Guru created five-beloved and where and when?
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji created five beloved in Anandpur Sahib at 1699 A.D.

Question 250.
Name any results of the foundation of Khalsa.
Answer:
The foundation of Khalsa infused a new enthusiasm among the Sikhs.

Question 251.
When was the first battle of Anandpur Sahib fought?
Answer:
1701 A.D.

Question 252.
Name the Faujdar of Sirhind who had ordered to brick alive the two younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh Ji in a wall in Sirhind.
Answer:
Wazir Khan.

Question 253.
Who was the Faujdar of Sirhind during the pontificate of Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
Answer:
Wazir Khan.

Question 254.
When did the battle of Chamkaur Sahib take place?
Answer:
The battle of Chamkaur Sahib was fought in 1704 A.D.

Question 255.
In which battle were the two elder sons of Guru Gobind Singh Ji got martyrdom?
Answer:
In the battle of Chamkaur Sahib.

Question 256.
In which place the two younger sahibjadas of Guru Gobind Singh Ji got martyred?
Answer:
Sirhind.

Question 257.
Guru Gobind Singh wrote a letter to Aurangjeb from which place?
Answer:
Dina Kangar.

Question 258.
Where and by whom was Zafamama written?
Answer:
Zafamama was written by Guru Gobind Singh Ji at Dina Kangar.

Question 259.
Who was Bhai Daya Singh?
Answer:
He delivered Zafamama to Aurangzeb.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

Question 260.
Which was the last battle fought between Guru Gobind Singh Ji and the Mughals?
Answer:
Khidrana.

Question 261.
To which battle were the 40 Muktas (emancipators) related?
Answer:
Battle of Khidrana.

Question 262.
When and where did Bhai Mahan Singh become martyr?
Answer:
Bhai Mahan Singh became a martyr in the battle of Khidrana in December 1705 A.D.

Question 263.
When did the battle of Khidrana take place?
Answer:
The battle of Khidrana was fought in 1705 A.D.

Question 264.
Why is Talwandi Sabo called Guru Di Kashi?
Answer:
Talwandi Sabo is called Guru Di Kashi because Guru Gobind Singh Ji wrote a lot of literature here.

Question 265.
Who wrote Bachitar Natak and Zafarnama?
Answer:
Bachitar Natak and Zafarnama were written by Guru Gobind Singh Ji.

Question 266.
From which source do we get the information about the biography, of Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
Answer:
We get the information about the biography of Guru Gobind Singh Ji from Bachitar Natak.

Question 267.
When and which Guru gave Adi Granth the status of Guru Granth Sahib?
Or
Guru Gobind Singh bestowed Gurtagaddi to whom and when?
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji gave Adi Granth the status of Guru Granth Sahib at Oct. 6, 1708 A.D. at Nanded.

Question 268.
When and where did Guru Gobind Singh Ji immerse in Eternal Light?
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh Ji immersed in Eternal Light in Nanded on October 7, 1708 A.D.

Fill in the Blanks:

1. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born in ……………
Answer:
1469 A.D.

2. The name of the father of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was ………………
Answer:
Mehta Kalu.

3. The name of the sister of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was ……………..
Answer:
Nanaki.

4. The name of the mother of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was ……………..
Answer:
Tripta Devi.

5. Guru Nanak Dev Ji did ‘Sacha Sauda’ with …………. rupees.
Answer:
20.

6. Guru Nanak Dev Ji did a job in Modikhana at ……………..
Answer:
Sultanpur Lodhi.

7. Guru Nanak Dev Ji got the enlightenment at the age of …………… years.
Answer:
30.

8. After enlightenment Guru Nanak Dev Ji uttered the first words ……………..
Answer:
Na Ko Hindu, Na Ko Musalman.

9. Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s Udasis were his ……………..
Answer:
travels.

10. The main purpose of Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s Udasis was to ……………..
Answer:
dispel the ignorance among the people.

11. …………….. was the constant companion of Guru Nanak Dev Ji during his Udasis.
Answer:
Bhai Mardana.

12. Guru Nanak Dev Ji met Sajjan Thug at …………….
Answer:
Talumba.

13. Guru Nanak Dev Ji established the two institutions of …………….. and ……………..
Answer:
Sangat/Pangat:

14. Guru Nanak Dev Ji immersed in Eternal Light in ……………..
Answer:
1539 A.D.

15. Guru Nanak Dev Ji nominated ……………….. as his successor.
Answer:
Bhai Lehna Ji.

16. ……………… was the second Guru of the Sikhs.
Answer:
Guru Angad Dev Ji.

17. The original name of Guru Angad Dev Ji was ……………..
Answer:
Bhai Lehna Ji.

18. Guru Angad Dev Ji assumed Guruship in ………………
Answer:
1539 A.D.

19. Guru Angad Dev Ji popularised …………….. script.
Answer:
Gurmukhi.

20. ……………… was the founder of Udasi Sect.
Answer:
Baba Sri Chand Ji.

21. The third Guru of the Sikhs was ……………..
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji.

22. Guru Amar Das Ji assumed Guruship in …………….
Answer:
1552 A.D.

23. Guru Amar Das Ji got the Baoli of ……………….. constructed.
Answer:
Goindwal Sahib.

24. Manji system was raised by …………….
Answer:
Guru Amar Das Ji.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

25. ………….. was the fourth Guru of the Sikhs.
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji.

26. The original name of Guru Ram Das Ji was …………….
Answer:
Bhai Jetha Ji.

27. Guru Ram Das Ji assumed Guruship in ………………
Answer:
1574 A.D.

28. Guru Ram Das Ji founded Ramdaspura in ……………..
Answer:
1577 A.D.

29. …………….. started Masand System.
Answer:
Guru Ram Das Ji.

30. Guru Aijan Dev Ji was the ……………….. Guru of the Sikhs.
Answer:
fifth.

31. Guru Aijan Dev Ji assumed Guruship in ……………..
Answer:
1581 A.D.

32. Prithi Chand started the ……………. sect.
Answer:
Mina.

33. Chandu Shah was the Diwan of ………………
Answer:
Lahore.

34. Sri Harmandir Sahib was constructed by …………….
Answer:
Sufi Saint Guru Aijan Dev Ji.

35. The foundation of Sri Harmandir Sahib was laid by …………..
Answer:
Sufi Saint Mian Mir.

36. ……………….. compiled the Adi Granth Sahib.
Answer:
Guru Aijan Dev Ji.

37. The great work of compiling Adi Granth Sahib was completed in ……………….
Answer:
1604 A.D.

38. …………………. was appointed as first Granthi in Sri Harmandir Sahib.
Answer:
Bhai Buddha Ji.

39. Guru Aijan Dev Ji was martyred in ……………
Answer:
1606 A.D.

40. Guru Hargobind Ji was born in …………..
Answer:
1595 A.D.

41. ……………. was the father of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Answer:
Guru Aijan Dev Ji.

42. Guru Hargobind Ji occupied Guru’s seat in ………….
Answer:
1606 A.D.

43. …………… adopted the Miri and Piri System.
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji.

44. The Akal Takht Sahib was constructed by …………….
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji.

45. The construction of the Akal Takht Sahib was started in ……………
Answer:
1606 A.D.

46. ……………. is called Bandi Chhor Baba.
Answer:
Guru Hargobind Ji.

47. The Battle of Amritsar was fought in …………….
Answer:
1634 A.D.

48. ………….. and ………… the two horses were responsible for the Battle of Lahira.
Answer:
Dilbagh/Gulbagh.

49. Guru Hargobind Ji established the new town …………….
Answer:
Kiratpur Sahib.

50. Guru Hargobind Ji immersed in Eternal Light in …………..
Answer:
1645 A.D.

51. ………… was the seventh Guru of the Sikhs.
Answer:
Guru Har Rai Ji.

52. Guru Har Rai Ji was born in ……………
Answer:
1630 A.D.

53. Guru Har Rai Ji succeeded to Guruship in …………….
Answer:
1645 A.D.

54 ……………. was the eighth Guru of the Sikhs.
Answer:
Guru Har Krishan Ji.

55. Guru Har Krishan Ji assumed Guruship in ………………
Answer:
1661 A.D.

56. ……………. is remembered as Bal Guru.
Answer:
Guru Har Krishan Ji.

57. …………. was the ninth Guru of the Sikhs.
Answer:
Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji.

58. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was born at ……………
Answer:
Amritsar.

59. The name of the father of Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji was ……………..
Answer:
Gum Hargobind Ji.

60. The name of the mother of Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji was ……………
Answer:
Nanaki.

61. The childhood name of Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji was …………….
Answer:
Tyag Mai.

62. The name of the son of Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji was ……………..
Answer:
Gobind Rai.

63. Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji was found by ………….
Answer:
Makhan Shah Lubana.

64. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji assumed Guruship in ……………..
Answer:
1664 A.D.

65. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was martyred on the order of ………………
Answer:
Aurangzeb.

66. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was martyred on …………….. in Delhi.
Answer:
November 11, 1675 A.D.

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

67. Guru Gobind Singh Ji was ………….. Guru of the Sikhs.
Answer:
tenth.

68. Guru Gobind Singh Ji was born on ……………..
Answer:
December 26, 1666 A.D.

69. Guru Gobind Singh Ji was born at …………….
Answer:
Patna Sahib.

70. …………. was the father of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Answer:
Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji.

71. The name of the mother of Guru Gobind Singh Ji was ………………
Answer:
Gujari.

72. Guru Gobind Singh Ji’got Gurgaddi in …………..
Answer:
1675 A.D.

73. The first Battle of …………. was fought between Guru Gobind Singh Ji and Hill Chiefs.
Answer:
Bhangani.

74. The battle of Bhangani was fought in ……………
Answer:
1688 A.D.

75. The battle of Nadaun was fought in …………….
Answer:
1690 A.D.

76. Guru Gobind Singh Ji laid the foundation of Khalsa on …………..
Answer:
March 30, 1699 A.D.

77. The foundation of Khalsa was laid at …………… by Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Answer:
Anandpur Sahib.

78. The first ‘Panj Pyaras’ of Guru Gobind Singh was ………….
Answer:
Bhai Daya Ram Ji.

79. The first battle of Anandpur Sahib was fought in ………….
Answer:
1701 A.D.

80. The second battle of Anandpur Sahib was fought in ………………
Answer:
1704 A.D.

81. The battle of …………… was the last battle fought between Gum Gobind Singh Ji and the Mughals.
Answer:
Khidrana.

82. Gum Gobind Singh immersed in Eternal Light in ……………
Answer:
1708 A.D.

True Or False:

1. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born in 1469 A.D.
Answer:
True

2. The birth place of Guru Nanak Dev Ji is called Punja Sahib now-a-days.
Answer:
False

3. The name of the father of Guru Nanak Dev Ji was Mehta Kalu.
Answer:
True

4. Sabrai Devi was the mother of Gum Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
False

5. Nanaki Ji was sister of Gum Nanak Dev Ji.
Answer:
True

6. Gum Nanak Dev Ji belonged to Bedi caste.
Answer:
True

7. Gum Nanak Dev Ji did Sacha Sauda with 40 Rupees.
Answer:
False

8. Gum Nanak Dev Ji started his first Udasi at Saidpur.
Answer:
True

9. Gum Nanak Dev Ji started two institutions of Sangat and Pangat.
Answer:
True

10. Gum Nanak Dev Ji believed in One God.
Answer:
True

11. Gum Nanak Dev Ji believed in the Caste system and Idol worship.
Answer:
False

12. Gum Nanak Dev Ji laid emphasis on the equal rights of men and women.
Answer:
True

13. Gum Nanak Dev Ji immersed in Eternal light in 1539 A.D.
Answer:
True

14. Gum Angad Dev Ji was the third gum of the Sikhs.
Answer:
False

15. Bhai Lehna Ji was the original name of Gum Angad Dev Ji.
Answer:
True

16. Gum Angad Dev Ji became the second Gum of the Sikhs in 1539 A.D.
Answer:
True

17. Baba Sri Chand Ji founded Udasi sect.
Answer:
True

18. Gum Angad Dev Ji had a meeting with the Mughal Emperor Akbar.
Answer:
False

19. The third Gum of the Sikhs was Gum Amar Das Ji.
Answer:
True

20. Gum Amar Das Ji took Gum’s seat in 1552 A.D.
Answer:
True

21. Gum Amar Das Ji got built the Baoli at Goindwal Sahib.
Answer:
True

22. Manji system was established by Gum Ram Das Ji.
Answer:
False

PSEB 12th Class Religion Solutions Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.

23. Gum Ram Das Ji was the fourth Gum of the Sikhs.
Answer:
True

24. The original name of Gum Ram Das Ji was Bhai J6tha Ji.
Answer:
True

25. Gum Ram Das Ji founded Ramdaspura in 1578 A.D.
Answer:
False

26. Masand system was started by Gum Amar Das Ji.
Answer:
False

27. Gum Arjan Dev Ji was the fifth Gum of the Sikhs.
Answer:
True

28. Mina sect was founded by Prithi Chand.
Answer:
True

29. Chandu Shah was the Diwan of Multan.
Answer:
False

30. Harmandir Sahib was constructed by Gum Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
True

31. The constmction of Harmandir Sahib was started in 1688 A.D.
Answer:
False

32. The foundation stone of Harmandir Sahib was laid by Sufi Saint Mian Mir Ji.
Answer:
True

33. Development of Masand system was one of the greatest achievements of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
True

34. Baba Buddha Ji started the writing of Adi Granth Sahib.
Answer:
False

35. Guru Arjan.Dev Ji was martyred in 1606 A.D.
Answer:
True

36. Aurangzeb ordered the execution of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
Answer:
False

37. Guru Hargobind Ji was the seventh Guru of the Sikhs.
Answer:
False

38. Guru Hargobind Ji was born in 1595 A.D.
Answer:
True

39. Guru Arjan Dev Ji was the father of Guru Hargobind Ji.
Answer:
True

40. Guru Hargobind Ji held the Gurugaddi in 1606 A.D.
Answer:
True

41. Guru Hargobind Ji adopted the policy of Miri and Piri.
Answer:
True

42. Guru Arjan Dev Ji started the construction of the Akal Takht.
Answer:
False

43. Guru Hargobind Ji is called ‘Bandi Chhor Baba’.
Answer:
True

44. The first battle between the Sikhs and the Mughals was fought in 1634 A.D. at Amritsar.
Answer:
True

45. Guru Hargobind Ji established a new town named Kiratpur Sahib.
Answer:
True

46. True Gum Hargobind Ji immersed in Eternal light in 1635 A.D.
Answer:
False

47. Gum Har Rai Ji was the seventh Gum of the Sikhs.
Answer:
True

48. Gum Har Rai Ji was born in 1630 A.D.
Answer:
True

49. Baba Buddha Ji was the father of Gum Har Rai Ji.
Answer:
False

50. The name of the mother of Gum Har Rai Ji was Bibi Nihal Kaur.
Answer:
True

51. True Gum Har Rai Ji assumed Gumship in 1661 A.D.
Answer:
False

52. Gum Har Krishan Ji was the eighth Guru of the Sikhs.
Answer:
True

53. Gum Har Krishan Ji is known as Bal Gum.
Answer:
True

54. Gum Har Krishan Ji immersed in Eternal light in 1664 AD.
Answer:
True

55. The ninth Gum of the Sikhs was Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji.
Answer:
True

56. Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji was born at Amritsar.
Answer:
True

57. Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji was born in 1621 A.D.
Answer:
True

58. The name of the father of Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji was Har Krishan.
Answer:
False

59. The mother’s name of Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji was Gujari.
Answer:
False

60. Tyag Mai was the original name of Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji.
Answer:
True

61. The name of the son of Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji was Gobind Rai.
Answer:
True

62. Makhan Shah Lubana found Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji.
Answer:
True

63. Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji sat on Gum’s seat in 1664 A.D.
Answer:
True

64. Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji first of all reached Amritsar.
Answer:
True

65. Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji founded a new town Chak Nanaki.
Answer:
True

66. Aurangzeb reimposed Jaziya tax on Hindus in 1664 A.D.
Answer:
False

67. Sher Afghan was the Governor of Kashmir during the time of Aurangzeb.
Answer:
True

68. On the orders of Aurangzeb, Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji was martyred in Delhi.
Answer:
True

69. Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji was martyred on 11th November, 1675 A.D.
Answer:
True

70. Guru Gobind Singh Ji was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs.
Answer:
True

71. Guru Gobind Singh Ji was born on 22nd December, 1666 A.D.
Answer:
True

72. The father of Guru Gobind Singh Ji was Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji.
Answer:
True

73. Gujari was the name of the mother of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Answer:
True

74. The original name of Gum Gobind Singh Ji was Gobind Rai.
Answer:
True

75. The battle of Bhangani was fought in 1688 A.D.
Answer:
True

76. Gum Gobind Singh Ji created Khalsa in 1699 A.D.
Answer:
True

77. Gum Gobind Singh Ji selected the Five Payaras at the time of creation of the Khalsa.
Answer:
True

78. The first battle of Anandpur Sahib was fought in 1701 A.D.
Answer:
True

79. The second battle of Anandpur Sahib was fought in 1706 A.D.
Answer:
False

80. The battle of Chamkaur Sahib was fought in 1704 A.D.
Answer:
True

81. Gum Gobind Singh Ji wrote Zafaraama in Persian language.
Answer:
True

82. The battle of Khidrana was fought in 1705 A.D.
Answer:
True

83. Bachitra Nataka is the autobiography of Gum Gobind Singh Ji.
Answer:
True

84. Gum Gobind Singh Ji immersed in Eternal Light in Nanded.
Answer:
True

Multiple Choice Questions:

1. Who was the founder of Sikhism?
(a) Guru Nanak Dev Ji
(b) Guru Angad Dev Ji
(c) Guru Hargobind Ji
(d) Guru Gobind Singh Ji
Answer:
(a) Guru Nanak Dev Ji

2. When was Guru Nanak Dev Ji born?
(a) 1459 A.D.
(b) 1469 A.D.
(c) 1478 A.D.
(d) 1489 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1469 A.D.

3. What was the name of Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s father?
Answer:
(a) Mehta Kalu
(b) Jai Ram
(c) Sri Chand
(d) pheru Mal
Answer:
(a) Mehta Kalu

4. Who was Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s sister?
(a) Nanaki Ji
(b) Bhani Ji
(c) Dani Ji
(d) Khivi Ji
Answer:
(a) Nanaki Ji

5. With how much money Guru Nanak Dev Ji did Sacha Sauda?
(a) Rs. 10
(b) Rs. 20
(c) Rs. 30
(d) Rs. 40.
Answer:
(b) Rs. 20

6. What was the purpose of Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s Udasis?
(a) To dispel the ignorance prevalent among people
(b) To preach holy name
(c) To preach universal brotherhood of mankind
(d) All of the above.
Answer:
(d) All of the above.

7. From where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji start his first Udasi?
(a) Gorakhmatta
(b) Haridwar
(c) Saidpur
(d) Kurukshetra
Answer:
(c) Saidpur

8. Where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji meet Sajjan Thug?
(a) Talumba
(b) Saidpur
(c) Delhi
(d) Dhubri
Answer:
(a) Talumba

9. Which Qazi stopped Guru Nanak Dev Ji to sleep with his feet towards Kaba at Mecca?
(a) Bahuddin
(b) Kutubbuddin
(c) Rukunuddin
(d) Behlol
Answer:
(c) Rukunuddin

10. When did Guru Nanak Dev Ji reside in Kartarpur?
(a) 1519 A.D.
(b) 1520 A.D.
(c) 1521 A.D.
(d) 1522 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1521 A.D.

11. What is the concept of God of Guru Nanak Dev Ji?
(a) He is Supreme
(b) He is Immortal
(c) He is Nirguna and Saguna
(d) All of the above
Answer:
(d) All of the above

12. Who started the tradition of Kirtan?
(a) Guru Nanak Dev Ji
(b) Guru Amar Das Ji
(c) Guru Arjan Dev Ji
(d) Guru Gobind Singh Ji
Answer:
(a) Guru Nanak Dev Ji

13. Whom did Guru Nanak Dev Ji nominate his successor?
(a) Bhai Jetha Ji
(b) Bhai Durga Ji
(c) Bhai Lehna Ji
(d) Sri Chand Ji
Answer:
(c) Bhai Lehna Ji

14. When did Guru Nanak Dev Ji immerse in Eternal Light?
(a) 1519 A.D.
(b) 1529 A.D.
(c) 1539 A.D.
(d) 1549 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1539 A.D.

15. Who was the second Guru of the Sikhs?
(a) Guru Amar Das Ji
(b) Guru Ram Das Ji
(c) Guru Angad Dev Ji
(d) Guru Aijan Dev Ji
Answer:
(c) Guru Angad Dev Ji

16. What was the original name of Guru Angad Dev Ji?
(a) Bhai Jetha Ji
(b) Bhai Lehna Ji
(c) Bhai Gurditta Ji
(d) Bhai Dasu Ji
Answer:
(b) Bhai Lehna Ji

17. When did Guru Angad Dev Ji take the Guru’s seat?
(a) 1529 A.D.
(b) 1538 AD.
(c) 1539 A.D.
(d) 1552 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1539 A.D.

18. Which was the religious Headquarter of Guru Angad Dev Ji?
(a) Goindwal Sahib
(b) Amritsar
(c) Khadur Sahib
(d) Sultanpur Lodhi
Answer:
(c) Khadur Sahib

19. Which Guru Sahib popularized the Gurmukhi Script?
(a) Guru Nanak Dev Ji
(b) Guru Angad Dev Ji
(c) Guru Amar Das Ji
(d) Guru Gobind Singh Ji
Answer:
(b) Guru Angad Dev Ji

20. Who was the founder of Udasi sect?
(a) Baba Sri Chand Ji
(b) Baba Lakshmi Das Ji
(c) Baba Mohan Ji
(d) Baba Mohri Ji
Answer:
(a) Baba Sri Chand Ji

21. Who was the third Guru of the Sikhs?
(a) Guru Angad Dev Ji
(b) Guru Ram Das Ji
(c) Guru Amar Das Ji
(d) Guru Arjan Dev Ji
Answer:
(c) Guru Amar Das Ji

22. When did Guru Amar Das Ji sit on Gurgaddi?
(a) 1539 A.D.
(b) 1550 A.D.
(c) 1551 A.D
(d) 1552 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 1552 A.D.

23. Who got built the Baoli at Goindwal Sahib?
(a) Guru Angad Dev Ji
(b) Guru Amar Das Ji
(c) Guru Ram Das Ji
(d) Guru Aijan Dev Ji
Answer:
(b) Guru Amar Das Ji

24. How many stairs (steps) were constructed in the Baoli of Goindwal Sahib?
(a) 62
(b) 72
(c) 73
(d) 84
Answer:
(d) 84

25. Which Guru started Manji System?
(a) Guru Angad Dev Ji
(b) Guru Amar Das Ji
(c) Guru Ram Das Ji
(d) Guru Aijan Dev Ji
Answer:
(b) Guru Amar Das Ji

26. Name the centre of religious activities of Guru Amar Das Ji?
(a) Amritsar
(b) Goindwal Sahib
(c) Khadur Sahib
(d) Lahore
Answer:
(b) Goindwal Sahib

27. When did Guru Amar Das Ji immerse in Eternal ‘Light?
(a) 1552 A.D.
(b) 1564 A.D.
(c) 1568 A.D.
(d) 1574 A-D.
Answer:
(d) 1574 A-D.

28. Who was the fourth Guru of the Sikhs?
(a) Guru Ram Das Ji
(b) Guru Amar Das- Ji
(c) Guru Aijan Dev Ji
(d) Guru Har Krishan Ji
Answer:
(a) Guru Ram Das Ji

29. What was the original name of Guru Ram Das Ji?
(a) Bhai Bala Ji
(b) Bhai Jetha Ji
(c) Bhai Lehna Ji
(d) Bhai Mardana Ji
Answer:
(b) Bhai Jetha Ji

30. When did Guru Ram Das Ji assume Gurgaddi?
(a) 1534 A.D.
(b) 1552 A.D.
(c) 1554 A.D.
(d) 1574 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 1574 A.D.

31. Who founded Ramdaspura or Amritsar?
(a) Guru Amar Das Ji
(b) Guru Ram Das Ji
(c) Guru Aijan Dev Ji
(d) Guru Hargobind Ji
Answer:
(b) Guru Ram Das Ji

32. Which Guru started Masand system?
(a) Guru Ram Das Ji
(b) Guru Aijan Dev Ji
(c) Guru Amar Das Ji
(d) Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji
Answer:
(a) Guru Ram Das Ji

33. During which Guru’s pontificate was the settlement between the Sikhs and Udasis made?
(a) Guru Angad Dev Ji
(b) Guru Amar Das Ji
(c) Guru Ram Das Ji
(d) Guru Aijan Dev Ji
Answer:
(c) Guru Ram Das Ji

34. Who was the fifth Guru of the Sikhs?
(a) Guru Ram Das Ji
(b) Guru Aijan Dev Ji
(c) Guru Hargobind Ji
(d) Guru Har Krishan Ji
Answer:
(b) Guru Aijan Dev Ji

35. When was Guru Aijan Dev Ji born?
(a) 1539 A.D.
(b) 1560 A.D.
(c) 1563 A.D.
(d) 1574 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1563 A.D.

36. Where was Guru Aijan Dev Ji born?
(a) Amritsar
(b) Khadur Sahib
(c) Goindwal Sahib
(d) Tam Taran
Answer:
(c) Goindwal Sahib

37. Which sect was founded by Prithia?
(a) Mina
(b) Udasi
(c) Haijas
(d) Niranjania
Answer:
(a) Mina

38. When did Gum Aijan Dev Ji succeed to Gurgaddi?
(a) 1580 A.D.
(b) 1581 A.D.
(c) 1585 A.D.
(d) 1586 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1581 A.D.

39. Who was Chandu Shah?
(a) Diwan of Lahore
(b) Faujdar of Jalandhar
(c) Subedar of Punjab
(d) Diwan of Multan
Answer:
(a) Diwan of Lahore

40. When did Gum Aijan Dev Ji laid the foundation of Sri Harmandir Sahib?
(a) 1581 A.D.
(b) 1585 A.D.
(c) 1587 A.D.
(d) 1588 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 1588 A.D.

41. Who laid the foundation stone of Sri Harmandir Sahib?
(a) Guru Aijan Dev Ji
(b) Baba Farid Ji
(c) Sufi Saint Mian Mir Ji
(d) Bhai Buddha Ji
Answer:
(c) Sufi Saint Mian Mir Ji

42. Who helped Guru Aijan Dev Ji in compiling the Adi Granth Sahib?
(a) Baba Buddha Ji
(b) Bhai Gurdas Ji
(c) Bhai Mohkam Chand Ji
(d) Bhai Mani Singh Ji
Answer:
(b) Bhai Gurdas Ji

43. When was compilation of Adi Granth Sahib completed?
(a) 1600 A.D.
(b) 1601 A.D.
(c) 1602A.D.
(d) 1604 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 1604 A.D.

44. Who was appointed the first Granthi of Harimandir Sahib?
(a) Bhai Gurdas Ji
(b) Bhai Mani Singh Ji
(c) Baba Buddha Ji
(d) Baba Deep Singh Ji
Answer:
(c) Baba Buddha Ji

45. What was the name of autobiography of Jahangir?
(a) Tuzak-a-Babari
(b) Tuzak-a-Jahangiri
(c) Jahangimama
(d) Aalamgimama
Answer:
(b) Tuzak-a-Jahangiri

46. Who was the first Sikh Guru to be martyred?
(a) Guru Nanak Dev Ji
(b) Guru Amar Das Ji
(c) Guru Aijan Dev Ji
(d) Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji
Answer:
(c) Guru Aijan Dev Ji

47. Where was Guru Aijan Dev Ji martyred?
(a) Delhi
(b) Amritsar
(c) Lahore
(d) Multan
Answer:
(c) Lahore

48. When was Guru Aijan Dev Ji martyred?
(a) 1604 A.D.
(b) 1605 A.D.
(c) 1606 A.D.
(d) 1609 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1606 A.D.

49. Who was the sixth Guru of the Sikhs?
(a) Guru Aijan Dev Ji
(b) Guru Hargobind Ji
(c) Guru Har Rai Ji
(d) Guru Harkrishan Ji
Answer:
(b) Guru Hargobind Ji

50. When did Guru Hargobind Ji succeed to Gurgaddi?
(a) 1506 A.D.
(b) 1556 A.D.
(c) 1605 A.D.
(d) 1606 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 1606 A.D.

51. Which Guru started the policy of Miri and Piri?
(a) Guru Aijan Dev Ji
(b) Guru Hargobind Ji
(c) Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji
(d) Guru Gobind Singh Ji
Answer:
(b) Guru Hargobind Ji

52. Which Guru started construction of Akal Takht?
(a) Guru Amar Das Ji
(b) Guru Aijan Dev Ji
(c) Guru Hargobind Ji
(d) Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji
Answer:
(c) Guru Hargobind Ji

53. Which Guru is also known as ‘Bandi Chhor Baba’?
(a) Banda Singh Bahadur
(b) Bhai Mani Singh Ji
(c) Guru Hargobind Ji
(d) Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji
Answer:
(c) Guru Hargobind Ji

54. When was the battle of Amritsar between Guru Hargobind Ji and the Mughals fought?
(a) 1606 A.D.
(b) 1624 A.D.
(c) 1630 A.D.
(d) 1634 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 1634 A.D.

55. When did Guru Hargobind Ji immerse in Eternal Light?
(a) 1628 A.D.
(b) 1635 A.D.
(c) 1638 A.D.
(d) 1645 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 1645 A.D.

56. Who was the seventh Guru of the Sikhs?
(a) Guru Hargobind Ji
(b) Guru Har Rai Ji
(c) Guru Harkrishan Ji
(d) Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji
Answer:
(b) Guru Har Rai Ji

57. When did Guru Har Rai Ji take Guru’s seat?
(a) 1635 A.D.
(b) 1637 A.D.
(c) 1645 A.D.
(d) 1655 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1645 A.D.

58. Who was the eighth Guru of the Sikhs?
(a) Guru Harkrishan Ji
(b) Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji
(c) Guru Har Rai Ji
(d) Guru Gobind Singh Ji
Answer:
(a) Guru Harkrishan Ji

59. Which Guru is known as ‘Bal Guru5 in The Sikh History?
(a) Guru Ram Das Ji
(b) Guru Har Rai Ji
(c) Guru Harkrishan Ji
(d) Guru Gobind Singh Ji
Answer:
(c) Guru Harkrishan Ji

60. When did Guru Harkrishan Ji succeed to gurgaddi?
(a) 1645 A.D.
(b) 1956 A.D.
(c) 1661 A.D.
(d) 1664 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1661 A.D.

61. When did Guru Harkrishan Ji immerse in Eternal Light?
(a) 1661 A.D.
(b) 1662 A.D.
(c) 1663 A.D.
(d) 1664 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 1664 A.D.

62. Who was the nineth Guru of the Sikhs?
(a) Guru Amar Das Ji
(b) Guru Har Rai Ji.
(c) Guru Harkrishan Ji
(d) Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji
Answer:
(d) Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji

63. When was Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji born?
(a) 1601 A.D.
(b) 1621 A.D.
(c) 1631 A.D.
(d) 1656 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1621 A.D.

64. What was the childhood name of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji?
(a) Hari mal
(b) Tyag Mai
(c) Bhai Lehna Ji
(d) Bhai Jetha Ji
Answer:
(b) Tyag Mai

65. What was the name of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji’s father?
(a) Guru Hargobind Ji
(b) Guru Har Rai Ji
(c) Guru Harkrishan Ji
(d) Baba Gurditta Ji
Answer:
(a) Guru Hargobind Ji

66. Name the person who proved that Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji. was the actual Guru of the Sikhs :
(a) Makhan Shah Mastuana
(b) Makhan Shah Lubana
(c) Baba Buddha Ji
(d) Bhai Gurdas Ji
Answer:
(b) Makhan Shah Lubana

67. When did Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji sit on Gurgaddi?
(a) 1661 A.D.
(b) 1664 A.D.
(c) 1665 A.D.
(d) 1666 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1664 A.D.

68. Which Mughal ruler ordered the execution of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji?
(a) Jahangir
(b) Shah Jahan
(c) Aurangzeb
(d) Bahadur Shah
Answer:
(c) Aurangzeb

69. Where was Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji martyred?
(a) Lahore
(b) Delhi
(c) Amritsar
(d) Patna
Answer:
(b) Delhi

70. When was Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji martyred?
(a) 1661 A.D.
(b) 1664 A.D.
(c) 1665 A.D.
(d) 1675 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 1675 A.D.

71. Who was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs?
(a) Guru Hargobind Ji
(b) Guru Gobind Singh Ji
(c) Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji
(d) Guru Harkrishan Ji
Answer:
(b) Guru Gobind Singh Ji

72. When was Guru Gobind Singh Ji born?
(a) 1646 A.D.
(b) 1656 A.D.
(c) 1666 A.D.
(d) 1676 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1666 A.D.

73. Where was Guru Gobind Singh Ji born?
(a) Patna Sahib
(b) Goindwal Sahib
(c) Khadur Sahib
(d) Anandpur Sahib
Answer:
(a) Patna Sahib

74. What was the name of the. father of Gum Gobind Singh Ji?
(a) Gum Hargobind Ji
(b) Guru Har Rai Ji
(c) Gum Harkrishan Ji
(d) Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji
Answer:
(d) Gum Tegh Bahadur Ji

75. Who was the mother of Gum Gobind Singh Ji?
(a) Gujari Ji
(b) Nanaki Ji
(c) Sulakhani Ji
(d) Khivi Ji
Answer:
(a) Gujari Ji

76. What was the childhood name of Gum Gobind Singh Ji?
(a) Gobind Nath
(b) Gobind Rai
(c) Bhai Jetha Ji
(d) Bhai Lehna Ji
Answer:
(b) Gobind Rai

77. When did Gum Gobind Singh Ji succeed to Gurgaddi?
(a) 1666 A.D.
(b) 1670 A.D.
(c) 1672 A.D.
(d) 1675 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 1675 A.D.

78. When was the battle of Bhangani fought?
(a) 1686 A.D.
(b) 1687 A.D.
(c) 1688 A.D.
(d) 1690 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1688 A.D.

79. When was the battle of Nadaun fought?
(a) 1688 A.D.
(b) 1690 A.D.
(c) 1694 A.D.
(d) 1695 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1690 A.D.

80. Which Guru laid the foundation of Khalsa?
(a) Guru Nanak Dev Ji
(b) Guru Aijan Dev Ji
(c) Guru Hargobind Ji
(d) Guru Gobind Singh Ji
Answer:
(d) Guru Gobind Singh Ji

81. When did Guru Gobind Singh Ji founded Khalsa?
(a) 1688 A.D.
(b) 1690 A.D.
(c) 1695 A.D.
(d) 1699 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 1699 A.D.

82. Where did Guru Gobind Singh Ji founded Khalsa?
(a) Amritsar
(b) Anandpur Sahib
(c) Kiratpur Sahib
(d) Goindwal Sahib
Answer:
(b) Anandpur Sahib

83. How many symbols were to be worn by each Khalsa as told at the time of foundation of Khalsa by Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
(a) Two
(b) Three
(c) Four
(d) Five
Answer:
(d) Five

84. When was the First battle of Anandpur Sahib fought?
(a) 1699 A.D.
(b) 1701 AD.
(c) 1703 A.D.
(d) 1704 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1701 AD.

85. When was the Second Battle of Anandpur Sahib fought?
(a) 1701 A.D.
(b) 1702 A.D.
(c) 1704 A.D.
(d) 1705 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1704 A.D.

86. When was the battle of Chamkaur Sahib fought?
(a) 1702 A.D.
(b) 1703 A.D.
(c) 1704 A.D.
(d) 1706 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 1704 A.D.

87. In which language Guru Gobind Singh Ji wrote Zafamama?
(a) Hindi
(b) Sanskrit
(c) Punjabi
(d) Persian
Answer:
(d) Persian

88. To which battle ‘40 Muktas’ were related?
(a) Battle of Chamkaur Sahib
(b) Battle of Khidrana
(c) First battle of Anandpur Sahib
(d) Second battle of Anandpur Sahib
Answer:
(b) Battle of Khidrana

89. Who composed Bachitra Natak?
(a) Guru Nanak Dev Ji
(b) Guru Arjan Dev Ji
(c) Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji
(d) Guru Gobind Singh Ji
Answer:
(d) Guru Gobind Singh Ji

90. When was Guru Gobind Singh immersed in Eternal Light?
(a) 1705 A.D.
(b) 1706 A.D.
(c) 1707 A.D.
(d) 1708 A.D.
Answer:
(d) 1708 A.D.

PSEB 11th Class Religion Book Solutions Guide in Punjabi English Medium

Punjab State Board Syllabus PSEB 11th Class Religion Book Solutions Guide Pdf in English Medium and Punjabi Medium are part of PSEB Solutions for Class 11.

PSEB 11th Class Religion Guide | Religion Guide for Class 11 PSEB in English Medium

Religion Guide for Class 11 PSEB | PSEB 11th Class Religion Book Solutions

  • Chapter 1 Religious Life of the Indus Valley People and Early Aryans
  • Chapter 2 Buddhist Movement upto Ashoka Period
  • Chapter 3 Rise and Development of Sikhism : 1469-1708 A.D.
  • Chapter 4 Introduction to Vedic Literature
  • Chapter 5 General Introduction to Puranas, Upanishads and Shastras
  • Chapter 6 The Adi Granth
  • Chapter 7 Ashta Marga of Buddhism
  • Chapter 8 Ethical Teachings of Jainism
  • Chapter 9 The Sikh Way of Life

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 27 The State Legislature

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Political Science Book Solutions Chapter 27 The State Legislature Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 27 The State Legislature

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain the composition and powers of the Vidhan Sabha.
Answer:
The Constitution provides Legislature, a law-making body, to every State. In some States the Legislature is bi-cameral, and in some it is uni-cameral. Where the Legislature is bi-cameral, the Upper House is called the Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad) and the Lower House is known as the legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha). Vidhan Sabha is elected directly by the people, hence it is the representative House. The Vidhan Sabha, by passing a resolution by 2/3rd majority of members present and voting, may request the Parliament to create or abolish the Vidhan Parishad in the State.

Composition:
The Constitution provides that the Legislative Assembly of each State shall consist of not more than 500 and less than 60 members. According to 36th amendment Sikkim was made a full-fledged state and members of Sikkim Legislative Assembly cannot be less than 30. The total strength of a State Legislative Assembly depends upon the population of the State.

For instance, the Haryana Legislative Assembly consists of 90 members while the Punjab Assembly has 117 members. Of all the States Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly has the maximum strength; it has 403 members. The members of the Legislative Assembly are directly elected by the people of the State on the basis of adult franchise.

Those eligible to vote must be (a) citizen of India, (b) must have completed the age of 18 years and (c) must have not been otherwise disqualified. The Constitution also makes provision for the reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Tribes. It is to give special representation to them.

However, elections of the members of the Scheduled Castes and Tribes are also held on the basis of joint electorate. Provision for the nomination of members belonging to the Anglo-Indian community has also been made in the Constitution. If the Governor is of the opinion that the Anglo-Indian community is not adequately represented in the Legislative Assembly, he may nominate one member of the community to the Assembly.

Qualifications:
The qualifications and disqualifications for a member of the State Legislative Assembly are the same as for members of the Lok Sabha. A candidate seeking election to the Legislative Assembly must fulfil the following qualifications:

  1. He must be a citizen of India.
  2. He must have completed the age of 25 years.
  3. He must not hold an office of profit.
  4. He must possess qualifications laid down by the Parliament of India; and
  5. He must not be of unsound mind and should not have been declared disqualified by a competent court.

If after election any question arises as to whether a member is subjected to any of the disqualifications, the decision of the Governor shall be final. But before giving any decision on any such question, the Governor is required to obtain the opinion of the Election Commission and act according to such opinion. The decision of the Governor, therefore, is really the decision of the Election Commission.

Term:
The term of the Legislative Assembly is five years. The term of five years starts from the date of its sitting. After the expiry of five years the Assembly stands automatically dissolved. The Governor is empowered to dissolve the Assembly even before expiry of five years. The life of the Assembly can be extended also. During the proclamation of emergency, the life of the Assembly may be extended by a law of Parliament for a period not exceeding one year at a time.

Salary and Allowances:
Members of the Legislative Assembly are entitled to such salary and allowances as are determined by the Legislature of the State by law. It is thus clear that members of different Legislative Assemblies do not get identical salary and allowances.

Privileges of the Members:
Like the members of Parliament, the members of the State Legislature also enjoy freedom of speech on the floor of the House. They cannot be prosecuted for having said anything on the floor of the House. During session the members cannot be arrested in any civil case. All these privileges are granted to them with a view that members may be in a position to discharge their duties as members of the House.

The Quorum:
Until the Legislature of the State by law otherwise provides, the quorum to constitute a meeting of the House shall be the ten members or one-tenth of the total number of members of the House, whichever is greater. According to 42nd Amendment each House of the State legislature is empowered to determine its quorum. If at any time during a meeting of the House there is no quorum, it shall be the duty of the presiding officer to adjourn or suspend the meeting until there is a quorum.

Officers of the Legislative Assembly:
The presiding officer of the Legislative Assembly is called the Speaker. There is also a Deputy Speaker who presides over the House when the Speaker is absent. The Speaker and the Deputy Speaker are both elected by the members of the House.

Power and Functions of the Legislative Assembly:
The Legislative Assembly has the powers to make laws on all subjects contained in the State List. These subjects are within the exclusive jurisdiction of the State Legislative Assembly. In States where there exists the other House i.e., Legislative Council also, the Legislative Assembly works together with the Legislative Council. Then the State Legislature means both the Heuses. However, the Legislative Council has been kept a weak Chamber as compared to the Legislative Assembly. It cannot be an obstacle in the way of the Legislative Assembly. The powers and functions of the Legislative Assembly may be discussed as ahead:

1. Legislative Powers:
The Legislative Assembly can make laws on the subjects mentioned in the State list and Concurrent list. If there is only one chamber of the legislature, the bill after having been passed by this chamber is sent to the Governor for his assent. If there are two chambers of the legislature, the bill after having been passed by one chamber is sent to the second chamber and then to the Governor of the State for his assent.

The second chamber council can delay the passage of the bill at the most for 4 months. The Governor can veto a bill once but if passed by the legislature for the second time, the Governor will have to give his asset. If a bill is passed by the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council rejects it or delays it for more than 3 months, the bill will go back to the Assembly. If the Legislative Council again rejects it or delays it for more than one month, it will be considered to have been passed by the State Legislature as it was passed by the Legislative Assembly. In this way the Legislative Council can delay a non-money bill at the most for 4 months.

2. Financial Powers:
Money bill can be introduced only in the Legistative Assembly. The Legislative Assembly exercises complete control over the finances of the State. The Legislative Council can delay a money bill at the most for 14 days. The Legislative Council may reject a money bill or may not take any action over it for 14 days: in both these conditions, the money bill is considered as passed and is sent to the Governor for his approval. The Governor cannot refuse to give his assent to the money bill. During emergency limitations can be imposed on the financial powers of the Governor.

3. Executive Powers:
The State executive is responsible to the Legislative Assembly for all its actions and policies. The leader of the majority party in the Legislative Assembly is appointed the Chief Minister of the State. Most of the ministers are taken from the Legislative Assembly. The members of the Legislative Assembly can ask questions from the ministers and they are to give satisfactory answers to all these questions. The Legislative Assembly can reject an important bill of the Cabinet or by decreasing the salary of a minister or by passing a vote of no-confidence against the ministry to remove it from office.
PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 27 The State Legislature 1

4. Electoral Functions:
The members of the Legislative Assembly participate in the election of the President of India. It elects l/3rd members of the Legislative Council of the State. The members of the Rajya Sabha are elected by the State Legislatures. It elects its own Chairman and Deputy Chairman.

5. Constitutional Functions:
Constitutional powers of the Legislative Assembly are not very important. Power of amendment is vested with the Parliament, but important provisions of the Constitution cannot be amended unless half the State Legislatures in the country approve such an amendment.

6. Creation or the Abolition of the Legislative Council:
The Legislative Assembly, by passing a resolution by two-thirds majority of the members present and voting, can request the Union Parliament for the creation or the abolition of the Legislative Council in the State. It is merely a request to the Union Parliament and the Union Parliament is not bound to accept the request. On 7th April 1993, the’ Punjab Vidhan Sabha passed a resolution for the creation of a Legislative Council for the state.

Position of the Legislative Assembly:
The Legislative Assembly plays a very important role in the administration of the State. It has almost all the legislative powers of the State. The Legislative Council can delay an ordinary bill at the most for 4 months and a money bill at the most for 14 days. No law-can be passed against the will of the Legislative Assembly. The Cabinet is completely under the control bf the Legislative Assembly. The Legislative Assembly by passing a vote of no-confidence against the ministry can remove it from office. In brief the Legislative Assembly enjoys an important positioirin the State.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 27 The State Legislature

Question 2.
Write a short note on the Speaker of Legislative Assembly of a State.
Or
Explain with appropriate illustrations, live main functions of the Speaker of a Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly).
Answer:
The presiding officer of the Legislative Assembly is called the Speaker. The Speaker is elected by the members of the House. The Speaker must be a member of the House. A member who holds the office of the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker vacates his office, if he ceases to be a member of the House. He can also resign his office^tt any time when he wants. If the Speaker resigns, the letter of resignation is addressed to the Deputy Speaker.

The Speaker does not vacate his office on the dissolution of the House. He continues in office until immediately before the first meeting of the House after the dissolution.

The Speaker and the Deputy Speaker can be removed from office on a resolution passed by a majorty of all the then members of the House. But no such resolution can be moved unless 14 days’ notice for moving such a resolution is given. Moreover, reasons for removal should be explicit. The presiding officer may not allow motion to be moved if the charges levelled against the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker are vague. It happened in the Legislative Assembly of Haryana.

The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker is not to preside at any sitting of the Assembly while any resolution for his removal is under consideration. But he has the right to sit in the House, defend himself and is entitled to vote in the first instance on such a resolution. At that moment, he has no right of casting vote.

The Speaker and the Deputy Speaker are paid salaries and allowances as fixed by the State Legislature by law. Those are charged on the Consolidated Fund of the State.

Functions of the Speaker:
The functions and powers of the Speaker of Legislative Assembly are almost the same as those of the Speaker of Lok Sabha. His functions and powers are as ahead:

  1. He is required to preserve order and decorum in the House for conducting legislative business.
  2. He allocates time for different kinds of businesses in the House.
  3. He interprets the rules of procedure.
  4. He puts matters to vote and announces result.
  5. He has the right of a casting vote in case of a tie.
  6. He admits motions, resolutions and points of order!
  7. He is empowered to adjourn the meeting of the House in the absence of a quorum.
  8. He can order expunction of indecent and incriminatory references.
  9. He allows the members to speak in the House.
  10. He may name a member and ask him to leave the House in case of disorderly behaviour.
  11. He can adjourn the House in case of grave disorder or serious matter.
  12. He is to certify a bill after it is passed by the House.
  13. He decides whether a bill is money bill or not.
  14. He presides over the joint session of the two Houses,
  15. He keeps control over the legislative secretariat.
  16. He accepts or rejects the resignation of a member of the House after ascertaining whether it was submitted under pressure or not.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 27 The State Legislature

Question 3.
Discuss the composition, powers and functions of the State Legislative Council.
Answer:
Composition of the Legislative Council.. The Legislative Council is the upper or the second chamber of State Legislature. The Legislative Council does not exist in all the States of India. At present Legislative Councils exist in U.P., Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Telagana. The Legislative Council can be established in the State by Parliament on the request of the Legislative Assembly of the State. The number of the members of the Legislative Council cannot be more than 1/3 of the membership of the Legislative Assembly and it cannot be less than 40.

Election:
The members of the Legislative Council are not elected directly by the voters. They are elected in the following ways:
1. One-sixth of the total members of Council are nominated by the Governor. These persons have special aptitude and specialization in literature, fine arts science and social service.

2. One-third of the members of the Council are elected by the State Legislative Assembly. These persons are not to be the members of the House.

3. One-third of the members are elected by the local bodies namely Corporations, Municipalities, Zila Parishads and Panchayats etc.

4. One-twelfth of the members of the Council are elected by the teachers of not lower than. Higher Secondary School Teachers who have three years of standing are entitled to vote at the elections.

5. One-twelfth of the members are elected by the University graduates of at least 3 years’ of standing.

Term of Office:
Legislative Council is a permanent body. Its one-third members retire by rotation after every 2 years and these persons can be re-elected. Each member of the Council remains in office for 6 years.

Qualifications:
Following are the qualifications for .becoming the member of the Legislative Council:

  1. He should be a citizen of India.
  2. He should not be less than 30 years of age.
  3. He should not hold any office of profit under the Central or State government.
  4. He should not be mad or insane and should not have been disqualified to become the member of the Council.

Chairman:
There is an elected Chairman of the Council who is the presiding officer. He is responsible for running smoothly the business of the House. The Legislative Council can remove the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman from office by a majority vote of the House.

Powers and functions of the Legislative Council:
The Legislative Council exercises the following powers-
1. Legislative Powers:
Any non-money bill which can be introduced in the Legislative Assembly can also be introduced in the Legislative Council. Any ordinary bill in the subjects mentioned in the State list and concurrent list can be introduced in the Legislative Council. After the bill is passed by the Legislative Council it is sent to the Legislative Assembly. The bill cannot be sent to the Governnor for his assent unless it is passed by the Legislative Assembly. The Legislative Council can delay a non-money bill at the most for 4 months.

2. Financial Powers:
In financial matters the Legislative Council does not enjoy much power. Money bills cannot be introduced in this chamber. The money bill can only be introduced in the Legislative Assembly and after it is passed from there it is sent to the Legislative Council and the Council can delay it at the most for 14 days. It may reject the bill or may’not take any action over it for 14 days and in both these cases the bill is considered passed by both the Houses and is sent to the Governnor for his assent. Budget is introduced only in the Legislative Assembly.

3. Control over the Executive:
The Legislative Council does not exercise much control over the executive. Some ministers are of course taken from the Council. Its members can ask questions to the ministers and they are to give satisfactory answers to the questions. The Legislative Council can criticise the functioning of the departments under the ministers. More than this it does not have any control over the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers cannot be removed from office by the Legislative Council.

Position of the Legislative Council:
Legislative Council is the upper chamber of the State Legislature. But its position as compared with the lower chamber is of less importance. The Legislative Assembly can establish or abolish the Legislative Council by passing a resolution to this effect. The very existence of the Legislative Council depends upon the Legislative Assembly.

It also enjoys less powers as compared with the Legislative Assembly. It can delay a money bill at the most for 14 days and a non-money bill at the most for 4 months. It cannot stand in the way of the Legislative Assembly. Notwithstanding all these weaknesses it has its own importance. It serves as a revising chamber. It brings to light the shortcomings in the bills passed by the Legislative Assembly.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 27 The State Legislature

Question 4.
Discuss the composition, powers, functions and position of the State Legislature.
Or
Write a short note on State Legislature.
Answer:
Composition:
The State Legislature is empowered to make laws in the State. In most of the States there is a bi-cameral Legislature and in come States there is only one chamber.
1. Legislative Assembly:
There is a Legislative Assembly in each State. It can have minimum 60 members and maximum 500 members. The number of the seats is fixed in proportion to the population of the State. The members are elected by the people directly. The Governor can nominate one Anglo-Indians to the Legislative Assembly if he feels that the community has not got adequate representation. It is elected for a period of five years. The Governor can dissolve the assembly even before the expiry of 5 years and can order fresh elections. It has one Chairman and one Vice-Chairman.

2. Legislative Council:
In Haryana, Kerala, Rajasthan, Punjab, Orissa, Nagaland, Gujarat, Himachal, Meghalaya, Tripura and Manipur, there is no Legislative Council. The Parliament can establish and abolish the Legislative Council on the request of the Legislative Assembly. The Legislative Council cannot have more than 1/3 of the members of the Legislative Assembly and cannot have less than 40 members. One-third of its members are elected by the Legislative Assembly, 1/3 by the local bodies, 1/12 by the teachers, 1/12 by the graduates of the three-year standing and 1/6 are nominated by the Governor of the State. One-third of its members retire after every two years. Each member remains in office for 6 years. It has one Chairman and one Deputy Chairman.

Powers and Functions of the Legislature:
The Legislature in the State enjoys the following powers and functions:
1. Legislative Powers:
The State Legislature can frame laws on all the subjects mentioned in the State list and concurrent list. After the bill is passed by both the Houses it is sent to the Governor. The Governor can exercise his veto power. He can once refuse to give his assent to the bill. But if the Legislature passes the bill for the second time the Governor then is bound to give his assent to it. The Governor can reserve some bills for the consideration of the President. The President can also make use of his veto power but for the second time he must give his assent to the bill.

The Parliament can also make laws on the subjects mentioned in the Concurrent list. If there is a clash between the Centre and the State over a law made on a subject from the Concurrent list, the will of the Centre is to prevail. The ordinances issued by the Governor are to be approved by the legislature otherwise they will cease to operate.

2. Financial Powers:
The Legislature controls the finances of the State. The budget of the State is presented to the Legislature before the start of the financial year. The Government can impose taxes only after the budget is passed by the Legislature. It can spend money when it is empowered to spend by the Legislature. No tax can be imposed on the people without the consent of the Legislature.

3. Executive Powers:
There is a close relationship between the Legisture and the Executive. The Chief Minister and other Ministers are taken from among the members of the Legislature. They attend the meetings of the Legislature and answer the questions put to them by the members of the Legislature. They can criticise the working of the Government. The Ministers can remain in office so far as they enjoy the confidence of the Council of Ministers. If the Legislative Assembly passes a vote of no-confidence against the ministry, the ministry is to resign.

4. Electoral Functions:
The Legislature also enjoys some electoral powers. The members of the Legislative Assembly participate in the election of the President. The members of the Rajya Sabha are elected by the members of the State Legislative Assemblies.

5. Amendment in the Constitution:
The State Legislature participates in the amendment of the Constitution. The State Legislature cannot itself introduce the bill for amending the Constitution. The bill for amending the Constitution is introduced in the Parliament and after it is passed by the Parliament, the approval of half the Legislatures is essential for its rectification.

Position of the Legislature:
The Legislature has an important role to play in the administration of the State. It can ipake laws on all the subjects mentioned in the State list. It can also frame laws on all the subjects mentioned in the concurrent list. It has full control over the finances of the State. It controls the Council of Ministers. It also participates in amending the important provisions of the Constitution, But it does not mean that the State executive enjoys unlimited authority. It is to perform its functions under certain limitations.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 27 The State Legislature

Question 5.
Describe the Procedure of law-making in State Legislature.
Answer:
1. Introduction of the Bill:
An ordinary bill can be introduced in either house of the Legislature. It can also be introduced by a private member of the Legislature. The money bills can only be introduced in the Legislative Assembly by the ministers. A private member is to give a month’s notice for the introduction of the bill and for this purpose a day is fixed in the programme of House. On the fixed date the mover of the bill asks for the permission of the House to move the bill which is only a formality.

After getting the permission of the House he reads the title of the bill. It is called the introduction of the bill and the bill is published in the Government Gazette. The ministers are not bound to give a notice for the introduction of the bill and they can get the bill published in the gazette in no time.

2. First Reading:
Sometimes there is a first reading of the bill just after the . introduction stage. Sometimes another date is fixed for the first reading of the bill. On the fixed date the mover of the bill stands up at his seat and requests that the bill be read for the first time. On getting the permission of the House he explains the main principles and objects of the bill. After this other members of the House express their opinions in favor or against the bill.

The bill at this stage is not debated and discussed in detail, only the objects and main principles involved are discussed. Then the mover of the bill puts a resolution that the bill be sent to a Select committee. If this request of the mover of the bill is not opposed to, the bill is sent to the Select Committee: if it is opposed to it, it is sent to press for eliciting public opinion. It can also be put to vote and if the majority of the members is against the bill, it is rejected.

3. Select Committee:
The bill is sent to the Select Committee if it is rejected at the first reading. The Committee consists of nearly 20 members which are taken from among the members of the House. The bill which is published for eliciting public opinion is also sent to the Select Committee. The Select Committee discusses the bill in detail and debates the merits and demerits of the bill. The Committee can suggest amendments in the provisions and clauses of the bill. After discussing the bill thoroughly the Committee prepares its report in favour or against the bill or suggests some amendments in the bill. While preparing the report the Committee takes into consideration public opinion also. Then the committee sends its report to the House.

4. Second Reading:
The report of the Select Committee is discussed on a fixed date. The mover of the bill on the fixed date requests the House that the report of the Select Committee may be discussed. The bill is discussed in detail in the house. The views of the Select Committee on all clauses are discussed. Amendments in the bill can be suggested by the Select Committee. After the bill is thoroughly discussed, the opinion of the House is sought on each clause ; amendments or proposals are also put to vote. The bill is passed according to the view-point of the majority of the members.

5. Third Reading:
A day is fixed for the third reading of the bill. Only verbal suggestions can be made in the third reading. The proposals for change in the working of the bill can be given. The entire bill is put to vote at this stage and it is either rejected or passed. The bill passed in the third reading means that the bill has been passed by one House.

Bill in the Second House:
Where there is no upper chamber in a State, the bill is passed by the Legislative Assembly and is sent to the Governor for his assent. Money bill can only be introduced in the Legislative Assembly and after it is passed by the assembly it is sent to the Legislative Council. The Legislative Council may reject a money bill or make such certain amendments which may not be acceptable to the House or may delay its passage for 14 days without taking any action against it. In all these situations the bill is considered passed by the Legislative Council.

If non-money bill is introduced and passed in the Legislative Council, it is sent to the Legislative Assembly. It cannot become a law unless it is passed by the Legislative Assembly. But a bill which is passed by the Legislative Assembly cannot be completely rejected by the Legislative Council. The Legislative Council may reject the bill, or may suggest some amendments which may not be acceptable to the Legislative Assembly or it may not take any action over it for 3 months.

In all these cases the Legislative Assembly can pass the bill for the second time. After the bill is passed for the second time by the Legislative Assembly it is sent to the Council. Legislative Council may reject the bill, may suggest certain amendments which may not be acceptable to the Legislative Assembly, or may not take any action over it if or one month. In all these cases it is considered passed by the Legislative Council and is sent to the Governor for his assent. The bill is to pass through all the stages in the second chamber through which it has passed in the first chamber.

Assent of Governor:
After the bill ig passed by both the Houses it is sent to Governor for his assent. He cannot refuse to give his assent to the money bill. In case of an ordinary bill he may give his assent, or he may reserve it for the consideration of the President or he may reject it. If the Governor feels that the public opinion is against the bill, he can use his veto power. If the legislature passes the bill for second time, the Governor is bound to give his assent to it.

The Governor can send an ordinary bill for the consideration of the Present. After the bill is approved by the Governor or the President, it becomes an Act and is published in the Government Gazette. Now the law can be enforced.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 27 The State Legislature

Short Answer type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the composition of State Legislative Assembly.
Answer:
The Constitution provides that the Legislative Assembly of each State shall consist of not more than 500 and less than 60 members. According to 36th amendment. Sikkim was made full-fedged state and members of Sikkim Legislative Assembly can’t be less than 30.

The total strength of a State Legislative Assembly depends upon the population of the state. For instance the Legislative Assembly of Punjab consists of 117 members while Haryana Assembly has 90 members. Of all the States Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly has the maximum strength ; it has 403 members. The members of Legislative Assembly are directly elected by the people of the state on the basis of adult franchise. The State Legislative Assembly can be dissolved before its expiry term.

Question 2.
What are the qualifications of the members of Legislative Assembly?
Answer:
A candidate seeking elections to the Legislative Asssembly must fulfil the following qualifications:

  1. He must be a citizen of India.
  2. He must have completed the age of 25 years.
  3. He must not hold an office of profit.
  4. He must possess qualifications laid down by the Parliament of India; and
  5. He must not be of unsound mind and should not have been declared disqualified by a competent court.

Question 3.
Describe the tenure of the Legislative Assembly. .
Answer:
The term of the Legislative Assembly is five years. The term of five years start form the date of its sitting. After the expiry of five years the Assembly stands automatically dissolved. The Governor is empowered to dissolve the Assembly even before expiry of five years. The life of the Assembly can be extended also. During the proclamation of emergency, the life of the Assembly may be extended by a law of Parliament for a period not exceeding one year at a time.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 27 The State Legislature

Question 4.
Mention four powers of the State Legislative Assembly.
Answer:
The Legislature in the state enjoy the following powers and functions:
1. Legislative Powers. The State Legislature can frame laws on all the subjects mentioned in the state fist and concurrent list. The ordinances issued by the governor are to be approved by the legislature otherwise they will cease to operate.

2. Financial Powers. The Legislature controls the finance of the state. The budget is passed by the State Legislature before the start of the financial year. No Tax can be imposed on the people without the consent of the Legislature.

3. Executive Powers. The council of ministers is collectively and every minister is individually responsible to the state legislature. The ministers can remain in office so far as they enjoy the confidence of the State Legislatures.

4. The Legislative Assembly, by passing a resolution, can request the union parliament for the creation or the abolition of the legislative council in the state.

Question 5.
Write down the functions of the Speaker of State Legislature.
Answer:
The functions and powers of the State Speaker are almost the same as those of the Speaker of Lok Sabha. His functions and powers are as follows:

  1. He is required to preserve order and decorum in the House of conducting Legislative business.
  2. He allocates time for different kinds of businesses in the House.
  3. He interprets the rules of procedure.
  4. He puts matters to vote and announces result.

Question 6.
Describe the composition of the Legislative Council.
Answer:
The number of the members of the Legislative Council cannot be more than one- third of the total number of the membership of the Legislative Assembly and it cannot be less than 40. The members of the Legislative Council are not elected directly by the voters. They are elected in the following ways:

  1. One-sixth of the total members of Council are nominated by the Governor.
  2. One-third of the members of the Council are elected by the State Legislative Assembly. These persons are not to be the members of the House.
  3. One-third of the members are elected by the local bodies namely Corporations, Municipalities, Zila Parishads and Panchayats, etc.
  4. One-twelfth of the members of the Council are elected by the teachers of not lower than Higher Secondary School.
  5. One-twelfth of the members are elected by the University graduate of at least 3 years’ of standing.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 27 The State Legislature

Question 7.
Write the duration and officers of Legislative Council.
Answer:
Term of Office:
Legislature Council is a permanent body. Its one-third members retire by rotation after 2 years but these persons can be re-elected. Each member of the Council remains in office for 6 years.

Chairman:
There is an elected Chairman of the Council who is the presiding officer. He is responsible for running smoothly the business of the House. The Legislative Council can remove the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman for office by majority vote of the House.

Question 8.
Discuss the utility of the Legislative Council.
Answer:
Legislative council is a useful chamber. The utility of this house can be described as:

1. Revision of Bill: The Legislative council serves as a revising chamber. It prevents the ill backed and ill-considered bills.

2. Relieves the Lower House of a Part its Work: The Legislative council reduces the work of the Legislative Assembly. Non-controversial bill can be introduced in the Legislative council.

3. Highlights the Drawbacks of the Bill. Legislative council can delay a non-money bill which has been passed by the Legislative Assembly for a period of four months. It is sufficient time to highlight the drawbacks of the bill and to know the public opinion.

4. Useful House. Legislative Council is a useful house. The standard of debate in Legislative council is very high. The bills in the Legislative council are debated in a very peaceful environment.

Question 9.
Give any four argument against Legislative Council.
Answer:

  1. Not Popular House: The Legislative council is not a people’s House. Its members are not directly elected by the people. It is a citadel of vested interests.
  2. Weak Chamber: The Legislative council is very weak House. It can delay a money bill at the most for 14 days and a non-money bill for four months.
  3. Superflous and Mischievous: The Legislative council is agree with the first chamber (Vidhan Sabha) it is superfluous and if it disagree it is mischievous. The Legislative council is not Second Chamber but a Secondary Chamber.
  4. Expensive: The members of Legislative council enjoy co-equal privileges and perks with the members of Legislative Assembly. Hence it an unnecessary burdon on the public exchequer.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 27 The State Legislature

Question 10.
How does the Legislature in Punjab State Control the Council of Ministers?
Answer:
In Punjab Legislature controls the Council of Ministers in the following manners:

  1. The members of the state Legislature controls the council of Ministers by asking questions and supplementary questions.
  2. The members of the state Legislature can move the motion of censure or adjournment motion against the Council of Ministers.
  3. The Council of Ministers is collectively and ministers are individually responsible to the state Legislature.
  4. The Legislative Assembly can move the vote of no-confidence against the council of ministers. The council of ministers has to resign if the Assembly passes that motion.

Question 11.
‘Legislative Assembly is more powerful than Legislative Council’. Explain.
Answer:
1. Of the two Houses, it is the Legislative Assembly which has been given the prestigious place in the state legislature. Ordinary bill can be introduced in either House. The legislative Council cannot make any law against the wishes of the Assembly while the Assembly can override the council after an interval of four months. On ordinary bills the decision of the Assembly is practically final.

2. In respect of money-bill, the Legislative Assembly Commands a dominating position. A money-bill can originate in the Legislative Assembly only. When a money bill is passed by the legislative Assembly, it is sent to the Council. The legislative Council is required to return the money-bill to the Assembly within 14 days, of its receipts with or without its recommendations. It is the Legislative Assembly which has complete control over the finances of the State.

Members of both the Houses have the right to put questions and supplementaries to the ministers. But the Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Legislative Assembly only.

Question 12.
Describe the position of the Legislative Assembly.
Answer:
The Legislative Assembly plays a very important role in the administration of the State. It has almost all the legislative powers of the State. The Legislative Council can delay an ordinary bill at the most for 4 months and a money bill at the most for 14 days. No law can be passed against the bill of the Legislative Assembly. The Cabinet is completely under the control of the Legislative Assembly. The Legislative Assembly by passing a vote of no-confidence against the ministry can remove it from office. In brief, the Legislative Assembly enjoys an important position in the State.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 27 The State Legislature

Question 13.
Describe the position of the Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad).
Answer:
Legislative Council is the upper chamber of the State Legislature. But its position as compared with the lower chamber is of less importance. The Legislative Assembly can establish or abolish the Legislative Council by passing a resolution of this effect. The very existence of the Legislative Council depends upon the Legislative Assembly. It also enjoys less powers as compared with the Legislative Assembly.

It can delay a money bill at the most for 14 days and a non-money bill at the most for 4 months. It cannot stand in the way of the Legislative Assembly. Notwithstanding all these weaknesses it has its own importance. It serves as a revising chamber. It brings to light the shortcomings in the bills passed by the Legislative Assembly.

Question 14.
Describe the Legislative powers of the Legislative Assembly.
Answer:
The Legislative Assembly can make laws of the subjects mentioned in the State list and concurrent list. If there is only one chamber of the legislature, the bill after having been passed by this chamber is sent to the Governor for his assent. If there are two chambers of the legislature, the bill after having been passed by one chamber is sent to the second chamber and then to the Governor of the State for his assent. The second chamber council can delay the passage of the bill at the most for 4 months. The Governor can veto a bill once but if passed by the legislature for the second time, the Governor will have to give his assent.

If a bill is passed by the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council rejects it or delays it for more than 3 months, the bill will go back to the Assembly. If the Legislative Council again rejects it or delays it for more than one month, it will be considered to have been passed by the State Legislature as it was passed by the Legislative Assembly. In this way the Legislative Council can delay a non-money bill at the most for 4 months.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 27 The State Legislature

Question 15.
Explain the financial powers of the State Legislature.
Answer:
Money bill can only be introduced in the Legislative Assembly. The Legislative Assembly exercises complete control over the finances of the State. The Legislative Council can delay a money bill at the most for 14 days. The Legislative Council may reject a money bill or may not take any action over it for 14 days, in both these conditions, the money bill is considered as passed and is sent to the Governor for his approval. The Governor cannot refuse to give his assent to the money bill. During emergency limitations can be imposed on the financial powers of the Governor.

Question 16.
Explain the Executive powers of the State Legislature.
Answer:
The State Executive is responsible to the Legislative Assembly for all its actions and policies. The leader of the majority party in the Legislative Assembly is appointed the Chief Minister of the State. Most of the ministers are taken from the Legislative Assembly.

The members of the Legislative Assembly can ask questions from the ministers and they are to give statisfactory answers to all these questions. The Legislative Assembly can reject an important bill of the Cabinet or by decreasing the salary of a minister or by passing a vote of no-confidence against the ministry to remove it from the office.

Question 17.
Discuss in brief the legislative powers of the Legislative Council.
Answer:
Any non-money bill which can be introduced in the Legislative Assembly can also be introduced in the Legislative Council. Any ordinary bill in the subjects mentioned in the State fist and concurrent list can be introduced in the Legislative Council. After the bill is passed by the Legislative Council it is sent to the Legislative Assembly. The bill cannot be sent to the Governor for his assent unless it is passed by the Legislative Assembly. The Legislative Council can delay a non- money bill at the most for 4 months.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 27 The State Legislature

Question 18.
Describe the Financial powers of Legislative Council.
Answer:
In financial matters the Legislative Council does not enjoy much powers. Money bill cannot be introduced in this chamber. The money bill can only be introduced in the Legislative Assembly and sifter it is passed from there it is sent to the Legislative Council and the Council can delay it at the most for 14 days.

It may reject the bill or may not take any action over it for 14 days and in both these cases the bill is considered passed by both the Houses and is sent to the Governor for his assent. Budget is only introduced in the Legislative Assembly.

Question 19.
Describe the position of the Legislative council regarding the control of executive.
Answer:
The Legislative Council does not exercise much control over the executive. Some ministers are of course taken from the Council. Its members can ask questions to the ministers and they are to give satisfactory answers to the questions. The Legislative Council can criticise the functioning of the departments under the ministers. More than this it does not have any control over the Council of Minister. The Council of Ministers cannot be removed from office by the Legislative Council.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the composition of State Legislative Assembly.
Answer:
The Constitution provides that the Legislative Assembly of each State shall consist of not more than 500 and less than 60 members. The total strength of a State Legislative Assembly depends upon the population of the state. For instance the Legislative Assembly of Punjab consists of 117 members while Haryana Assembly has 90 members.

Question 2.
What are the qualifications of the members of Legislative Assembly?
Answer:
A candidate seeking elections to the Legislative Asssembly must fulfil the following qualifications:

  • He must be a citizen of India.
  • He must have completed the age of 25 years.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 27 The State Legislature

Question 3.
Describe the tenure of the Legislative Assembly.
Answer:
The term of the Legislative Assembly is five years. The term of five years start form the date of its sitting. After the expiry of five years the Assembly stands automatically dissolved. The Governor is empowered to dissolve the Assembly even before expiry of five years.

Question 4.
Write down any two powers of the State Legislative Assembly.
Answer:
The Legislature in the state enjoy the following powers and functions:
1. Legislative Powers:
The State Legislature can frame laws on all the subjects mentioned in the state list and concurrent list. The ordinances issued by the governor are to be approved by the legislature otherwise they will cease to operate.

2. Financial Powers:
The Legislature controls the finance of the state. The budget is passed by the State Legislature before the start of the financial year. No Tax can be imposed on the people without the consent of the Legislature.

Question 5.
Write down the functions of the Speaker of State Legislature.
Answer:
The functions and powers of the State Speaker are almost the same as those of the Speaker of Lok Sabha. His functions and powers are as follows:

  • He is required to preserve order and decorum in the House of conducting Leglislative business.
  • He allocates time for different kinds of businesses in the House.

Question 6.
Explain the utility of the Legislative Council.
Answer:
Legislative council is a useful chamber. The utility of this house can be described as:
1. Revision of Bill: The Legislative council serves as a revising chamber. It prevents the ill backed and ill-considered bills.

2. Relieves the Lower House of a Part its Work: The Legislative council reduces the work of the Legislative Assembly. Non-controversial bill can be introduced in the Legislative council.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 27 The State Legislature

Question 7.
Write down any two argument against Legislative Council.
Answer:

  1. Not Popular House: The Legislative council is not a people’s House. Its members are not directly elected by the people. It is a citadel of vested interests.
  2. Weak Chamber: The Legislative council is very weak House. It can delay a money bill at the most for 14 days and a non-money bill for four months.

Question 8.
Describe the Legislative powers of the Legislative Assembly.
Answer:
The Legislative Assembly can make laws of the subjects mentioned in the State list and concurrent list. If there is only one chamber of the legislature, the bill after having been passed by this chamber is sent to the Governor for his assent. If there are two chambers of the legislature, the bill after having been passed by one chamber is sent to the second chamber and then to the Governor of the State for his assent.

Question 9.
Explain the financial powers of the State Legislature.
Answer:
Money bill can only be introduced in the Legislative Assembly. The Legislative Assembly exercises complete control over the finances of the State. The Legislative Council can delay a money bill at the most for 14 days. The Legislative Council may reject a money bill or may not take any action over it for 14 days, in both these conditions, the money bill is considered as passed and is sent to the Governor for his approval.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 27 The State Legislature

Question 10.
Discuss about the various stages through which an ordinary bill has to pass in a state Legislative Assembly before it becomes an Act.
Answer:
Any ordinary Bill has to pass through following states:

  1. First Reading
  2. Second Reading
  3. Committee Stage
  4. Reporting Stage
  5. Third Reading
  6. Bill in the Second Chamber.

One Word to One Sentence Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the term of Legislative Council.
Answer:
Legislative Council is a permanent body.

Question 2.
Write the term of Legislative Assembly.
Answer:
5 years.

Question 3.
Write down one qualification for the membership of the Legislative Assembly.
Answer:
Candidate must have completed 25 years of age.

Question 4.
Mention the name of any one state where Legislative Council exists?
Answer:
Uttar Pradesh.

Question 5.
Write down any one qualification for the member of the Legislative Council.
Answer:
Candidate must have completed 30 years of age.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 27 The State Legislature

Fill in the blanks

1. …………… of the State Legislature is more powerful.
Answer:
Legislative Assembly

2. Legislative Assembly can be dissolved by the ……………… before the expiry of the tenure.
Answer:
Governor

3. Members of Legislative Assembly are elected by the ………….. .
Answer:
People

4. …………….. of the State Legislature is having real control over the executive.
Answer:
Legislative Assembly.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 27 The State Legislature

True or False statement

1. Speaker is the presiding officer of the Legislative Assembly.
Answer:
True

2. The Legislative Assembly of Punjab consist of 117 members.
Answer:
True

3. The tenure of the member of the Legislative Council is 5 years.
Answer:
False

4. After the passage of the bill by the State Legislative the bill is sent to the Governor.
Answer:
True

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 27 The State Legislature

Choose The Correct Answer

Question 1.
The maximum strength of the legislative assembly in a state can be:
(A) 430
(B) 500
(C) 543
(D) 520.
Answer:
(B) 500

Question 2.
Which one of the following State Legislature is Bi-Cameral?
(A) Punjab
(B) Haryana
(C) Himachal
(D) Uttar Pradesh.
Answer:
(D) Uttar Pradesh.

Question 3.
The tenure of the Legislative Assembly is:
(A) 5 years
(B) 4 years
(C) 6 years
(D) 7 years.
Answer:
(A) 5 years

Question 4.
The Lower House of the State Legislature is:
(A) Legislative Council
(B) Legislative Assembly
(C) Lok Sabha
(D) Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
(B) Legislative Assembly

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 27 The State Legislature

Question 5.
The Upper House of the State Legislature is:
(A) Legislative Council
(B) Legislative Assembly
(C) Lok Sabha
(D) Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
(A) Legislative Council

Question 6.
Which of the following state having Unicameral Legislature?
(A) Haryana
(B) Bihar
(C) U.P.
(D) Maharashtra.
Answer:
(A) Haryana

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 26 State Executive-Governor, Council of Ministers and Chief Minister

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Political Science Book Solutions Chapter 26 State Executive-Governor, Council of Ministers and Chief Minister Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 26 State Executive-Governor, Council of Ministers and Chief Minister

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the appointment, powers and position of the Governor of your state.
Or
Describe the powers and position of the Governor.
Or
How is the Governor of a State appointed? Discuss his powers and position.
Answer:
While the executive power of the Union is vested in the President, that of a state is vested in a Governor. But in practice executive powers are exercised by the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister.

Appointment of the Governor:
A Governor is appointed by the President. Provison for an elected Governor had been made in the draft of the Constitution but this idea was dropped because an elected Governor would claim some powers as the representative of the people and that would have created a deadlock.

Therefore, provision for a nominated Governor is made by the President, yet actually he is nominee of the Central Cabinet. In fact this is a political post and the Prime Minister and the other members of the Cabinet would like to have men of their confidence on such key posts. Normally retired or defeated politicians are appointed to these posts. On Feb. 1, 1990 the President appointed 14 new governors. On 18th August, 2016. The President Sh. Pranab Mukherjee appointed Sh. V.P. Singh Badnore as the Governor of Punjab.

Salary and Allowances:
The pay of the Governor is Rs. 3,50,000 per month. In addition to that he gets allowances. He is given a rent-free residence, usually named Raj Bhawan. The salary and allowances of the Governor are charged on the consolidated fund of the state and are not subject to the Vote of the state legislature. The parliament may by law change the allowances or pay but the same cannot be decreased during his tenure. If any other individual acts as a Governor of more than one state, the emoluments payable to him will be fixed by the President.

Qualifications:
The following qualifications have been given in the Constitution for a Governor:

  1. He should be a citizen of India.
  2. He should not be less than 35 years of age.
  3. He must not hold any office of profit.
  4. He cannot remain a member of Parliament or a State Legislature if such a member is appointed a Governor. His seat in the legislature concerned will fall vacant as and when he takes over the charge as a Governor.
  5. He must possess the qualifications prescribed for membership of the State Legislature.

Term of Office:
The Governor is appointed for a period of five years. The President has the right to extend the term also. However, the Governor holds the office during the pleasure of the President at any time. At the time of removal no reasons have to be given by the President. In October 1980 Mr. Prabhudas Patwari, the Governor of Tamil Nadu, was dismissed. In January, 1990 the President sought the resignation of all the governors. The Governor may himself resign before the expiry of his term. On 16th March, 1998 controversial Uttar Pradesh Governor Romesh Bhandari resigned within hours of appointment of Mr. Atal Behari Vajpayee as the Prime Minister.

Immunities:
According to Art. 361, the Governor is not answerable to any Court for the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of his office or for any act done by him in the exercise of his official duties. No criminal proceedings can be instituted or continued against the Governor of a State in any Court, during his term of office.

Nor any process for the arrest or imprisonment of the Governor shall be issued from any Court during his term of office. Civil proceedings against the Governor can be instituted in any Court in respect of any act done in his personal capacity during his term of office. But a two-month notice in writing has to be delivered to him stating the nature of the proceedings, the cause of the action, the name of the party intending to sue him, and the relief demanded.

Powers of the Governor:
The administration of the State is under the control of a Governor. He is the head of the State and he exercises various powers. These are given as follows:
1. Executive Powers:
The Governor is the head of the State. All the executive powers of the State are vested in him. He exercises the powers connected with the subjects mentioned in the State list or the concurrent list either directly or through officers subordinate to him. All the laws are executed in his name and he is responsible for the maintenance of peace and order in the State. All the important officials for the State are appointed by the Governor and all the employees of the State work under him.

He appoints the Chief Minister and all other ministers are appointed by him on the advice of the Chief Minister. Besides this the Governor appoints the State Advocate General, Chairman and members of the Public Service Commission and the Vice Chancellors of the Universities. The ministers hold office during the pleasure of the Governor. He has the power to dismiss the Council of Ministers.

Article 167 provides that it is the duty of the Chief Minister of the State to communicate to the Governor of the State all decisions of the Council of Ministers relating to the administration of the affairs of the State and proposal for legislation as the Governor may call for, and if the Governor so requires ; to submit for the consideration of the Council of Ministers any matter on which a decision has been taken by a minister but which has not been considered by the council.

The Governor sends his report to the President regarding the failure or the possibility of a failure of the constitutional machinery of a state. When the President makes a Proclamation of Emergency for the State under Art. 356 of the Constitution, the Governor acts as the agent of the Central Government.

2. Legislative Powers:
The Governor exercises many legislative powers
(i) He is a part of the State Legislature.

(ii) He convenes the sessions of the State legislature. He is to convene the next session within a period of six months.

(iii) He can increase the duration of the session as well as adjourn the session before time.

(iv) The Governor can dissolve the legislative assembly and can order fresh elections,

(v) He can address both the chambers of the State Legislature independently or collectively,

(vi) The first session after the general election and the first session of the new year starts with the inaugural address of the Governor. In his inaugural address the Governor places before the legislature the policy of the Government for the year. He also invites the attention of the legislature towards the problems facing the state

(vii) He nominates 1/6 members of the Legislative Council and one member to the Legislative Assembly from the Anglo-Indian community if it has not got adequate representation in the chamber,

(viii) He can send messages to the legislature from, time to time.

(ix) No bill passed by the legislature can become an act without the signature of the Governor. He can reject an ordinary bill and can reserve certain types of bill for the approval of the President of India. If the legislature passes the bill for the second time the Governor will have to give his assent,

(x) He can issue ordinance, when the Legislative Assembly is not in session. The ordinances have the force of laws but they must be approved by the legislature within a period of 6 weeks from the start of the session of the legislature otherwise they will become ineffective.

3. Financial Powers:
It is the duty of the Governor to present the budget for the year before the legislature before the start of the financial year. All money bills can be introduced in the state legislature only on the recommendation of the Governor. He can spend money from the contingency fund.

4. Judicial Powers:
He enjoys some judicial powers also. The Chief Justice and ether Judges of the State High Court are appointed on the advice of the Governor. The Judges of the courts are also appointed by him. He has the power to pardon, reprieve and commute punishment. Such powers extend only in respect of cases over which the state legislature has powers to make laws. He has no powers to pardon criminals who are guilty of breaking the Union Laws.

5. As Chancellor:
The Governor of a State is the ex-officio Chancellor of the Universities in the state except the National Universities. He appoints Vice-Chancellors of these Universities. In this sphere also he is supposed to act on the advice of his Council of Ministers but Governors like Gadgil refused to be dictated by the Chief Minister in the sphere which is academic and clearly separated from the administration.

6. Miscellaneous Functions:
Besides the above functions, the Governor has also certain miscellaneous functions:

  • The Governor may grant help from the contingency fund to help the people in natural calamities.
  • The Governor receives the annual report of the Public Service Commission and with Comments of the Cabinet he sends it to the Legislative Assembly.

Position of the Governor:
The Constitution vests the executive powers of the State in the Governor. There is Chief Minister and his Council of Ministers to aid and advise the Governor. It is only in theory that the State Governor enjoys vast powers. In the State also there is a Parliamentary form of Government, therefore, the Governor is only the Constitutional or nominal head of the State.

According to Dr. Ambedkar, the Governor has no functions, not to speak of powers; he has only ‘duties’. And the duties of the Governor, he said, are mainly two:

  • to retain the ministry in office and to see when to exercise his pleasure for that purpose in the best possible manner ; and
  • to advise the ministry, to warn the ministry, and to suggest to the ministry alternation and ask for a reconsideration.

He always acts on the advice of his ministers. The powers vested in the Governor are actually exercised by the ministers. He can do nothing against or without the advice of the ministers. The leader of the majority party in the legislative assembly is to be appointed the Chief Minister of the State. The Chief Minister also recommends the names of the other ministers for appointment to the Governor. The Governor cannot add or drop any name of his own accord.

The Governor cannot remove the ministers from their office. The Cabinet remains in office so far as it enjoys the support of the majority party, The Governor summons the meetings of the legislature on the advice of the Cabinet. The inaugural address to be read by the Governor is also prepared by the Cabinet. The Governor dissolves the legislature and orders fresh election on the advice of the Cabinet, All the appointments are made by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister.

But the above mentioned facts should give us the impression that the Governor is only the nominal head of the State. He is not a rubber stamp but under certain circumstances he can act according to his own will.
1. He is the head of the State as well as the agent of the Central Government. He is to see that the State Government carries out the policies and orders of the Central Government.

2. He can appoint any member as Chief Minister if no political party has a clear cut majority in the assembly or if the party has no acknowledged leader. For example, in May, 1982 no party secured asbolute majority in Haryana Legislative Assembly. The Governor G. D. Tapase appointed Mr. Bhajan Lai, leader of the Congrss (I), as Chief Minister.

3. The Governor should be immediately informed of all Hie decisions taken by the Cabinet. The Chief Minister informs the Governor about all the decisions taken by the Cabinet. The Governor can ask the Cabinet to reconsider a decision.

4. He can refuse to sign an ordinary bill passed by the state legislature.

5. He can dismiss a ministry if he is convinced that it has lost majority support.

6. The Governor informs the President immediately regarding the failure or the possibility of a failure of the constitutional machinery of the State. He need not consult the Cabinet when he conveys such an information to the President.

7. The Governor becomes the agent of the Central Government when the President issues a proclamation of emergency in the State. The administration of the State is run by the Governor during the period of emergency. He then acts according to the orders and wishes of the President.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 26 State Executive-Governor, Council of Ministers and Chief Minister

Question 2.
Describe how the State Council of Ministers is formed. Also discuss its powers and functions.
Or
How is the State council of ministers formed? Explain its powers.
Answer:
In the State a government, like the Central Parliamentary Government, has been established. It is written in the Constitution that there will be a council of ministers headed by the Chief Minister to ‘aid and advise the Governor. The Governor appoints the leader of the majority party as the Chief Minister and all other ministers are appointed by him on the recommendations of the Chief Minister. But the fact is that the Governor can neither appoint not remove any minister from office of his own accord.

Appointment of the Council of Ministers. The leader of the majority party in the legislative assembly is appointed Chief Minister by the Governor. Examples are on record when the Governor appointed those as Chief Ministers who were not at all the members of the State Legislature.

Mr. Sidhartha Shankar Ray was appointed the Chief Minister of West Bengal though he was not a member of the State Legislature. The Chief Minister, after his appointment, prepares a list of his colleagues and hands it over to the Governor. The Governor appoints the Ministers according to this list. The Governor cannot make any change in the list. The Chief Minister distributes portfolios among the ministers. The Chief Minister can make a change in the departments of his ministers.

Composition:
The Council of Ministers consists of the Chief Minister and other ministers. The Council of Ministers may have three or two ranks of ministers. In the Constitution 91st Amendment Act provides that the total number of ministers including the Chief Minister in a state j shall not exceed 15% of the total number of members of the Legislative Assembly.

Term of Office:
The Cabinet does not have any definite and fixed term of office. The Chief Minister can ask any minister to resign. The Cabinet remains in office so far as it enjoys the confidence of the majority of members of the House. The legislative assembly can pass a vote of no-confidence against the ministry and the ministry will vacate office.

Qualifications:
There is only one qualification for becoming a minister that he should be a member of either House of the legislature. If a person is appointed a minister and he is not a member of the legislature he will have to become a member of the legislature within a period of 6 months of his appointment otherwise he is to leave office.

Salary and Allowances:
The salary and allowances of the Chief Minister and other ministers are fixed by the state legislature and hence it varies from state to state.

Powers and Functions of Council of Ministers:
The Council of Ministers occupies the same position in the State as the Council of Ministers occupies at the Centre. They are to perform various functions:

1. Executive Powers
The ministry exercises all the executive powers of the Governor. All the departments of the Government are under the control of the ministers and it is their responsibility to run the administration smoothly. The Council of Ministers lays down the policy of Government and in the light of that the departmental work is carried out. The Council of Ministers executes the decision taken by the Cabinet. They maintain order and peace in the State. All the big and important appointments are made on the advice of the Council of Ministers.

2. Legislative Powers
(i) The Council of Ministers has a big role to play in the making of the laws for the State.

(ii) Ministers are taken from among the members of the legislature. They participate in the meetings of the legislature. They introduce bills, participate in the discussion and cast their vote.

(iii) The meetings of the legislature are summoned and adjourned on the advice of the Cabinet.

(iv) The Inaugural address of the Governor is also preapred by the Council of Ministers.

(v) Most of the bills in the legislature are introduced by the Council of Ministers and bills are rejected and passed according to the will of the Council of Ministers. Council of Ministers has the support of the party in majority in the Legislature and this party is always at the beck and call of the Cabinet. Therefore, any bill introduced by the Cabinet cannot be rejected.

(vi) The Council of Ministers, if it so desires, can ask the Governor to dissolve the Legislative Assembly. The Governor under such circumstances also is to act on the advice of the ministry.

(vii) The Council of Ministers can issue an ordinance through the State Governor.

3. Financial Powers
The budget of the State is prepared by the Council of Ministers. The money bills can only be introduced by the ministers. These are the ministers who propose imposition of taxes or suggest reduction or abolition of taxes.

4. Judicial Powers
The Governor exercises his judicial powers on the advice of the Council of Ministers. Position of the Council of Ministers during the time of Emergency. The above ‘ mentioned powers of the Council of Ministers clearly indicate that the ministry is the real ruler of the state. Its will prevails in the making; of laws, enforcing them and in the running of the administration of the State.

But during emergency the Cabinet loses its importance. When the proclamation of emergency is issued, the resident can take the administration in his own hands and in this situation the Governor acts as the agent of the President of India. The Governor then acts on the advice of the President and not on the advice of the Council of Ministers.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 26 State Executive-Governor, Council of Ministers and Chief Minister

Question 3.
Discuss the appointment, powers and position of the State Chief Minister.
Answer:
The administration of the State is run in the name of the Governor but in practice it is the Chief Minister who runs the administration. The head of the Council of Ministers is the Chief Minister. The position of the State Chief Minister is quite the same as that of the Prime Minister in the Centre.

Appointment:
The Chief Minister is appointed by the Governor. But the Governor is not free and independent in the appointment of the Chief Minister. He can appoint only the leader of the majority party in legislative assembly as the Chief Minister of the State. If the Governor appoints someone else to this post, then the administration of the state cannot be run smoothly. If no party commands absolute majority in the legislative assembly of the State or the majority party fails to elect its leader, the Governor can use some discretion in appointing the Chief Minister.

But he is to see that the Chief Minister can get the support of the majority in the legislature. For example in May, 1982 no party secured absolute majority in Haryana Legislative Assembly. The Governor G. D. Tapase appointed Congress (I) leader Mr. Bhajan Lai as the Chief Minister.

In Feb. 1997 Sardar Parkash Singh Badal was sworn as Chief Minister of Punjab. In Feb. 1998 in the Himachal Pradesh Assembly election no pprty secured absolute majority. On 6th March, 1998 Himachal Pradesh Governor Mrs. Rama Davi appointed Congress leader Veer Bhadra Singh as the Chief Minister because Congress was the single largest party in the Assembly. In March 2017, Captain Amrinder Singh was sworn as the Chief Minister of Punjab.

Term of Office:
The tenure of the Chief Minister is not fixed. The Governor cannot remove him from office of his own accord. The Chief Minister remains in office so far as he is supported by the majority of the members of the legislative assembly. The Chief Minister resigns when the majority in legislative assembly goes against him. On 12th March, 1998 Chief Minister of Himachal Pradesh resigned because he was not having majority support in the Assembly.

Salary and Allowances:
The salary and allowances of the Chief Minister are fixed by the State legislature. In addition to different allowances he is given free accommodation, free medical care, travelling allowance and many other facilities.

Powers and Functions of the Chief Minister:
The Chief Minister of a State enjoys in the State, a position similar to the position of the Prime Minister in the Union of India. For all practical purposes the Chief Minister holds the executive power of the State Government in his hands. The powers and functions of the Chief Minister may be discussed as under:

1. Chief Minister and Council of Ministers:
The Council of Ministers has no . existence without the Chief Minister. Like the Prime Minister, the Chief Minister of a State is also the “key stone of the Government arch.” Chief Minister’s powers regarding Council of Ministers are as ahead:

(i) Formation of the Ministry:
The Chief Minister forms the Cabinet. After his appointment he prepares a list of other ministers and the Governor makes appointments of the ministers according to that list. No person can be appointed a minister against or without the will of the Chief Minister.

(ii) Distribution of Portfolios:
The departments are distributed among the ministers by the Chief Minister. The Chief Minister looks after the work of other ministers. He can change the departments of the ministers whenever he likes. The ministers keep the Chief Minister informed regarding the working of their departments. They get advice of the Chief Minister whenever necessary.

(iii) Removal of Ministers:
The ministers remain in office during the pleasure of the Chief Minister. The Governor cannot remove any Minister from office of his own accord, The Chief Minister can ask any minister to resign if he is not happy with his work. He can make a change in his Council of Ministers whenever he likes.The resignation of the Chief Minister means the resignation of the entire ministry. In June 1994, Haryana Chief Minister, Mr. Bhajan Lai, sacked Mr. Chhatarpal Singh, the Technical Education Minister.

(iv) Chairman of the Cabinet Meetings:
The Governor cannot participate in the meetings of the Cabinet. The Chief Minister calls the meetings of the Cabinet and presides over its meetings. He also prepares and controls the agenda for Cabinet meetings. The Cabinet takes its decisions unanimously and normally the views of the Chief Minister carry weight.

(v) Leader of the Council of Ministers:
The Chief Minister is the leader of the Council of Ministers. The entire Council of Ministers works under the captaincy of the Chief Minister. The Chief Minister summons the meetings of the Cabinet and presides over them. It is he who decides the agenda of the Cabinet. He can make a change in the agenda at the eleventh hour and put forward proposals from his own side for discussion. Being the leader of the Council of Ministers, the decisions of the Council of Ministers are practically the decisions of the Chief Minister.

2. Link Between the Council of Ministers and the Governor:
The Chief Minister informs the Governor regarding all the decisions taken by the Cabinet. The Council of Ministers takes the advice of the Governor through the Chief Minister.

3. Leadership of the Cabinet in the Legislature:
The Chief Minister can attend the meetings of both the Houses and can participate in their working. The members of the legislature ask questions to the Cabinet members and criticise their policies and actions. When a minister cannot give satisfactory reply to the criticism of a member, the Chief Minister assists the minister in satisfying the member. The important decisions taken by the Cabinet are announced in the legislature by the Chief Minister.

4. Principal Advisor of the Governor:
The Chief Minister is the principal advisor of the Governor. He takes the advice of the Chief Minister on all the issues. The Governor makes all the important appointments in the State on the advice of the Chief Minister. The Chief Minister gives every information to the Governor regarding the State administration.

5. Leader of the Legislature:
The Chief Minister is also the leader of the legislature. He is the leader of the legislative assembly because his party commands majority in
the legislature. Legislative Assembly is more important than the Legislative Council. The Legislative Council cannot stand in the way of Legislative Assembly. Therefore, the legislature generally acts under the guidance of the Chief Minister. No law can be framed without the will of the Chief Minister. During emergency also the legislature performs its functions according to the instructions of the Chief Minister.

6. Leader of the masses:
The Chief Minister is the leader of the masses in the State. He is the elected representative of the people And is supported by the majority party in the House. The people of the State are always ready to carry out the wishes of the State Chief Minister. His office is of ,great importance in the State.

Position of the Chief Minister:
In the State, the position of the Chief Minister is similar to the positon of the Prime Minister at the Centre. The Chief Minister is the man of conscience in the State. Against his wishes, neither a bill can be passed nor a tax can be levied. He is like the sun around which the ministers revolve like planets. However, the position of the Chief Minister is intimately connected with his party. If the Party enjoys a thin majority in the House or if it lacks solidarity, the position of the Chief Minister may be vulnerable. Before the 1967 general elections, the Congress Party was the master of the country. But after that the split in the party destroyed the unity of the party and ended the monopoly of power.

In most of the states coalition Governments came into power. Various political parties joined hands and formed their Governments. But a coalition Government falls under its own weight. Parties forming the Government quarrel on flimsy matters and part company, throwing the administration to dogs. Surely “when the Chief Minister heads a single party Government, his pre-eminence is unquestioned, but in a coalition or a multiparty Government his pre-eminence is derived solely from agreement among the partners.”

While depending upon the support of other parties, the Chief Minister becomes virtually a ‘prisoner’ in the hands of those parties. “It is clear that he cannot break up the coalition by seeking to dismiss the minister representing the partnership and yet claim to remain in office himself. Under such circumstances, the Chief Minister depends upon the vagaries of the legislature.

The malady of large scale defections has further affected the position of the Chief Minister. After the 1967 general elections, as many as 108 defectors were appointed ministers. What a prize A legislator of Haryana State defected four times in one single day ! There was all scramble for power ; policy and ideology were thrown to the winds. For a while, the very future of parliamentary Government in India was in danger.

Until the Congress was defeated in the sixth general election (1977) the position of a Congress Chief Minister depended largely on the kind of relations he had with the High Command and the degree of support he received from the High Command. During the Janata regime the position of the Chief Minister was not better in so far as his dependence on the Central Party leadership was concerned. After the seventh general electon (1980) and the election of Nine State Assemblies Chief Ministers were wholly dependent on late Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi, who was also president of the party [Congress (I)]. The frequent trips Congress (I) Chief Ministers made to New Delhi highlight their dependence on the Central leadership. In the present posture of politics, no Chief Minister can hope to be the Nehru of his State.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 26 State Executive-Governor, Council of Ministers and Chief Minister

Short Answer Type Question

Question 1.
How is the Governor of a State appointed?
Answer:
Governor is the head of the state. The President appoints him for five years. One common Governor may also be appointed for two or more than two states. Provision for an elected Governor had been made in the draft of the Constitution but this idea was dropped because an elected Governor would claim some powers as the representative of the people and that would have created a dead-lock.

Therefore, provision for a nominated governor was made in the Constitution. Though the formal appointment of the Governor is made by the President, yet actually he is nominee of the Central Cabinet. In fact this is a political post and the Prime Minister and the other members of the Cabinet would like to have men of their confidence on such key posts. Normally retired or defeated politicians are appointed to these posts.

Question 2.
Describe the qualifications to become a Governor of a state.
Answer:
The following qualifications have been given in the Constitution for a Governor:

  1. He should be a citizen of India.
  2. He should not be less than 35 years of age.
  3. He must not hold any office of profit.
  4. He cannot remain a member of Parliament or a State legislature. If such a member is appointed a Governor, his seat in the legislature concerned will fall vacant as and when he takes over the charge as a Governor.
  5. He must possess the qualifications prescribed for membership of the State legislature.

Question 3.
Explain the tenure of the Governor.
Answer:
The Governor is appointed for a period of five years. The President has the right to extend the term also. However, the Governor holds the office during the pleasure of the President which means that the Governor can be removed by the President at any time. At the time of removal no reasons have to be given by the President. The Governor may himself resign before the expiry of his term. In March, 1998, Mr. Romesh Bhandari, Governor of U.P. resigned.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 26 State Executive-Governor, Council of Ministers and Chief Minister

Question 4.
Describe the salary and allowances of the Governor.
Answer:
The pay of the Governor is Rs. 3,50,000 per month. In addition to that he gets allowances. He is given a rent-free residence, usually named Raj Bhawan. The salary and allowances of the Governor are charged to the consolidated fund of the state are not subject to the vote of the state legislature. The Parliament may by law change the allowances or pay but the same cannot be decreased during his tenure. If any other individual acts as a Governor in his absence, he also will be entitled to the pay, allowances and other privileges of the Governor. If the same person is appointed as the Governor of more than one state, the emoluments payable to him will be fixed by the President.

Question 5.
Describe the immunities of the Governor.
Answer:
According to Art. 361, the Governor is not answerable to any court for the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of his office or for any act done by him in the exercise of his official duties. No criminal proceedings can be instituted or continued against the Governor of a State in any Court, during his term of office. Nor any process for the arrest or imprisonment of the Governor shall be issued from any Court during his term of office.

Civil proceedings against the Governor can be instituted in any Court in respect of any act done in his personal capacity during his term of office. But a two months’ notice in writing has to be delivered to him stating the nature of the proceedings, the cause of action, the name of the party intending to sue him, and the relief demanded.

Question 6.
Write down the Legislative Powers of the Governor.
Answer:
The Governor exercises following legislative powers:

  1. He convenes the sessions of the state legislature. He is to convene the next session within a period of six months.
  2. The Governor can dissolve the legislative assembly and can order fresh elections.
  3. The first session after the general election and the first session of the new year starts with the inaugural address of the Governor. .
  4. He nominates 1/6 members of the Legislative Council.

Question 7.
Write a short note on the executive powers of the Governor.
Answer:
The Governor is the head of the State. All the executive powers of the State are vested in him. All the laws are executed in his name and he is responsible for the ‘ maintenance of peace and order in the State. All the important officials for the State are appointed by the Governor and all the employees of the State work under him. He appoints the Chief Minister and all other ministers are appointed by him on the advice of the Chief Minister. He has the power to dismiss the Council of Ministers.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 26 State Executive-Governor, Council of Ministers and Chief Minister

Question 8.
Explain the situation in which the Governor can use discretionary powers.
Answer:
The Governor has some powers which he can use on his own. These are called discretionary powers-

  1. He is to see that the state government carries out the policies and orders of the central government.
  2. He can appoint any member as Chief Minister if no political party has clear cut majority in the assembly or if the party has no acknowledged leader.
  3. He can refuse to sign an ordinary bill passed by the state legislature.
  4. He can dismiss a ministry if he is convinced that it has lost majority support.

Question 9.
Describe the position of the Governor of a State.
Answer:
The position of the Governor in the State is the same as that of the President at the Centre. He occupies a high office but wields little power. All his powers are used by the Council of Ministers. In normal time he is only a nominal head. He has to act on the advice of the Council of Ministers.

During the emergency he exercises real powers. On his report the President dismisses the council of ministers and dissolves or suspends the legislature. The State comes under the President’s rule and the Governor acts as the real executive.

Question 10.
Under what conditions can the President rule be imposed in a State? What is the position of the Governor in such a situation?
Answer:
It sometimes becomes impossible to carry on the administration of the State according to the Constitution. It may happen that no party has a clear majority in the legislative assembly and the government may not be formed; or there is a complete break down of law and order.

In such a situation the Governor sends a report to the President. If the President dismisses the Ministry of the State on the basis of the report and suspends or dissolves the Assembly, the Governor acts as the agent of the President. He exercises all executive powers on behalf of the President. He is then responsible for the administration of the State.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 26 State Executive-Governor, Council of Ministers and Chief Minister

Question 11.
Describe in brief the composition of the Council of Ministers at state level. .
Answer:
According to Art 163 (1) of Indian Constitution, there shall be a Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister as the head to aid and advice the Governor in exercise of his functions. The Governor appoints the Chief Minister at first. He then appoints other ministers on the advice of the Chief Minister. The Governor can’t appoint any person as a member of Council of Ministers contrary to Chief Minister’s wishes. It is the Chief Minister who decides the size of the Council of Ministers.

Question 12.
How is the Chief Minister of a State appointed?
Answer:
The Governor appoints the Chief Minister. But he cannot appoint a man of his choice as Chief Minister. He invites the leader of the majority party or group in the assembly to form the government and appoints him as the Chief Minister. The Chief Minister should be a member of the legislature. If he is not a member of the legislature at the time of his appointment he has to become one within six months.

Question 13.
How is the Chief Minister appointed when there is no single majority party?
Answer:
The Chief Minister is appointed by the Governor. If no party commands absolute majority in the Legislative Assembly, the Governor can use some discretion in appointing the Chief Minister. But he is to see that the Chief Minister can get the support of the majority in the Legislative Assembly. For example in May 1982 no party secured absolute majority in Haryana Legislative Assembly, the Governor G.D. Tapase appointed Congress (I) leader Mr. Bhajan Lai as Chief Minister.

Question 14.
Write any four functions of Chief Minister of a state.
Answer:
The powers and the functions of the Chief Minister may be discussed as under:

1. Formation of Ministry:
The Chief Minister forms the Council of Ministers. He distributes portfolios among the ministers. He can make any change in the Council of Ministers.

2. Link Between the Council of Ministers and the Governor:
The Chief Minister informs the Governor regarding all the decisions taken by the Cabinet. The Council of Ministers takes the advice of the Governor through the Chief Minister.

3. Leader of the Legislature:
The Chief Minister is also the leader of the legislature. No law can be framed without the will of the Chief Minister. During emergency also the legislature performs its functions according to the instructions pf the Chief Minister.

4. Dissolution of the Assembly:
The Chief Minister can recommend to the Governor the dissolution of the Legislative Assembly even before the expiry of its term.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 26 State Executive-Governor, Council of Ministers and Chief Minister

Question 15.
Describe the powers and functions of State Council of Ministers.
Answer:
The Council of Ministers enjoys the following powers:
1. Executive Powers:
The Council of Ministers lays down the*policy of government and in the light of that the departmental work is carried out. All the big and important appointments are made on the advice of the Council of Ministers.

2. Legislative Powers:
The meetings of the legislative are summoned and adjourned on the advice of the Council of Ministers. Most of the bills in the legislative are introduced by the Council of Ministers and bills are rejected and passed according to the will of the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers can advise the governor to dissolve the Legislative Assembly.

3. Financial Powers:
The budget of the state is prepared by the Council of Ministers. The money-bill can be introduced by the minister.

4. Judicial Powers: The Governor exercise his Judicial Powers on the advice of the Council of Ministers.

Question 16.
Write down the name of Governor and Chief Minister of Punjab.
Answer:
Sh. V. P. Singh Badnore is the Governor of Punjab and Captain Amrinder Singh is the Chief Minister of Punjab.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 26 State Executive-Governor, Council of Ministers and Chief Minister

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How is the Governor of a State appointed?
Answer:
Governor is the head of the state. The President appoints him for five years. One common Governor may also be appointed for two or more than two states.

Question 2.
Explain any two qualifications to become a Governor of a state.
Answer:
The following qualifications have been given in the Constitution for a Governor:

  • He should be a citizen of India.
  • He should not be less than 35 years of age.

Question 3.
Describe the Salary and allowances of the Governor.
Answer:
The pay of the Governor is Rs. 3,50,000 per month. In addition to that he gets allowances. He is given a rent-free residence, usually named Raj Bhawan. The salary and allowances of the Governor are charged to the consolidated fund of the state are not subject to the vote of the state legislature.

Question 4.
What are the Legislative Powers of the Governor?
Answer:
The Governor exercises following legislative powers:

  • He convenes the sessions of the state legislature. He is to convene the next session within a period of six months.
  • The Governor can dissolve the legislative assembly and can order fresh elections.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 26 State Executive-Governor, Council of Ministers and Chief Minister

Question 5.
Write a short note on the executive powers of the Governor.
Answer:
The Governor is the head of the State. All the executive powers of the State are vested in him. All the laws are executed in his name and he is responsible for the maintenance of peace and order in the State. All the important officials for the State are appointed by the Governor and all the employees of the State work under him.

Question 6.
Explain the situation in which the Governor can use discretionary powers.
Answer:
The Governor has some powers which he can use on his own. These are called discretionary powers-

  • He is to see that the state government carries out the policies and orders of the central government.
  • He can appoint any member as Chief Minister if no political party has clear cut majority in the assembly or if the party has no acknowledged leader.

Question 7.
Discuss the Financial powers of the Governor.
Answer:

  • All Money Bills can be introduced in the state legislature only on the recommendation of the Governor.
  • It is the duty of the Governor to present the budget for the year before the legislature before the start of the financial year.

Question 8.
Describe in brief the composition of the Council of Ministers at state level.
Answer:
According to Art 163 (1) of Indian Constitution, there shall be a Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister as the head to aid and advice the Governor in exercise of his functions. The Governor appoints the Chief Minister at first. He then appoints other ministers on the advice of the Chief Minister.

Question 9.
How is the Chief Minister of a State appointed?
Answer:
The Governor appoints the Chief Minister. But he cannot appoint a man of his choice as Chief Minister. He invites the leader of the majority party or group in the assembly to form the government and appoints him as the Chief Minister.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 26 State Executive-Governor, Council of Ministers and Chief Minister

Question 10.
How is the Chief Minister appointed when there is no single majority party?
Answer:
The Chief Minister is appointed by the Governor. If no party commands absolute majority in the Legislative Assembly, the Governor can use some discretion in appointing the Chief Minister. But he is to see that the Chief Minister can get the support of the majority in the Legislative Assembly.

Question 11.
Explain any two functions of Chief Minister of a state.
Answer:
The powers and the functions of the Chief Minister may be discussed as under:

  1. Formation of Ministry: The Chief Minister forms the Council of Ministers. He distributes portfolios among the ministers. He can make any change in the Council of Ministers.
  2. Link Between the Council of Ministers and the Governor: The Chief Minister informs the Governor regarding all the decisions taken by the Cabinet.

Question 12.
Describe the powers and functions of State Council of Ministers.
Answer:
The Council of Ministers enjoys the following powers:
1. Executive Powers:
The Council of Ministers lays down the policy of government and in the light of that the departmental work is carried out. All the big and important appointments are made on the advice of the Council of Ministers.

2. Legislative Powers:
The meetings of the legislative are summoned and adjourned on the advice of the Council of Ministers. Most of the bills in the legislative are introduced by the Council of Ministers and bills are rejected and passed according to the will of the Council of Ministers.

One Word to One Sentence Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Who is the Executive head of a State?
Answer:
Governor.

Question 2.
Who appoints the Governor?
Answer:
President.

Question 3.
Mention the tenure of the Governor.
Answer:
5 years.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 26 State Executive-Governor, Council of Ministers and Chief Minister

Question 4.
Mention one qualification of Governor.
Answer:
He should not be less then 35 years.

Question 5.
Mention one function of the Chief Minister.
Answer:
The Chief Minister form the Cabinet.

Fill in the blanks

1. The leader of the majority party in the Legislative Assembly is appointed …………………… by the Governor.
Answer:
Chief Minister

2. The …………………… enforces the laws passed by the legislature.
Answer:
Council of Ministers

3. The head of the Council of Ministers is the …………………… .
Answer:
Chief Minister.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 26 State Executive-Governor, Council of Ministers and Chief Minister

True or False

1. The Chief Minister is appointed by the Prime Minister.
Answer:
False

2. Governor can use some discretion in appointing the Chief Minister.
Answer:
True

3. The tenure of the Chief Minister is not fixed.
Answer:
True

4. Like Prime Minister, the Chief Minister of a state is not a ‘Key stone of the Cabinet arch”
Answer:
False

Choose The Correct Answer

Question 1.
The tenure of the Governor is:
(A 6 years
(B) 5 years
(C) 7 years
(D) 4 years.
Answer:
(B) 5 years

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 26 State Executive-Governor, Council of Ministers and Chief Minister

Question 2.
By whom is the Governor appointed?
(A) President
(B) Cabinet
(C) Prime Minister
(D) Vice-President.
Answer:
(A) President

Question 3.
The salary of the Governor is:
(A) Rs. 5,000
(B) Rs. 5,500
(C) Rs. 10,000
(D) Rs. 3,50,000.
Answer:
(D) Rs. 3,50,000.

Question 4.
Minimum age for the Governor should be:
(A) 30 years
(B) 35 years
(C) 25 years
(D) 21 years.
Answer:
(B) 35 years

Question 5.
The Governor is responsible to the:
(A) Prime Minister
(B) State Legislature
(C) Parliament
(D) President.
Answer:
(D) President.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 26 State Executive-Governor, Council of Ministers and Chief Minister

Question 6.
Who can remove the Governor?
(A) President
(B) People
(C) Parliament
(D) State Legislature.
Answer:
(A) President

Question 7.
Who presides over the meetings of the Council of Ministers?
(A) Speaker
(B) Chief Minister
(C) Governor
(D) Home Minister.
Answer:
(B) Chief Minister

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 29 Indian Judicial System-The Supreme Court and The High Court

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Political Science Book Solutions Chapter 29 Indian Judicial System-The Supreme Court and The High Court Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 29 Indian Judicial System-The Supreme Court and The High Court

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the Composition, Jurisdiction and Powers of the Supreme Court.
Or
Discuss the composition, powers and functions of the Supreme Court of India.
Answer:
The Supreme Court established under the Indian Constitution (Art. 124-151) is the highest Judicial authority in the country. It stands at the apex of our Judicial system which is an integrated one.

All the Courts, even those functioning in the States are subject to the authority and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. The Courts in India administer both the Federal laws as well as the State laws. Hence judiciary in India is unified.

Composition of the Supreme Court:
At the time of the commencement of the Constitution, the Supreme Court consisted of eight judges, including the Chief Justice. In 1956, the maximum number of judges was raised to eleven, including the Chief Justice. This number was again raised in 1960 to fourteen including the Chief Justice. In Dec. 1977, maximum number of judges of Supreme Court was increased from 14 to 18 including the Chief Justice. In April, 1986 the number of Judges was increased from 17 to 25. In July 2019 .the number of Judges was .increased from 30 to 33. Thus at present Supreme Court consists of Chief Justice and 33 other Judges.

Article 127 (1) makes provision for the appointment of ad-hoc judges also. Ad-hoc judges are appointed by the Chief Justice of India with the prior consent of the President from among the judges of any High Court duly qualified to be a judge of the Supreme Court for such period as may be necessary. Ad-hoc judges can be appointed only when the Supreme Court cannot continue or hold any session because of the lack of quorum.

The Constitution of India also provides for the appointment of retired judges of the Supreme Court or the Federal Court, with the prior consent of the President and his consent, on a request being made by the Chief Justice of India to sit and act as a judge of the Supreme Court at any time.

Appointment of the Judges:
The Chief Justice of India is appointed by the President in consultation with such judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts as he may deem fit. In the appointment of other judges of the Supreme Court, the Chief Justice of India must be consulted by the President. On Oct. 28, 1998, in a significant unanimous order, a nine-judge Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court held that recommendations made by the Chief Justice of India on the appointment of judges to the Supreme Court without following the consultation process was not binding on the government.

The consultation process to be adopted by the Chief Justice requires consultation of four seniormost judges of the Supreme Court. The sole opinion of the Chief Justice does not constitute consultation process. Hence recommendations made by the Chief Justice without complying with the norms and guidelines regarding the consultation process are not binding on the government.

The Supreme Court made it clear that even if two judges give an adverse opinion the Chief Justice should not send the recommendation to the government. The Supreme Court said, “The collegium should make the decision in consensus and unless the opinion of the collegium is in confirmity with that of the Chief Justice, no recommendation is to be made.”
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Qualifications for appointment of Judges:
A candidate for appointment as a Judge of the Supreme Court must fulfil the following qualifications:

  1. He should be a citizen of India.
  2. Must have been a Judge of one or more High Courts for five successive years or must have been an advocate of one or more High Courts for ten successive years.
  3. If in the opinion of the President, he is a distinguished jurist.

Term of office:
Judges of the Supreme Court hold office till they complete the age of 65 years. In case of any discrepancies about the age of a Judge, the decision of the President shall be final. A Judge may resign his office by writing to that effect to the President before the completion of his tenure. On January 13, 1983, Mr. Justice Baharul Islam resigned as a judge of the Supreme Court. A judge of the Supreme Court can be removed from his position only as the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity.

The Judge can be removed from office by the President after an address by each House and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of that House present and voting. On 11th May, 1993, the first-ever impeachment motion against a Supreme Court judge failed in the Lok Sabha when the Opposition—sponsored move for removal of Mr. Justice V. Ramaswami could not be carried for want of requisite majority after the ruling Congress en bloc abstained from voting.

Salaries and Allowances of Judges:
he Chief Justice gets a salary of Rs. 2,80,000 per month and the other judges Rs. 2,50,000 per month. Every Judge of the Supreme Court is entitled without payment of rent to the use of an official residence. The judges are also allowed travelling allowances when they undertake journey for the performance of their official duties. The salaries and allowances of the Judges are charged on the Consolidated
Fund of India and accordingly, are not subject to the vote of Parliament.

Neither the privileges nor the allowances of a Judge nor his rights in respect of leave or absence or pension shall be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment. The salaries and allowances of the Judges can be reduced by the President during continuance of a Proclamation of Financial emergency. The Constitution, thus, guarantees to the Judges both security of service and emoluments.

Prohibition of practice after retirement:
The retired judges of the Supreme Court are debarred from pleading before any Court in India. Even if a Judge resigns he is debarred from pleading. However, the retired judges can be invited to act as judges of the Supreme ’Court for some particular business or period of time. No retired judge of the Supreme Court can he asked to act as a judge of the Supreme Court without his consent. Such judges get allowances and not salary. Their allowances are determined by the President.

Oath:
On asssuming office, each judge of the Supreme Court has to make and subscribe before the President or before any other person appointed by the President for the purpose, to an oath or affirmation according to a set form.

Immunities of Judges:
In order to further safeguard the independence of judiciary, the Constitution provides that there can be no discussion in Parliament on the conduct of a judge in the discharge of his official duties. Nor can the actions and decisions of the Judges in their official capacity be subject to criticism so as to impute motive of any kind. There may be academic discussion about the decision of the Supreme Court. The Court may also initiate contempt proceedings if an attempt, direct or indirect, is made to prejudice minds of judges in arriving at an impartial and independent decision.

Seat of the Supreme Court:
The Supreme Court sits in Delhi. It can also sit at any other place or places as the Chief Justice of India may appoint from time to time with the approval of the President. Under this Article, the Supreme Court had held its sessions at Hyderabad and Srinagar.

Jurisdiction and Functions of Supreme Court.

The Supreme Court is the highest Court of the land. It has been vested with wider jurisdiction than any other superior Court in any part of the world. According to Sir Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar, “The Supreme Court in the Indian Union has more powers than any Supreme Court in any part of the world.”

The jurisdiction of the Court may be divided into three categories-Original, Appellate and Advisory.
1. Original Jurisdiction:
Original jurisdiction means cases which start in the Supreme Court and regarding which the Supreme Court has the exclusive jurisdiction. The Constitution of India divides powers between Centre and States. Howsoever neatly the powers between the two may have been distributed there are always possibilities of doubt and dispute. New situations demand new interpretations. Thus, the Supreme Court decides cases

  • between the Government of India and one or more States;
  • between the Government of India and any one State or States on one side and one or more other State on the other; or
  • between two or more States.

It should be noted that the Supreme Court can entertain such cases only if the disputes involve any question, whether of law or fact, on which the existence or extent of a legal right depends. Where the claim made by one of the parties is not dependent on law but on legal considerations, the Supreme Court has no original jurisdiction.

According to the Constitution, the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court does not extend to disputes relating to water of inter-state rivers or river valleys, matters referred to the Finance Commission and adjustment of certain expenses between the Union and the States. Likewise, the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court shall not extend to a dispute, if the dispute arises out of provision of a treaty, agreement, covenant, engagement and other similar instrument which was entered into or executed before 26th January, 1950.

(i) Enforcement of Fundamental Rights:
The Constitution makes the Supreme Court the ultimate guardian of the fundamental rights and liberties of the people^ Rights of the people have no meaning if they are not backed and upheld by judiciary. It is both the jurisdiction as well as the responsibility of Supreme Court to issue orders, directions and writs of Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo Warranto and Certiorari, or any of them for the enforcement of fundamental rights. However, this jurisdiction of the Supreme Court is not exclusive. State High Courts have also been given similar powers.

(ii) To decide election disputes of the President and Vice-President:
The Supreme Court is also empowered to decide any dispute relating to the election of the President or the Vice-President of India and in this regard the Supreme Court’s decision is final and binding. In 1967, election of Dr. Zakir Hussain and in 1969 the election of President V. V. Giri was challenged in the Supreme Court. The Court decided that the election was valid. Similarly Vice-President, G.S. Pathak’s election was challenged and the Supreme Court upheld his election.

But by 39th amendment the Supreme Court was deprived of this power and Parliament was empowered to enact Legislation to set up a forum to hear disputes relating to the election of the . President, Vice-President, Prime Minister and the Speaker. In June 1977, Parliament enacted a law by which Supreme Court is again given power to hear election disputes of the President, Vice-President, Prime Minister and the Speaker. According to 44th Amendment all doubts and disputes arising out of or in connection with the election of a President or Vice-President shall be inquired into and decided by the Supreme Court and the decision shall be final. ,

2. Appellate Jurisdiction:
The Appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court can be divided into the following main parts-Constitutional, Civil and Criminal.
(i) Appeal in Constitutional Cases:
Article 132(1) provides that an appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court from any judgement, decree or final order of a High Court in India whether in a civil, criminal or other proceeding, if the ‘ – High Court certifies that the case involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of the Constitution. Even if the High Court refuses to give such a certificate, the Supreme Court can grant special leave to appeal if the Court is satisfied that the case involves a Substantive question of law as to the interpretation of the Constitution.

(ii) Appeal in Civil Cases:
As regards appeals in Civil Cases, the 30th Amendment, 1972 has brought significant changes. Prior to the. 30th amendment, appeal to the Supreme Court in civil proceeding against a judgement, decree or final order of a High Court certified that the amount or value of the subject matter of the dispute was not less than Rs. 20,000.

The 30th amendment seeks to do away with the monetary limits for invoking the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. The Amendment provides for the right to appeal to the Supreme Court on any judgement of a High Court if the case involves a substantial question of law of general importance and if in the opinion of the High Court the said question needs to be decided by the Supreme Court.

(iii) Appeal in Criminal Cases. As regards criminal cases Article 134 provides that an appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court from any judgement, final order or sentence in a criminal proceeding of a High Court if
(а) the High Court has on appeal reversed an order of acquittal of an accused person and sentenced him to death; or
(b) has withdrawn for trial before itself any case from any Court subordinate to its authority and has in such trial convicted the accused person and sentenced him to death ; or
(c) certifies that the case is fit for appeal to the Supreme Court. Under the Constitution, Parliament may by law widen still further the criminal jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

44th Amendment inserts a new Article 134 A to provide that the High court should consider the question of granting of certificate immediately on the delivery of the judgement, decree, final order, or sentence concerned on the basis of an oral application by a party or, if the High Court deems it fit so to do, on its own motion.

(iv) Special Leave to Appeal:
Article 136 of the Constitution vests the Supreme Court with a power which is of utmost importance. It provides that the Supreme Court may, in its directions grant special leave to appeal from any judgement, decree determination, sentence or order in any cause or matter passed or made by any Court or Tribunal in the territory of India. The only exception to this all embracing power of judicial superintendence is the decision of any court constituted under any law relating to the Armed Court which can grant special leave to appeal even if the High Court has refused to grant certificate to appeal to the Supreme Court.

3. Axtvisory Jurisdiction:
Under Article 143 of the Constitution, the Supreme Court exercises advisory or consultative functions also. Art. 143 provides that if at any time it appears to the President that a question of law or fact has arisen or is likely to arise which is of public importance, he may refer the question to the Supreme Court for consideration and opinion. Such a question is heard by a Bench consisting of at least five judges and the Court follows the procedure of an ordinary trial.

The majority opinion is sent to the President. The judges can hold dissenting opinion as well. The opinion of the Supreme Court is not binding on the President as it is not of the nature of a judicial pronouncement. Nor is it obligatory for the Supreme Court to give its opinion. It may or may not.

4. Interpretation and Protection of the Constitution:
The Constitution of India has placed this responsibility of interpreting the Constitution on the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court is the final authority to interpret the meaning and intent of the Constitution. Likewise, it is the responsibility of the Supreme Court to uphold the supremacy of the Constitution.

There are many instances where the Supreme Court exercised its power of judicial review. In 1967 in Golak Nath’s case, the Supreme Court declared that the Parliament has no power to amend the provision of Fundamental Rights. In the Bank Nationalisation case, the Court held that the Banking Companies Act, 1969 violated equality before law. Article 19 concerning right to acquire, hold and dispose of property and Article 31 regarding compulsory acquisition of property are invalid and unconstitutional. The 24th and 25th amendments were challenged by Keshvananda Bharati and others.

In this case Supreme Court reversed its earlier decision of Golak Nath’s case and gave the Parliament the power to amend the Fundamental Rights. On 9th May, 1980 the Supreme Court struck down Section 55 of the 42 and Amendment Act 1976 which gave unlimited powers to Parliament to amend the Constitution.

The Court in an order said section 55 of the 42nd Amendment Act which inserted sub-sections (4) and (5) in Article 368 (amending power of Parliament) was beyond the amending power of Parliament and was void since it removed all limitations on the power of Parliament to amend the Constitution in such a manner as to destroy its basic or essential features or its basic structure. The Supreme Court also struck down Section 4 of the 42nd Amendment Act amending Article 31-C giving primacy to Directive Principles of State Policy over Fundamental Rights.

5. Court of Record:
The Supreme Court is the Court of Record. The significance of a court of record is two fold: First, the records of the Supreme Court are admitted to be of evidentiary value and are not questioned when they are produced before any Court. Secondly, it has the power to fine and imprison for contempt of its authority.

6. Power Regarding Transference of Cases:
By 42nd Amendment a new article 139-A is inserted in the Constitution. According to article 139A if on the application of the Attorney General of India, the Supreme Court is satisfied that cases involving the same or substantially the same questions of law are pending before it and one or more High Courts or before two or more High Courts and that such questions are substantial question of general importance, the Supreme Court may withdraw the case or cases itself. The Supreme Court is also empowered to transfer any case, appeal, or other proceedings pending before any High Court to any other High Court.

7. Power to Review its own Decisions:
The Supreme Court has the power to review its own decisions. In other Words, the Supreme Court is not bound by its own decisions. Any such review is undertaken by a larger Bench than the one which passed the original judgement. The Supreme Court’s power to review its earlier decisions helps to correct any decision which may be erroneous. In 1971 in the case of Keshvanand Bharati Supreme Court reversed its judgement of Golak Nath’s case and gave the Parliament the power to amend the Fundamental Rights but Parliament has no power to change the basic structure of the Constitution.

8. Miscellaneous Functions:
The Supreme Court performs some miscellaneous functions also. They are as follows:

  • The Supreme Court is the highest court of the land. It has the power to inspect and supervise the working of the subordinate courts. It can also make rules for their efficient working.
  • The Supreme Court can also make rules for the persons practising before the Court.
  • The Supreme Court can make rules for the maintenance of records by the lower Courts.
  • The Supreme Court has the power to initiate contempt proceedings against any alleged offender indulging in malicious and tendentious criticism. It can fine and imprison anybody for contempt of its authority.
  • For the enforcement of its decrees and orders, the Supreme Court can issue appropriate directions. It is the constitutional duty of all the civil and judicial authorities in the territory of India to act in aid of Supreme Court.

Position of the Supreme Court in India:
The power and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India, if not wider than the jurisdiction of the Supreme Courts of other countries of the world, is not lesser than the power of the Supreme Courts of other countries of the world. In the words of Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar, “The Supreme Court in the Indian Union has more powers than any other Supreme Court in any part of the world.” The Supreme Court of India has been given vast powers by the Constitution. The decisions of the Supreme Court are binding on all the courts, and on all the authorities-Central as well as States.

In some matters it has original jurisdiction while in others it has appellate jurisdiction. Its power to grant special leave to appeal against any judgement, decree, sentence or order in any case or matter passed or made by any Court or Tribunal (except Military Tribunal) is not subject to any Constitutional limitation. This is the extraordinary jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and it extends to all cases and all matters, Civil, Criminal or otherwise. Then, the Supreme Court is the interpreter and the guardian of the Constitution. It is the final authority to interpret the Constitution.

What the Constitution means the judges say it. The Supreme Court is also the protector of the fundamental rights of the people. While interpreting Article 13 of the Constitution in the Golak Nath case, the Supreme Court held that Parliament of India has no power to curtail or abridge the rights of the people guaranteed in Part IIP of the Constitution. The Supreme Court can set aside any law or executive order which encroaches upon the rights of the people. In this way, the Supreme Court holds Executive and Legislature in check.

While interpreting the Constitution and laws, the Supreme Court, in an indirect manner, makes new laws. In December, 1982 the Supreme Court upheld the rights of the workers to be heard in the winding up proceedings of a Company. The Supreme Court’s verdict breaks new ground in the history of Jurisprudence in this country in as much as it seeks to interpret old laws in the context of the new social and political milieu.

Commenting upon the role of the Supreme Court, Sir Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar said, “The future evolution of the Indian Constitution will thus depend to a large extent upon the work of the Supreme Court and the direction given to it by that Court.” In the words of M.V. Pylee: “The combination of such wide and varied powers in the Supreme Court of India makes it not only the supreme authority in the judicial field but also the guardian of the Constitution and law of the land.” Surely, the powers of the Supreme Court are wide and formidable.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 29 Indian Judicial System-The Supreme Court and The High Court

Question 2.
Discuss in brief the powers of the Supreme Court of India.
Or
Discuss the powers and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India.
Answer:
The Supreme Court is the highest Court of the land. It has been vested with wider jurisdiction than any other superior Court in any part of the world. According to Sir Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar, “The Supreme Court in the Indian Union has more powers than any Supreme Court in any part of the world.”

The jurisdiction of the Court may be divided into three categories-Original, Appellate and Advisory.
1. Original Jurisdiction:
Original jurisdiction means cases which start in the Supreme Court and regarding which the Supreme Court has the exclusive jurisdiction. The Constitution of India divides powers between Centre and States. Howsoever neatly the powers between the two may have been distributed there are always possibilities of doubt and dispute. New situations demand new interpretations. Thus, the Supreme Court decides cases

  • between the Government of India and one or more States;
  • between the Government of India and any one State or States on one side and one or more other State on the other; or
  • between two or more States.

It should be noted that the Supreme Court can entertain such cases only if the disputes involve any question, whether of law or fact, on which the existence or extent of a legal right depends. Where the claim made by one of the parties is not dependent on law but on legal considerations, the Supreme Court has no original jurisdiction.

According to the Constitution, the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court does not extend to disputes relating to water of inter-state rivers or river valleys, matters referred to the Finance Commission and adjustment of certain expenses between the Union and the States. Likewise, the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court shall not extend to a dispute, if the dispute arises out of provision of a treaty, agreement, covenant, engagement and other similar instrument which was entered into or executed before 26th January, 1950.

(i) Enforcement of Fundamental Rights:
The Constitution makes the Supreme Court the ultimate guardian of the fundamental rights and liberties of the people^ Rights of the people have no meaning if they are not backed and upheld by judiciary. It is both the jurisdiction as well as the responsibility of Supreme Court to issue orders, directions and writs of Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo Warranto and Certiorari, or any of them for the enforcement of fundamental rights. However, this jurisdiction of the Supreme Court is not exclusive. State High Courts have also been given similar powers.

(ii) To decide election disputes of the President and Vice-President:
The Supreme Court is also empowered to decide any dispute relating to the election of the President or the Vice-President of India and in this regard the Supreme Court’s decision is final and binding. In 1967, election of Dr. Zakir Hussain and in 1969 the election of President V. V. Giri was challenged in the Supreme Court. The Court decided that the election was valid. Similarly Vice-President, G.S. Pathak’s election was challenged and the Supreme Court upheld his election.

But by 39th amendment the Supreme Court was deprived of this power and Parliament was empowered to enact Legislation to set up a forum to hear disputes relating to the election of the . President, Vice-President, Prime Minister and the Speaker. In June 1977, Parliament enacted a law by which Supreme Court is again given power to hear election disputes of the President, Vice-President, Prime Minister and the Speaker. According to 44th Amendment all doubts and disputes arising out of or in connection with the election of a President or Vice-President shall be inquired into and decided by the Supreme Court and the decision shall be final. ,

2. Appellate Jurisdiction:
The Appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court can be divided into the following main parts-Constitutional, Civil and Criminal.
(i) Appeal in Constitutional Cases:
Article 132(1) provides that an appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court from any judgement, decree or final order of a High Court in India whether in a civil, criminal or other proceeding, if the ‘ – High Court certifies that the case involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of the Constitution. Even if the High Court refuses to give such a certificate, the Supreme Court can grant special leave to appeal if the Court is satisfied that the case involves a Substantive question of law as to the interpretation of the Constitution.

(ii) Appeal in Civil Cases:
As regards appeals in Civil Cases, the 30th Amendment, 1972 has brought significant changes. Prior to the. 30th amendment, appeal to the Supreme Court in civil proceeding against a judgement, decree or final order of a High Court certified that the amount or value of the subject matter of the dispute was not less than Rs. 20,000.

The 30th amendment seeks to do away with the monetary limits for invoking the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. The Amendment provides for the right to appeal to the Supreme Court on any judgement of a High Court if the case involves a substantial question of law of general importance and if in the opinion of the High Court the said question needs to be decided by the Supreme Court.

(iii) Appeal in Criminal Cases. As regards criminal cases Article 134 provides that an appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court from any judgement, final order or sentence in a criminal proceeding of a High Court if
(а) the High Court has on appeal reversed an order of acquittal of an accused person and sentenced him to death; or
(b) has withdrawn for trial before itself any case from any Court subordinate to its authority and has in such trial convicted the accused person and sentenced him to death; or
(c) certifies that the case is fit for appeal to the Supreme Court. Under the Constitution, Parliament may by law widen still further the criminal jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

44th Amendment inserts a new Article 134 A to provide that the High court should consider the question of granting of certificate immediately on the delivery of the judgement, decree, final order, or sentence concerned on the basis of an oral application by a party or, if the High Court deems it fit so to do, on its own motion.

(iv) Special Leave to Appeal:
Article 136 of the Constitution vests the Supreme Court with a power which is of utmost importance. It provides that the Supreme Court may, in its directions grant special leave to appeal from any judgement, decree determination, sentence or order in any cause or matter passed or made by any Court or Tribunal in the territory of India. The only exception to this all embracing power of judicial superintendence is the decision of any court constituted under any law relating to the Armed Court which can grant special leave to appeal even if the High Court has refused to grant certificate to appeal to the Supreme Court.

3. Axtvisory Jurisdiction:
Under Article 143 of the Constitution, the Supreme Court exercises advisory or consultative functions also. Art. 143 provides that if at any time it appears to the President that a question of law or fact has arisen or is likely to arise which is of public importance, he may refer the question to the Supreme Court for consideration and opinion. Such a question is heard by a Bench consisting of at least five judges and the Court follows the procedure of an ordinary trial.

The majority opinion is sent to the President. The judges can hold dissenting opinion as well. The opinion of the Supreme Court is not binding on the President as it is not of the nature of a judicial pronouncement. Nor is it obligatory for the Supreme Court to give its opinion. It may or may not.

4. Interpretation and Protection of the Constitution:
The Constitution of India has placed this responsibility of interpreting the Constitution on the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court is the final authority to interpret the meaning and intent of the Constitution. Likewise, it is the responsibility of the Supreme Court to uphold the supremacy of the Constitution.

There are many instances where the Supreme Court exercised its power of judicial review. In 1967 in Golak Nath’s case, the Supreme Court declared that the Parliament has no power to amend the provision of Fundamental Rights. In the Bank Nationalisation case, the Court held that the Banking Companies Act, 1969 violated equality before law. Article 19 concerning right to acquire, hold and dispose of property and Article 31 regarding compulsory acquisition of property are invalid and unconstitutional. The 24th and 25th amendments were challenged by Keshvananda Bharati and others.

In this case Supreme Court reversed its earlier decision of Golak Nath’s case and gave the Parliament the power to amend the Fundamental Rights. On 9th May, 1980 the Supreme Court struck down Section 55 of the 42 and Amendment Act 1976 which gave unlimited powers to Parliament to amend the Constitution.

The Court in an order said section 55 of the 42nd Amendment Act which inserted sub-sections (4) and (5) in Article 368 (amending power of Parliament) was beyond the amending power of Parliament and was void since it removed all limitations on the power of Parliament to amend the Constitution in such a manner as to destroy its basic or essential features or its basic structure. The Supreme Court also struck down Section 4 of the 42nd Amendment Act amending Article 31-C giving primacy to Directive Principles of State Policy over Fundamental Rights.

5. Court of Record:
The Supreme Court is the Court of Record. The significance of a court of record is two fold: First, the records of the Supreme Court are admitted to be of evidentiary value and are not questioned when they are produced before any Court. Secondly, it has the power to fine and imprison for contempt of its authority.

6. Power Regarding Transference of Cases:
By 42nd Amendment a new article 139-A is inserted in the Constitution. According to article 139A if on the application of the Attorney General of India, the Supreme Court is satisfied that cases involving the same or substantially the same questions of law are pending before it and one or more High Courts or before two or more High Courts and that such questions are substantial question of general importance, the Supreme Court may withdraw the case or cases itself. The Supreme Court is also empowered to transfer any case, appeal, or other proceedings pending before any High Court to any other High Court.

7. Power to Review its own Decisions:
The Supreme Court has the power to review its own decisions. In other Words, the Supreme Court is not bound by its own decisions. Any such review is undertaken by a larger Bench than the one which passed the original judgement. The Supreme Court’s power to review its earlier decisions helps to correct any decision which may be erroneous. In 1971 in the case of Keshvanand Bharati Supreme Court reversed its judgement of Golak Nath’s case and gave the Parliament the power to amend the Fundamental Rights but Parliament has no power to change the basic structure of the Constitution.

8. Miscellaneous Functions:
The Supreme Court performs some miscellaneous functions also. They are as follows:

  • The Supreme Court is the highest court of the land. It has the power to inspect and supervise the working of the subordinate courts. It can also make rules for their efficient working.
  • The Supreme Court can also make rules for the persons practising before the Court.
  • The Supreme Court can make rules for the maintenance of records by the lower Courts.
  • The Supreme Court has the power to initiate contempt proceedings against any alleged offender indulging in malicious and tendentious criticism. It can fine and imprison anybody for contempt of its authority.
  • For the enforcement of its decrees and orders, the Supreme Court can issue appropriate directions. It is the constitutional duty of all the civil and judicial authorities in the territory of India to act in aid of Supreme Court.

Position of the Supreme Court in India:
The power and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India, if not wider than the jurisdiction of the Supreme Courts of other countries of the world, is not lesser than the power of the Supreme Courts of other countries of the world. In the words of Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar, “The Supreme Court in the Indian Union has more powers than any other Supreme Court in any part of the world.” The Supreme Court of India has been given vast powers by the Constitution. The decisions of the Supreme Court are binding on all the courts, and on all the authorities-Central as well as States.

In some matters it has original jurisdiction while in others it has appellate jurisdiction. Its power to grant special leave to appeal against any judgement, decree, sentence or order in any case or matter passed or made by any Court or Tribunal (except Military Tribunal) is not subject to any Constitutional limitation. This is the extraordinary jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and it extends to all cases and all matters, Civil, Criminal or otherwise. Then, the Supreme Court is the interpreter and the guardian of the Constitution. It is the final authority to interpret the Constitution.

What the Constitution means the judges say it. The Supreme Court is also the protector of the fundamental rights of the people. While interpreting Article 13 of the Constitution in the Golak Nath case, the Supreme Court held that Parliament of India has no power to curtail or abridge the rights of the people guaranteed in Part IIP of the Constitution. The Supreme Court can set aside any law or executive order which encroaches upon the rights of the people. In this way, the Supreme Court holds Executive and Legislature in check.

While interpreting the Constitution and laws, the Supreme Court, in an indirect manner, makes new laws. In December, 1982 the Supreme Court upheld the rights of the workers to be heard in the winding up proceedings of a Company. The Supreme Court’s verdict breaks new ground in the history of Jurisprudence in this country in as much as it seeks to interpret old laws in the context of the new social and political milieu.

Commenting upon the role of the Supreme Court, Sir Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar said, “The future evolution of the Indian Constitution will thus depend to a large extent upon the work of the Supreme Court and the direction given to it by that Court.” In the words of M.V. Pylee: “The combination of such wide and varied powers in the Supreme Court of India makes it not only the supreme authority in the judicial field but also the guardian of the Constitution and law of the land.” Surely, the powers of the Supreme Court are wide and formidable.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 29 Indian Judicial System-The Supreme Court and The High Court

Question 3.
Describe the composition, jurisdiction and powers of the High Court.
Or
Mention briefly the powers of a State High Court.
Answer:
The Constitution of India provides for a High Court in each State. However, Parliament by law can provide a common High Court for two or more States. At present, the States of Punjab and Haryana have the common High Court, known as the Punjab and Haryana High Court. Earlier, Delhi and Himachal Pradesh were subject to the judicial jurisdiction of the Punjab High Court. Now, Delhi and Himachal have independent High Courts. The High Court is the highest court of the State. All other courts and tribunals working in a State are subject to the authority of the High Court.

Composition:
Each High Court consists of a Chief Justice and such other Judges as the President may from time to time, deem it necessary to appoint. It means that number of Judges in the State High Courts is neither uniform nor fixed. The total strength of the State High Courts has been left to the will of the President. He can appoint as many judges of a High Court as he deems necessary. Besides the Regular Judges, the President may also appoint additional judges for a period not exceeding two years in order to clear the arrears of work. A duly qualified person may be appointed by the President as an acting Judge when a permanent Judge is absent from the duties of his office or is acting as a Chief Justice.

Appointment of the Judges:
All the Judges of a High Court, including the Chief Justice are appointed by the President of India. While appointing the Chief Justice and other judges of a High Court, the President is required to consult the Chief Justice of India and the Governor of the state. On Oct. 28, 1998 in a significant unanimous order, a nine-judge constitution Bench of the Supreme Court held that recommendations made by the Chief Justice of India on the appointments of Judges to the High Courts without following the consultation process were not binding on the government. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is required to consult two senior most judges of the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court Bench said that “Merit should be the predominant factor while making any recommendation for appointment as Judges and that seniority above should not be the Criteria.”

Qualifications for Appointment:
No one can be appointed a Judge of the High Court, unless:

  1. he is a citizen of India;
  2. he has held a judicial office in the territory of India for at least ten years; or
  3. he has been an advocate of one or more High Courts for at least ten years.

Terms of Office:
Judges of the High Court retire at the age of 62. Prior to the Fifteenth Amendment Act, they used to retire at the age of sixty. Judges can resign office earlier by writing to that effect to the President of India. The President can remove the Judge from office on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity. The procedure of removal is similar to the one used in the removal of a Supreme Court Judge. In other words, Judges of High Courts can be removed by the President on an address of Parliament adopted separately by each House by a majority of its total membership as well as by a two-thirds majority of those present and voting. In this way, judges of High Court enjoy security of tenure similar to that of the Judges of the Supreme Court.

Salary and Allowances:
The Chief Justice of High Court gets a salary of Rs. 2,50,000 per month. Each other Judge of a High Court gets Rs. 2,25,000 per month. In addition to their salaries, they are also entitled to certain allowances. The Judges get pension after retirement. Their salaries and allowances cannot be varied to their disadvantage after their retirement, The salaries and allowances of the Judges are charged on the Consolidated Fund of the State, but their pensions are charged on the Consolidated Fund of India and are not subject to the vote of Parliament. The President is empowered to reduce the salaries of the Judges during the operation of the Proclamation of Financial Emergency.

Transfer of Judges:
According to Article 222, the President may after consultation with the chief Justice of India, transfer a Judge from one High Court to another-High Court. For example in May 1976 Justice Manohar Singh of Punjab and Haryana High Court, was appointed Chief Justice of Sikkim High Court.

Oath:
According to Article 219, every person appointed to be a Judge of a High Court in a State shall, before he enters upon his office take before the Governor of the State an oath of office on the prescribed form. The Judges have to affirm that they will bear triie faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India and will perform the duties of their office without fear or favour, affection or ill-will and will uphold the Constitution and the law.

Powers And Functions Of State High Court:
A State High Court has to perform various powers and functions. Besides the administration of Justice, they perform adminstrative functions as well. Since all the Courts working in the State are subject to the authority of the State High Court, hence the administrative functions of the High Court. The powers and functions of a High Court may be divided into two parts:

I. Judicial Powers and
II. Administrative Powers.

I. Judicial Powers:
The main responsibility of a State High Court is to administer Justice. The jurisdiction of the various High Courts under the Constitution is the same as it was before the commencement of the Constitution. This is, however, subject to the provision of the Constitution and any future law that is to be made by the appropriate legislature. The jurisdiction of the High Court may be discussed as follows:

1. Original Jurisdiction:
The original jurisdiction of the State High Court is limited.
(i) Under Article 226, every High Court has been empowered to issue writs, orders, directions including writs in the nature of Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo-Warranto and Certiorari or any of them to any person or authority within its territory for the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights and for any other purpose. While the Supreme Court can issue orders, directions and write only for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights (Part III of the Constitution), the High Courts are empowered to issue orders, directions and writs for the enforcement of fundamental rights as well as for any other purpose.

(ii) The original jurisdiction of the State High Court also extends to matters of admiralty, probate, matrimonial, contempt of Court and cases ordered to be transferred from a lower court involving the interpretation of the Constitution to its own file.

(iii) The High Courts of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay exercise original civil jurisdictions when the amount involved is more than two thousand rupees. In criminal cases, it extends to cases committed to them by Presidency Magistrates.

(iv) The High Courts of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras have the original jurisdiction as they had before the enforcement of the new Constitution on hearing straight away cases involving the Christians and the Parsies.

2. Appellate Jurisdiction:
The appellate jurisdiction of the High Court extends to both civil and criminal cases.

  • The High Court can hear appeals in civil cases if the amount involved in the case is at least Rs. 5000 or the dispute involves a property of that amount.
  • The High Court can hear appeals in criminal cases in which the accused has been sentenced to four years imprisonment by the Sessions Judge.
  • The Sessions Judge of a District can award death sentence in criminal cases. But such a sentence is subject to the approval of the High Court.
  • The High Court can hear appeals against the decisions of the lower Courts in most of the revenue cases also.
  • Any case involving the interpretation of the Constitution or law is brought to the High Court in appeal.
  • Appeal in cases of income tax, sales tax etc. can be heard by the High Court.

3. Judicial Review:
Like the Supreme Court of India, the State High Courts have also been vested with the power of Judicial Review. State High Court can strike down any law of the State or any order of the executive if it violates any provision of the Constitution or curtails or takes away any of the Fundamental Rights of the people.

4. Interpretation of the Constitution:
If the High Court feels that a case under consideration of a subordinate Court involves am important question regarding the interpretation of the Constitution it can withdraw a case from the subordinate Courts. Then the High Court interprets the constitution and can decide the case or can send back the case to the subordinate Court for the decision in the light of the interpretation of the High Court.

5. Court of Record:
Like the Supreme Court of India, the State High Courts are also the Courts of Record. As a Court of Record the State High Court has all the powers of such a Court including the power to punish for contempt of itself. Then, the records of such a Court are admitted to be evidentiary value and they cannot be questioned when produced before any Court. Neither the Supreme Court nor the Legislature can deprive a High Court of its power of punishing a contempt for itself.

II. Administrative Powers:
The High Court has also to perform many administrative functions within its territorial jurisdiction. It exercises the power of superintendence and control over all courts and tribunals throughout the territory. This power of the Court, however, does not extend to Military Tribunals. The High Court is responsible to see that the subordinate Courts are working in an efficient manner and that there is no miscarriage of justice. The administrative powers of the High Court are as follows:

1. Except the Military Tribunals, all other Courts and triubunals working within the jurisdiction of the High Court are subject to the superintendence and control of the High Court.

2. The High Court can make and issue general rules and prescribe forms for regulating the practice and proceedings of such Courts.

3. The High Court can prescribe the form in which book entries and accounts shall be kept by the .officers of any Court.

4. The High Court has the power to call for return from such Courts.

5. It is the responsibility of the High Court to see that the inferior Court or tribunal exericses its jurisdiction in accordance with the provisions of laws which it has to administer. Where the inferior Court or tribunal has acted without jurisdiction and passed orders beyond its powers, the High Court may interfere.

6. According to Article 228, if the High Court is satisfied that a case pending in a Court subordinate to it involves a substantial question of laws as to the interpretation of the Constitution it is empowered to withdraw the said case to itself and may either dispose of the case itself or determine the said question of law and return the case to the Court concerned along with a copy of its judgement on that point. It is the duty of that Court to give its judgement’ in accordance with the judgement of the High Court. The Constitution, thus, denies to a subordinate Court the right to interpret the Constitution.

7. The High Court may transfer a case from one Court to another Court, if it deems necessary and in the interest of Justice.

8. According to Article 219, appointments of officers and servants of High Court shall be made by Chief Justice of High Court or such other Judge or officer directed by him. The Governor may in this respect require the Court to consult the State Public Service Commission.

9. The High Court can determine the salary, allowances and other conditions of service of the staff of the subordinate Courts.

10. The High Court has the power to make rules for the promotion, leave, pension and other allowances of the judges of subordinate Courts.

11. The High Court is consulted by the Governor of a State when the latter appoints and promotes district Judges.

Position of the High Court:
In the administration of Justice, the role of the High Court is as vital as that of the Supreme Court. The High Court is the highest Court of a State. All other Courts and tribunals (except Military Tribunals) in the territory of a State are subject to the superintendence and control of the State High Court. Though the High Courts function in States, yet they are free and independent from the control of the State Governments. Neither in their composition nor in their salaries, allowances, pension and other conditions of service, do they depend on State Governments.

Judges of the High Court are appointed by the President in consultation with the governors of the States. And it should not be forgotten that State Governors are also appointed by the President. Then the High Courts are under authority of the Supreme Court. Every effort has been made to make the judiciary independent and impartial. It is gratifying to note that the High Courts have not belied the expectations of the framers of the Constitution.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 29 Indian Judicial System-The Supreme Court and The High Court

Question 4.
Discuss the independence of Judiciary in India.
Answer:
To make democracy and federation successful, it is essential that judiciary should be independent and impartial. It is a special feature of the Indian Constitution that it has tried to establish an independent judiciary in the State. In India following methods have been applied to make the judiciary independent:
1. Appointment of Judges:
In India the method of the appointment of the judges is devised in such a way that only able persons could become the judges. It is the President who appoints the judges of the Supreme Court and State High Courts. But the President is not absolutely free in the making of appointment of Judges. In case of the appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court he is to consult the Chief Justice of State High Courts and he consults other Judges also. He appoints other Judges in consultation with the Chief Justice.

The Chief Justice of the High Court is appointed in consultation with the State Governor and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. In case of the appointment of other Judges the Chief Justice of the State High Court is also consulted. The Magistrates and Sub-Judges of the subordinate Courts are also appointed through competitive examination. This way the executive cannot appoint Judges of its own accord.

2. Good Salary:
The Judges of the Supreme Courts and High Courts are given a decent salary so that they do not accept lillegal gratification to increase their income. Every effort has been made to keep them above temptation. The Judges of the Supreme Court are given a monthly salary of Rs. 2,50,000 and the Judges of the High Courts are given a monthly salary of Rs. 2,25,000. They are also provided with a rent-free bungalow. They are given a pension after retirement so that they may not face any financial difficulty in old age.

The salary, allowances and service conditions of the Judges are fixed by law by the Parliament. The salary and allowances of the Judges cannot be changed during their tenure of office to their disadvantage. The Parliament can reduce the salary of the future Judges but the salaries of the Judges vyho are in service cannot be reduced.

3. Long and Secured Tenure;
The Judges are kept in service for a pretty long period. The Judges of the Supreme Court remain in office upto the age of 65 years and Judges of the High Court remain in office up to the age of 62 years. They are not retired in young age. They gain experience and knowledge of the profession and perform their duties quite satisfactorily. The tenure of office is also secured. The executive and the legislature have not been empowered to remove the Judges on minor matters. They can’ be removed from office only if the Parliament passes a resolution by two-thirds majority in both the Houses to this effect. They can be removed only on a charge of misbehaviour or incapacity. The Judges are not in any way under the control of the legislature or the executive. They decide cases without any fear or pressure.

4. Legal Qualifications:
Legal qualifications have been prescribed to become the Judges of the Supreme Court and State High Court. Only that person can be appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court who has either practised law for 10 years in a High Court, or he has been a Judge of High Court for five years or he has been an eminent Jurist in the eyes of the President. Only that person can be appointed a Judge of a State High Court who has been an advocate of High Court of 10 years’ standing or who has held a judicial post for 10 years. Therefore an ordinary and inexperienced person cannot be appointed to the post of a judge. Moreover, a man who possesses legal qualifications can best serve as a Judge.

5. Powers:
The judiciary has been given vast powers in India. It can decide a case even against the Government of the country. An individual can move the Court if he has not got justice at the hands of the Government. In case of fundamental rights the citizens can directly go to the Supreme Court or the High Court. The Supreme Court and the High Court have the power of judicial review over the actions of the Government. If an executive or a law passed by the legislature violates fundamental rights or the provisions of the Constitution it can be declared null aiid void by the Supreme Court and the State High Court. The judiciary is free to give a decision against even the Government of India.

6. Independence of Action:
The judiciary-has been given independence in its actions. No Government official or a private individual can interfere in the working of the judiciary. When a case is under trial in a Court no individual can express his opinions regarding that case publicly. No person can criticise the Judge in connection with any case publicly. The instructions and the orders of the judiciary are to be obeyed by all the Government Officials and other private citizens. If a person shows disrespct to the Court, the Court can institute ‘Contempt of Court’ proceedings against that man, and can punish him.

7. No Practice After Retirement:
After retirement, a judge of the Supreme Court is prohibited to practise before any court or authority of India.

Conclusion:
The above mentioned facts clearly indicate that efforts have been made to make judiciary in India independent and impartial. There is no doubt that the Supreme Court and the High Court enjoy independence of action. These Courts can function without any fear Or outside pressure quite independently and impartially. But the Courts at the lower level do not enjoy that much independence.

The salaries of the Judges of the lower Courts are not so sufficient that they may not fall a prey to temptation. In the lower Courts corruption is the order of the day and the poor people cannot hope to get impartial justice. It is only the poor who so many times feel the need of moving the Court for this or that purpose but they do not have the means to move the Court. Need of the hour is to make judiciary independent at the lower level also. But our Government has not given any serious thought to this problem.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 29 Indian Judicial System-The Supreme Court and The High Court

Question 5.
Write a short note on Supreme Court’s Power of Judicial Review.
Answer:
Supreme Court is the guardian and final interpreter of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is vested with the power of Judicial review. It is the power of the Supreme Court to declare any law null and void if that law violates the Constitution. Article 13, for instance, bearing the marginal headings, “laws incosistent with or in derogation of the Fundamental Rights”, laid down that all laws in force in India immediately before the Commencement of the Constitution in so far as they were inconsistent with the provisions of Part III shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void.

Article 13(2) clearly says, “the States shall not make any law which takes away or abridges the rights conferred by this part and law made in contravention, will be void.” It is the Supreme Court which by its judicial review will decide whether a law in connection with the fundamental rights is void or not. The Court has the power of Judicial review where a citizen moves for the enforcement of the fundamental rights under article 32(2) of the Constitution. When the Court is so moved, it will have to decide whether any legislation or executive action of the Union or of a state, violates a fundamental right, and if so it will “issue directions or orders or writs, including writs in the nature of Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo-warranto and Certiorari, whichever may be appropriate, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by this part.”

Under Article 245, the Supreme Court can review the extent of laws made by legislature of states. Further, Article 246 (3) provided that the legislature of any state has exclusive power to make laws for any subject of the state legislative list. This means that if parliament ever makes a law on any such subject, except in time of emergency, it shall be void. This again could be decided by the Supreme Court alone.

A7rticle 251 laid down that if Parliament made any law on a subject of the state list Under Article 249 (in national interest) and under Article 250 (in times of emergency) and if it conflicted with any law of the state legislature on the same subject whether made before or after the law of Parliament, the law made by the state legislature shall be inoperative to the extent of repugnancy. Whether or not some provisions of the law of the state are repugnant to the provisions of a parliamentary law is decided by the Supreme Court. Under Art. 254 our Supreme Court can also decide inconsistency between laws made by Parliament and laws made by legislatures of states.

Similarly, Under Art, 258 our Supreme Court can also decide inconsistency between laws made by Parliament and laws made by legislature of states. Similarly, Under Art. 258 the Court can review the power of the Union (President) to confer powers etc. on states in certain cases either conditionally or unconditionally. The Supreme Court can also sit on judgement over the continuance in force of existing laws and their adaptations under Art. 372.

The power of Judicial Review of the Supreme Court was restricted by 42nd Amendment. But by 43rd Amendment the same position of the Supreme Court was restored which was before 42nd Amendment.

Extent of Legislation declared Unconstitutional. Since 1950, the Supreme Court decided hundreds of cases involving various laws passed by Parliament and state legislatures from time to time. It exercised its power of Judicial review in a number of cases. In Golak Nath’s case, the Supreme Court decided that the Parliament has no power to amend the provisions of the Fundamental Rights. On 10 February, 1970 Supreme Court declared the Banking Companies Act, 1969 invalid and unconstitutional. The Supreme Court held that the Act violated Article 14 relating to ‘equality before law’, Article 19 (1) concerning right to acquire, hold and dispose of property and Article 31 regarding compulsory acquisition of property.

In Purses and Privileges of Former Rulers case, “the Supreme Court struck down on 15 December 1970, the Presidential order of 16 September 1970 derecognizing the former rulers and held that the power of the President did not extend to the withdrawal of recognizance of all the rulers by a mid night order.” To neutralise the effects of the Supreme Court judgements, in 1971, 24th and 25th Amendment Acts were passed and these Amendment Acts restored to Parliament powers to amend fundamental rights.

The 24th, 25th and 29th Constitution Amendment Acts were challenged in the Supreme Court by Swami Keshavananda Bharati, a Keral religious head, and others on a variety of grounds. The Supreme Court delivered the judgement on 24 April 1973. The Supreme
Court reversed the Golak Nath case ruling &nd upheld Parliament’s right to amend the Constitution including the Fundamental Rights but not ‘the basic structure of framework’ of the Constitution.

On May 9, 1980, the Supreme Court in Minerva Mills case struck down section 55 of the 42nd Amendment Act 1976 which gives unlimited powers to Parliament. The court held that Section 55 of the Act which inserted sub-section (4) and (5) in Article 368 was beyond the amending power of Parliament and was void since it removed all limitations on the power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and conferred power upon it to amend the Constitution in such a manner as to destroy its basic or essential features or its basic structure.

The court also struck down section 4 of the Constitution 42nd Amendment Act amending Article 31C giving primacy to directive principles of state policy over fundamental rights. The court held that whatever Parliament does, it cannot destroy the country’s basic structure. Consequently, any law that tended to radically alter the basic structure must be declared null and void.

By declaring certain sections of the 42nd Amendment as ultra vires of the Constitution the Court has made it plain that the Supreme Court is the final arbiter aiid interpreter of the Constitution.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 29 Indian Judicial System-The Supreme Court and The High Court

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the composition of the Supreme Court.
Answer:
At the time of the commencement of the constitution, the Supreme Court consisted of eight judges including the Chief Justice. In 1956, the maximum number of judges was raised to eleven, including the Chief justice. This number was again raised in 1960 to fourteen including the Chief Justice. In July 2019 the number of Judges was increased from 30 to 33. Thus at present Supreme Court consists of Chief Justice and 33 other judges. Article 127 (I) makes provision for the appointment of adhoc judges also.

Question 2.
How are the Judges of Supreme Court appointed?
Answer:
The Chief Justice of India is appointed by the President in consultation with such judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts as he may deem fit. In the appointment of other judges of the Supreme Court the Chief Justice of India must be consulted by the President. In a landmark order on October 28, 1998 the Supreme Court observed that recommendation made by the- Chief Justice of India should have the sole power to recommend appointments through consensus.

Widening the scope of the consultation process, the Supreme Court said with regard to appointment of judges to the Supreme Court, the Chief Justice of India should consult a collegium of four senior most Judges of the Supreme Court and made it clear that even if two Judges give an adverse opinion, the Chief Justice should hot send the recommendations.

Question 3.
Write down qualifications essential for becoming a Judge of the Supreme Court in India.
Answer:
A candidate for appointment as a Judge of the Supreme Court must fulfil the following qualifications:

  • He should be a citizen of India.
  • He must have been a Judge of one or more High Courts for five successive years or must have been an advocate of one or more High Courts for ten successive years.
  • He should be distinguished jurist, in the opinion of the President.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 29 Indian Judicial System-The Supreme Court and The High Court

Question 4.
Explain the salaries and allowances of the Judges of the Supreme Court.
Answer:
The Chief Justice gets a salary of Rs. 2,80,000 per month and the other Judges Rs. 2,50,000 per month. Every Judge of the Supreme Court is entitled without payment of rent to the use of an official residence. The Judges are also allowed travelling allowances when they undertake journey for the performance of their official duties.

The salaries and allowances of the Judges are charged on the Consolidated Fund of India and accordingly, are not subject to the vote of Parliament. Neither the privileges nor the allowances of a Judge nor his rights in respect of leave or absence or pension shall be varied tohis disadvantage after his appointment. The salaries and allowances of the Judges can be reduced by the President during continuance of a Proclamation of Financial Emergency. The Constitution, thus, guarantees to the Judges both security of service and emoluments.

Question 5.
By which process can the judge of the Supreme Court be removed?
Answer:
The judge can be removed from office by the President after an address by each House of Parliament, supported by a majority of the total membership of that House and by a majority of not less than two third of the members of that house present and voting, has been presented to the President, in the same session for such removal on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity.

Question 6.
What are the three types of jurisdiction of the Supreme Court? Explain its original jurisdiction.
Answer:
The main three types of jurisdiction of the Supreme Court are as follow:

  1. Original jurisdiction
  2. Appellate jurisdiction
  3. Advisory jurisdiction.

Original Jurisdiction:
Cases relating to the following matters are brought directly to the Supreme Court:

  1. Disputes between the Union and one or more States regarding the division of powers or any constitutional dispute.
  2. Disputes between States.
  3. Cases relating to the Fundamental Rights.
  4. Cases involving a point of law, i.e. where interpretation of the constitution is involved.

Question 7.
Discuss about the appeal in Constitutional Cases.
Answer:
Article 132(1) provides that an appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court from any judgement, decree or final order of a High Court in India whether in a civil, criminal or other proceeding, if the High Court certifies that the case involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of the Constitution. Even if the High Court refuses to give such a certificate, the Supreme Court can grant special leave to appeal if the Court is satisfied, that the case involves a substantive question of law as to the interpretation of the Constitution.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 29 Indian Judicial System-The Supreme Court and The High Court

Question 8.
Define the appeal of which criminal cases can be taken to Supreme Court.
Answer:
As regards criminal cases Article 134 provides that an appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court from any judgement, final order or sentence in a criminal proceeding of a High Court if:

  1. the High Court has on appeal reversed an order of acquittal of an accused person and sentenced him to death; or
  2. has withdrawn for trial before itself any case from any Court subordinante to its authority and has in such trial convicted the accused person and sentenced him to death; or
  3. certifies that the case is fit for appeal of the Supreme Court. Under the Constitution, Parliament may be law widen still further the criminal jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

Question 9.
Describe the Advisory Jurisdiction of Supreme Court.
Answer:
Under Article 143 of the Constitution, the Supreme Court exercises advisory or consultative functions also. Art, 143 provides that if at any time it appears to the President that a question of law or fact has arisen or is likely to arise which is of public importance, he may refer the question to the Supreme Court for consideration and opinion. Such a question is heard by a Bench consisting of at least five judges and the Court follows the procedure of an ordinary trial. The majority opinion is sent to the President. The judges can hold dissenting opinion as well. The opinion of the Supreme Court is not binding on the President as it is not of the nature of a judicial pronouncement. Nor is it obligatory for the Supreme Court to give its opinion. It may or may not.

Question 10.
Mention the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
Answer:
The main three types of jurisdiction are as follows-

  1. Original Jurisdiction: Original jurisdiction means cases which start in the Supreme Court and regarding which the Supreme Court has exclusive jurisdiction.
  2. Appellate Jurisdiction: The appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court can be divided into three main part—-Constitutional, Civil and Criminal.
  3. Advisory Jurisdiction: The Supreme Court has the power to advice the President on legal matters but advice of the Supreme Court is not binding on the President.

Question 11.
Describe the composition of the High Court.
Answer:
There is a Chief Justice and some other judges in a high court. Their number is not fixed. The President decides the number from time to time. The Chief Justice and other judges of the High Court are appointed by the President. But in doing so, he consults the Governor of the State and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. If the High Court has surplus work or its work has been increased temporarily, the President can appoint additional judges on adhoc basis for a period of two years. If a judge abstains for a long time or is incapable of his work, the President can appoint an acting judge in his place.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 29 Indian Judicial System-The Supreme Court and The High Court

Question 12.
Describe the qualifications to become a Judge of High Court.
Answer:
No one can be appointed a Judge of the High Court, unless:

  • he is a citizen of India ;
  • he has held a judicial office in the territory of India for at least ten years; or
  • he has been an advocate of one or more High Courts for at least ten years.

Question 13.
How are the Judges of High Court appointed?
Answer:
All the Judges of the High Court, including the Chief Justice are appointed by the President of India. While appointing the Chief Justice and other judges of a High Court, the President is required to consult the Chief Justice of India and the Governor of the state. The Chief justice of India is required to consult only two senior most Judges of the Supreme Court.

Question 14.
Describe the salary and allowances of the Judges of High Court.
Answer:
The Chief Justice of a High Court gets salary of Rs. 2,50,000 per month. Each other Judge of a High Court gets Rs. 2,25,000 per month. In addition to their salaries, they are also entitled to certain allowances. The Judges get pension after retirement. Their salaries and allowances cannot be varied to their disadvantage after their retirement. The salaries and allowances of the Judges are charged on the Consolidated Fund of the State, but their pensions are charged on the Consolidated Fund of India and are not subject to the vote of Parliament. The President is empowered to reduce the salaries of the Judges during the operation of the Proclamation of Financial Emergency.

Question 15.
How the Judges of High court can be removed?
Answer:
Judges of the High Court retire at the age of 62. Prior to the Fifteenth Amendment act, they used to retire at the age of sixty. Judges can resign office earlier by writing to that effect to the President of India. The President can remove the Judge from office on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity. The Procedure of removal is similar to the one used in the removal of a Supreme Court Judge. In other words, Judges of High Courts can be removed by the President on an address of Parliament adopted separately by each House by a majority of its total membership as well as by a two-thirds majority of those present and voting.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 29 Indian Judicial System-The Supreme Court and The High Court

Question 16.
Write down the original Jurisdiction of High Court.
Answer:

  1. Cases regarding fundamental rights.
  2. Cases relating to the subjects like will, contempt of court, divorce, etc.
  3. Cases regarding the interpretation of the constitution.

Question 17.
Describe the appellate Jurisdiction of the High Court.
Answer:
The appellate jurisdiction of the High Court extends to both civil and criminal cases.

  1. The High Court can hear appeals in criminal cases in which the accused has been sentenced to four years’ imprisonment by the Sessions Judge.
  2. The Sessions Judge of a District can award death sentence in criminal cases. But such a sentence is subject to the approval of the High Court.
  3. The High Court can hear appeals against the decisions of the lower Courts in most of the revenue cases also.
  4. Any case involving the interpretation of the Constitution or law is brought to the High Court in appeal.
  5. Appeal in cases of income tax, sales tax, etc. can be heard by the High Court.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 29 Indian Judicial System-The Supreme Court and The High Court

Question 18.
What do you understand by the term Judicial Review?
Answer:
The essence of Judicial Review is the competence of a Court of law to declare the Constitutionality or otherwise of a legislative enactment. Judicial review means the power of the Courts to review the acts and’ orders of the legislative and executive wings of government and to declare them, when challenged by the affected person, null and void if they are against the provision of the Constitution. According to Dimock, “Judicial review is the examination by the Courts in case actually before them, of legislative status and executives or administrative acts to determine whether or not they are prohibited by a written Constitution or are excess of power granted by it.”

Question 19.
Write a short note on Supreme Court’s power of Judicial Review.
Answer:
Supreme Court is the guardian and final interpreter of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is vested with the power of Judicial review. It is the power of the Supreme Court to declare any law null and void if that law violates the Constitution. It is the Supreme Court which by its judicial review will decide whether a law in connection with the Fundamental Right is void or not. The Court has the power of judicial review where a citizen moves for the enforcement of the fundamental rights.

Under Article 32 (2) of the constitution, when the Court is so moved, it will have to decide whether legislation or executive action of the Union or of a state, violates a fundamental right, and if so it will ‘issue directions or orders or writs, including writs in the nature of Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo-warranto and Certiorari, whichever may be appropriate, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by this part.”

Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Describe the composition of the Supreme Court.
Answer:
In July 2019, the number of Judges was increased from 30 to 33. Thus at present Supreme Court consists of Chief Justice and 33 other judges. Article 127 (I) makes provision for the appointment of adhoc judges also.

Question 2.
How are the Judges of Supreme Court appointed?
Answer:
The Chief Justice of India is appointed by the President in consultation with such judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts as he may deem fit. In a landmark order on October 28, 1998 the. Supreme Court observed that recommendation made by the Chief Justice of India should have the sole power to recommend appointments through consensus.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 29 Indian Judicial System-The Supreme Court and The High Court

Question 3.
Write down any two qualifications essential for becoming a Judge of the Supreme Court in India.
Answer:
A candidate for appointment as a Judge of the Supreme Court must fulfil the following qualifications:

  • He should be a citizen of India.
  • He must have been a Judge of one or more High Courts for five successive years or must have been an advocate of one or more High Courts for ten successive years.

Question 4.
Discuss salaries and allowances of the Judges of the Supreme Court.
Answer:
The Chief Justice gets a salary of Rs. 2,80,000 per month and the other Judges Rs. 2,50,000 per month. Every Judge of the Supreme Court is entitled without payment of rent to the use of an official residence. The Judges are also allowed travelling allowances when they undertake journey for the performance of their official duties.

Question 5.
What are the three types of jurisdiction of the Supreme Court?
Answer:
The main three types of jurisdiction of the Supreme Court are as follow:

  1. Original jurisdiction.
  2. Appellate jurisdiction; and
  3. Advisory jurisdiction.

Question 6.
Explain Appelate Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
Answer:
Appeals against the decisions of the lower courts can be filed in supreme court. These appeals can be divided into three parts-constitutional, civil, criminal and special leave to appeal.

Question 7.
Discuss the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
Answer:

  • Original Jurisdiction.
  • Appellate Jurisdiction.
  • Advisory Jurisdiction.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 29 Indian Judicial System-The Supreme Court and The High Court

Question 8.
Supreme Court is a court of Record Discuss.
Answer:
The Supreme Court is the Court of Record. Hie significance of a court of record is two-fold: First, the records of the Supreme Court are admitted to be of evidentiary value and are not questioned when they are produced before any Court. Secondly, it has the power to fine and imprison for contempt of its authority.

Question 9.
Describe the composition of the High Court.
Answer:
There is a Chief Justice and some other judges in a high court. Their number is not fixed. The President decides the number from time to time. The Chief Justice and other judges of the High Court are appointed by the President. But in doing so, he consults the Governor of the State and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

Question 10.
Describe the qualifications to become a Judge of High Court.
Answer:
No one can be appointed a Judge of the High Court, unless:

  • he is a citizen of India.
  • he has held a judicial office in the territory of India for at least ten years.

Question 11.
Describe the salary and allowances of the’Judges of High Court.
Answer:
The Chief Justice of a High Court gets salary of Rs. 2,50,000 per month. Each other Judge of a High Court gets Rs. 2,25,000 per month. In addition to their salaries, they are also entitled to certain allowances. The Judges get pension after retirement. Their salaries and allowances cannot be varied to their disadvantage after their retirement.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 29 Indian Judicial System-The Supreme Court and The High Court

Question 12.
Write down the original Jurisdiction of High Court.
Answer:

  • Cases regarding fundamental rights.
  • Cases relating to the subjects like will, contempt of court, divorce, etc.
  • Cases regarding the interpretation of the constitution.

Question 13.
What do you understand by the term Judicial Review?
Answer:
Judicial review means the power of the Courts to review the acts and orders of the legislative and executive wings of government and to declare them, when challenged by the affected person, null and void if they are against the provision of the Constitution.

One Word to One Sentence Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which is the apex Court in India?
Answer:
The Supreme Court.

Question 2.
Where the Supreme Court is situated?
Answer:
The Supreme Court is situated at New Delhi.

Question 3.
Who appoints the Chief Justice of Supreme Court?
Answer:
President appoints the Chief Justice of Supreme Court.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 29 Indian Judicial System-The Supreme Court and The High Court

Question 4.
How the Judges of Supreme Court can be removed?
Answer:
The Judges of the Supreme Court can be removed by impeachment only.

Question 5.
What is the tenure of the Judges of Supreme Court?
Answer:
Judges of the Supreme Court hold office till they complete the age of 65 years.

Fill in The Blanks

1. Supreme Court consist of one chief justice and ……………. other Judges.
Answer:
33

2. The Judge of the ……………. of India retire at the age of 65.
Answer:
Supreme Court

3. Number of Judges of the Supreme Court is fixed by ……………. .
Answer:
Parliament

4. Punjab and Haryana High Court sits at ……………. .
Answer:
Chandigarh.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 29 Indian Judicial System-The Supreme Court and The High Court

True or False statement

1. The Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President.
Answer:
True

2. The Chief Justice of India gets a salary of Rs. 20000 per month.
Answer:
False.

3. Judges of the High Court are appointed by the Governor.
Answer:
False.

Choose The Correct Answer

Question 1.
The President can seek advice from the Supreme Court on:
(A) Questions of law only
(B) Questions of fact only
(C) Questions of law and fact both
(D) None of these.
Answer:
(C) Questions of law and fact both

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 29 Indian Judicial System-The Supreme Court and The High Court

Question 2.
Which one of the following is incorrect:
(A) The Supreme Court is the guardian of the Constitution
(B) The Supreme Court is the guardian of the liberty of the people
(C) The Supreme Court is the guardian of the states in the federation
(D) Supreme Court is the guardian of the President.
Answer:
(D) Supreme Court is the guardian of the President.

Question 3.
The Supreme Court of India acts as Federal Court when it deals with:
(A) Fundamental Duties
(B) Inter-State dispute
(C) Directive Principles
(D) Election disputes of the President.
Answer:
(B) Inter-State dispute

Question 4.
Judges of the High Court retire at the age of:
(A) 58 years
(B) 65 years
(C) 60 years
(D) 62 years.
Answer:
(D) 62 years.

Question 5.
Judges of the High Court can be transferred by the:
(A) Parliament
(B) President
(C) Cabinet
(D) Prime Minister.
Answer:
(B) President

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 29 Indian Judicial System-The Supreme Court and The High Court

Question 6.
The Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the:
(A) President
(B) Prime Minister
(C) Chief Justice of India
(D) Parliament.
Answer:
(A) President

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 28 District Administration

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Political Science Book Solutions Chapter 28 District Administration Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 28 District Administration

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by District Administration? Describe the main features of District Administration.
Answer:
India is a very big country. At present there are 28 States and 9 Union Territories. Each state has been divided into many districts and the officials of the State Government functions in each district. District is the most important, and basic unit of Indian Administration. Every inch of Indian territory is a part of district administration. The administration of each district is placed under the control of a Deputy Commissioner.

Definitions of District:
1. According to Dr. K.N.V. Shastri, “A district is a sufficiently large territory with an over all unity governed by common historical, geographical, social and economic conditions.”

2. According to Chambers Dictionary. “District is a sub-division of a division.” There is no hard and fast rule for fixing up the territorial jurisdiction of a district. The State Governments are authorised to decide the size, territory, name and population of a district. That is why the size of the district varies from state to state.

Types of Districts:
There are different types of districts-
1. Rural Districts:
India is a land of villages and about 70 per cent of its population is of villagers. So the largest number is that of Rural Districts. The average district in India continues to be on the whole a rural district.

2. Urban Districts:
The another type of district is of urban districts. This type of districts are in those territories where the local administration concentrates more on urban problems or urban areas rather than rural ones. Delhi is the best example in this concern.

3. Hilly Districts:
In those territories where the pattern of living is what and that of local administration differs from those of the districts which are situated in plains. Districts of J & K and Himachal Pradesh, etc. can be counted under this, category.

4. Industrial Districts:
This type of districts are found in heavily industrialised areas. Many districts of West Bengal and Bihar are of this type.

5. Backward Districts:
Many districts of India are backward on many grounds. The people of these districts do not enjoy those advantages, which are monopoly of more advanced areas.

Meaning and Definitions of District Administration:
According to S.S. Khera, “The district administration means “the total functions of government in a district.” In other words, “district administration is that part of public administration which functions in the territorial limits of a district.”

In brief, district administration means the management of task of government so far it lies within an area legally recognised as a district. This task is of following types:

  1. Executive
  2. Judicial
  3. Revenue
  4. Magisterial
  5. Development.

Features of District Administration:
Following are the main features of the district administration-
1. Result of Evolution:
District administration in India is result of evolution. The present systematic form of district administration is a heritage of British Rule, but the roots of district administration can be seen even before British regime.

2. Division of District Administration: For administrative convenience district administration is divided into sub-divisions, tehsils and sub-tehsils.

3. Main Unit of Indian Administration. District administration is the main unit of Indian administration because Government performs its important functions through district administration.

4. Deputy Commissioner is the Head of District Administration:
Deputy Commissioner, generally an I.A.S., is the head of the district administration. D.C. controls and supervises the district administration and responsible to the State Government. Other officials of district administration are also the civil servants.

5. Deputy Commissioner as a Co-ordinator in District Administration:
Every district is headed by D.C. and he is responsible for.the co-ordination among various departments at district level.

6. District Administration under the control of State Administration:
District. administration is the subject of State administration. District administration is responsible to the State Government. Therefore state, government has full control over district administration.

7. Extra Constitutional. District administration is extra constitutional entity:
There is only one reference in the Constitution under Art. 233, to the appointment of district judge, but no other mention at all about a district.

8. District Headquarter is the Heart of District Administration:
District headquarter is top administrative unit of district administration. All the government functions are performed at this level. That is why it is called as the heart and centre of district administration.

9. Welfare Nature:
During British regime the main function was to collect revenue and to maintain law and order. Besides these two major functions presently district administration performs a lot of welfare functions.

10. Maintenance of Law and Order is the Prime Function of District Administration:
The main function of the district administration is to maintain, law and order. The district officers have given different powers to maintain law and order in the district and to protect the life and property of the people. Deputy Commissioner at district level can take appropriate steps to maintain law and order,

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 28 District Administration

Question 2.
What functions does the District Administration perform?
Answer:
District administration has an important place in Indian administration. It performs the following functions:
1. Maintenance of Law and Order:
To maintain law and order in district and to protect the life and property of the people is the most important function of the district administration. For this purpose officials at district level are given different powers. Deputy Commissioner, the head of the district administration can take appropriate steps to maintain law and order.

2. To Administer Justice:
District administration has been given power and responsibility of administering justice at district level.

3. Collection of Revenue:
To collect revenue was the important function during British period and even today this is important function of district administration. All the taxes imposed by the government are collected by district administration.

4. Developmental Functions:
All the developmental programmes and projects are implemented through district administration. Deputy commissioner is the Chief development officer of the district. Five year plans, Community Development Programmes, Co-operation, Panchayati Raj etc, are under the supervision of district administration.

5. Supervision over Local Self-Institutions:
District administration controls and supervises various local self-institutions like Municipal Committee, Punchayati Raj bodies etc.

6. Public Welfare Functions:
Present form of the State is of Welfare State. State performs many welfare and developmental functions. District administration plays a very vital role in this concern. District administration has to provide mariy facilities to people such as to develop education, to encourage industry, to look after public health, to prevent food adulteration, to develop agriculture, to prevent diseases, etc. Various district officials are responsible for the performance of these functions.

7. Help the People in Natural Calamities:
District administration plays a very important role at the time of crisis. It is the duty of the district administration to provide relief in natural calamities like famine, flood, earthquake, etc.

8. Functions Regarding Elections:
District administration makes arrangements for conducting elections for Parliament, State Legislature and Local bodies. To maintain law and order at the time of elections is the important responsibility of the district administration.

9. Essential Services and Supplies:
District administration controls the essential services and supplies in the interest of the society. For this purpose, district administration takes necessary steps.

10. Functions Regarding Census:
In Our country census is conducted after every ten years. A vast personnel system is needed for this purpose. District administration has the responsibility of conducting census in the district and keeping its record. Function regarding census takes place under the Deputy Commissioner in a district. Deputy Commissioner appoints different employees and makes other arrangements for this.

11. Other Functions:
There are many other functions also performed by district administration. These functions include licensing of arms, explosives, petroleum, cinema, etc., receiving V.I.P’.s, arrangement to give facilities to prisoners, protection of monuments or buildings, etc. of historic or national importance, enforcement of liquor or drugs injurious to health, etc.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 28 District Administration

Question 3.
Discuss the Appointment and Powers of Deputy Commissioner.
Or
“The Deputy Commissioner is the eyes, the ears, the mouth and hands of the State Government.” Discuss.
Answer:
A district is a very important unit of the Indian administration. The chief officer of the district is called the Deputy Commissioner. He is not the agent of any particular department in the district but he represents the government in the district. He runs the district administration on behalf of the government of the State. There are so many government officers like the District Education Officer, District Industries Officer, District Civil Supplies Officer, District Public Relations Officer, District Agriculture Officer, District Excise and Taxation Officer and District Development Officer, etc., in the district.

The Deputy Commissioner is placed above all these officers. He can inspect the working of any department at the district level and can issue instructions regarding the proper functioning of the department. He is responsible to the government for the maintenance of law and order in the district and for making life of the people comfortable. The government issues all its orders in the district through the Deputy Commissioner. The Deputy Commissioner conveys the complaints and difficulties of the people in the district to the government. He is called the eyes, ears, mouth and hands of the government.

Appointment:
The Deputy Commissioner is always an experienced member of the Indian Administrative Services. The President of India appoints the members of the Indian Administrative Services on the recommendations of the Union Public Service Commission. The members of the Indian Administrative Services are governed by the rules and regulations of the central government. They are appointed, promoted and transferred according to the service conditions laid by the Central Government.

The State Government-can appoint and transfer them within the district. Instead of appointing them in the district, they can be appointed in the Secretariat. The State Government can send an I.A.S. officer back to the central government if it is not happy with his work and beyond this the State Government cannot take any action against him. His tenure as Deputy Commissioner is not fixed by law, and it entirely depends upon the will of the State Government. He is paid his salary by the State Government.

Powers of the Deputy Commissioner:
The office of the Deputy Commissioner is very powerful and influential. He has been given vast powers. There is nothing wrong in it if we say that nothing in the district can be done without him. He is the pivot around which the entire district administration revolves. He enjoys both the executive and the judicial powers. He is the District Collector and collects the revenue in the district. It is correct to say that “all strings of the district administration are gathered together in the hands of the Deputy Commissioner.” He enjoys the following powers:

1. As the Chief Executive Officer of the district:
The Deputy Commissioner is the chief executive officer of the district:

  1. It is his duty to maintain law and order in the district. He can get the help of the Superintendent of Police for this purpose,
  2. He can enforce section 144 in the whole of the district or in a part of it for the maintenance of peace and can forbid an assembly of 5 or more than 5 persons.
  3. He can impose curfew if the need for it arises,
  4. He enforces all the orders of the State government in the district. He runs the district administration in his capacity as the agent of the State government,
  5. It is his duty to send the annual report regarding district administration to the government.
  6. He looks after the work of all the mental hospitals, Reform houses, orphanages, and other charitable houses situated in the district in his capacity as the chief executive officer of the district. He can take necessary steps for the reform and proper functioning of such like institutions,
  7. He presents the State government an estimate of the annual budget of the district.

2. As the Collector:
In so many states the Deputy Commissioner is called the District Collector. He is responsible for the collection of revenue in the district:

  1. For this purpose he is the in charge of the revenue department of one district and he collects the revenue with the help of the officials of this department,
  2. He is the head of the district treasury. The treasury officer works under his control,
  3. He looks after the collection of sales tax, duty tax and property tax in the district.
  4. He keeps account of the sale of tickets in judicial matters and court fee.
  5. He hears important cases regarding revenue matters and can hear appeals against the decisions of the Tehsildar.
  6. He sends his report to the government regarding damage to the crops. It is on his recommendation that the government makes a reduction in revenue,
  7. People are given relief through him in case of famine, floods and drought,
  8. He keeps record of the agricultural land and other lands in the district,
  9. He manages the government property in the district,
  10. He controls the land acquisition work in the district.

3. As the Deputy Commissioner:

  1. He is the agent of the State Government in the district and conveys the will of the government to the people and the will of the people to the government,
  2. He looks after the working of local self-government institutions like the Municipal Committees, District Boards, Zila Parishad, Panchayat Samitis, Panchayats and other institutions in the district. He can issue them instructions from time to time. Before independence he used to be the head of these Institutions,
  3. He can inspect the government offices in the district. He can issue instructions regarding the performance of functions to the officers of these departments,
  4. He looks after the public welfare works in the districkand starts various development plans,
  5. He manages mental hospitals, reform houses and orphanages in the district,
  6. He is the District Election Officer and prepares a list of the voters in the district. It is also his duty to make arrangements for the holding of elections,
  7. He helps the people during emergency.

4. As the District Magistrate,
(i) The Deputy Commissioner is also the. District Magistrate,

(ii) All the magistrates in the district work under his control.

(iii) He issues rifle and pistol licences to the people. He also issues licences for the Possession and sale of ammunition and for taking it from one place to another.

(iv) In most of the States the judiciary has not been separated from the executive. In these States the district Magistrate hears important criminal cases. He also hears appeals against the decisions of 2nd and 3rd class magistrates. He looks after the work of the magistrates. In States where executive has been separated from the judiciary, there criminal cases are heard by the Judicial Magistrates and judicial powers of the Deputy Commissioner have been transferred to the Chief Judicial Magistrate.

Change in his tone after Independence:
During British rule the Deputy Commissioner enjoyed much more powers than he enjoys today. He was called the Grand Moghul in those days. He used to be real master of his district. He used to do whatever he liked. He was a mighty power in the administrative system. It was his authority that the people felt directly. It was he who seemed to rule the district. It was to the Deputy Commissioner that the people went with their troubles.

It was from him that they hoped to get justice or help in distress. He was the master of the people and was not one of them. He stood outside and above the people. The Deputy Commissioners were trained to keep themselves aloof from the common people in order that they might play the role of awe-inspiring bureaucrats.

The average district officer aimed at being feared rather than loved by the masses. During British Raj the Deputy Commissioner enjoyed huge powers. He was also the head of the Municipal Committees, District Board and other Local Self-government institutions in the district. He enjoyed vast judicial powers by making use of which he made himself very powerful and influential.

But after independence the position of the Deputy commissioner has undergone a big change. Theoretically there has been no reduction in his powers. In free India, the public officials are required to regard themselves as the servants of the people and not their rulers. The Deputy Commissioner is now supposed to be the first servant of his people. He is to know and respect the sentiments of the people of his district. He is required to maintain a link with his subjects. He is to see that he is easily accessible to his people. Not only this but he is required to seek active-cooperation and assistance of his people.

In addition to this, with the policy of government for transferring powers to Local Self-Government Institutions and also the policy of decentralization, Deputy Commissioner has lost many powers which he used to enjoy in the past. It is, however, good that the Deputy Commissioner has adjusted himself to the new circumstances. He has begun to realize that success of administration does not he in imposing rules and real administration does not flow from above, but depends upon the active cooperation of the people.

He is now a part of the popular government and not an instrument of oppression in the hands of foreign government. He is no longer a means of communication between the people and the government. These functions are now being performed by the M.L.As, The prestige and dignity enjoyed by him under the British regime has vanished. He is now simply one of the important public officials.

Position of the Deputy Commissioner today:
After independence the position of the Deputy Commissioner has undergone a remarkable change and now he does not enjoy as much powers as he enjoyed dining British rule. But it does not mean that today he is not a powerful and influential officer. All the important functions of the government in the district are performed by him. He is the agent of the government in the district. Nothing can be done in the district without his approval. He places before the government the needs of the people, therefore, he is the eyes of the government.

The government comes to know everything about the public through him, therefore, he is the ears of the government. The Government conveys its view-point to the public through him, therefore, he is the mouth of the government. Everything is done by the government through him, therefore, he is the head of the government. The Government can do very little without the assistance of the Deputy Commissioner.

He is the real ruler of the district. The position of the Deputy Commissioner in the district is quite the same as that of the Chief Minister in the State. The revenue and other taxes in the district are collected under his guidance. He is the Chief Executive Officer of the district.

He is District Magistrate. He can inspect any Government Office in the district and can issue any type of instructions to the officials. He can issue orders to the police for the purpose of maintaining of peace in the district. Keeping all these things in view we can say that “All strings of the district administration are gathered together in the hands of the Deputy Commissioner.”

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 28 District Administration

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe four types of Districts in India.
Answer:
1. Rural Districts:
India is a land of villages and about 70 per cent of its population lives in villages. So the largest number is that of rural districts. The average district in India continues to be on the whole a rural district.

2. Urban District:
The another type of district is an urban district. This type of districts are in those territories where the local administration concentrates more on urban problems or urban areas rather than rural ones.

3. Hilly Districts:
In those territories where the pattern of living is of what and that of local administration differs from those of the districts which are situated in plains.

4. Industrial Districts: This type of districts are found mainly in industrialised areas.

Question 2.
What do you mean by District Administration?
Answer:
District administration is the basic unit of Indian Administration. According to S.S. Khera, ‘The district administration means, the total functions of government in a district.” In other words district administration is that part of public administration which functions in the territorial limits of a district. In brief, district administration means the management of task of government so far it lies with an area legally recognised as a district. This task is of following types:

  1. Executive,
  2. Judicial,
  3. Revenue,
  4. Magisterial,
  5. Development.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 28 District Administration

Question 3.
Mention four features of District Administration.
Answer:
1. Result of Evolution:
District administration in India is a result of evolution. The present systematic form of district administration is a heritage of British rule, but the roots of district administration can be seen even before British regime.

2. Main Unit of Indian Administration:
District administration is the main unit of Indian administration because Government performs its important functions through district administration.

3. Deputy Commissioner is the Head of District Administration:
Deputy Commissioner, generally an I.A.S., is the head of the district administration. D.C. controls and supervises the district administration and is responsible to the State Government.

4. Extra Constitutional:
District administration is extra constitutional entity. There is one reference in the Constitution under Art. 233, to the appointment of district judge, but no other mention at all about a district.

Question 4.
Describe four functions of District Administration.
Answer:

  1. Maintenance of Law and Order: To maintain law and order and to protect the life and property of the people is the most important function of district administration.
  2. To Administer Justice: District administration has been given power and responsibility of administering justice at district level.
  3. Collection of Revenue: District administration collects the revenue through various taxes imposed by the government.
  4. Development Functions: All the developmental programmes and schemes are implemented through district administration.

Question 5.
How the Deputy Commissioner is appointed?
Answer:
The Deputy Commissioner is the head of district administration. The Deputy Commissioner is always an experienced member of the Indian Administrative Services. Officers of Indian Administrative Services are appointed at the post of Deputy Commissioner by the President of India on the recommendation of the Union Public Services Commission. The members of Indian Administrative Services are governed by the rules and regulations of the Central Government. They are appointed, promoted and transferred according to the service conditions laid by the Central Government.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 28 District Administration

Question 6.
Give four functions of Deputy Commissioner.
Answer:
Following are the main functions of the Deputy Commissioner:

  1. Deputy Commissioner is the chief executive officer of the district. He controls and supervises the entire district administration.
  2. To maintain law and order is his important function. For this purpose Deputy . Commissioner has been given power to take appropriate steps.
  3. He is responsible for the collection of revenue in the district. He is the head of the district treasury.
  4. As a development officer Deputy Commissioner is responsible for the implementation of all developmental programmes and plans.

Question 7.
Discuss the role of Deputy Officer as a Collector.
Answer:
The Deputy Commissioner is also called the Collector. During British period one of the important functions was to collect revenue. Even after the independence collection of revenue is his important function. As a collector, Deputy Commissioner performs following functions:

  1. D.C. is the incharge of the revenue department of one district and he collects the revenue with the help of the officials of his department.
  2. He is the head of the district treasury. Treasury officer works under his control.
  3. He looks after the collection of sales tax, duty tax and property tax in the district.
  4. He hears important cases regarding revenue matters and can hear appeals against the decision of the Tehsildar.

Question 8.
Mention four functions of Deputy Commissioner as the Chief Executive officer of the district.
Answer:
The Deputy Commissioner is the chief executive officer of the District. As a chief executive officer of the District, the Deputy Commissioner performs the following functions:

  • It is his important duty to maintain law and order in the district. He can take appropriate steps for this purpose.
  • He can enforce section 144 in the whole of the district or in a part of it for the maintenance of peace and can forbid an assembly of 5 or more than 5 persons.
  • He enforces all the orders of the State Government in the district.
  • It is his duty to send the annual report regarding district administration to the Government.

Question 9.
What do you know about Superintendent of Police?
Answer:
Superintendent of police is the highest officer of police administration in the district. He is a member of Indian Police Service. All the police force of the district works under his control. He is responsible for maintaining peace and order, for arresting the criminals and for the prevention of crimes in the district. He acts according to the instructions of the District Magistrate regarding the maintenance of peace in the district. He can transfer the officials of the police of the district within the district. He appoints the district policeman.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 28 District Administration

Question 10.
What do you know about District Education Officer?
Answer:
The head of the education department in the district is called the District Education Officer. He supervises and inspects the schools in the district. He is responsible for the educational set up of the district. He also makes recommendations for the grant of aids of the educational institutions in his district.

He is an important officer of the State’s education department. He helps the Deputy Commissioner in looking after the educational requirements in the district. He also sees to it that there is discipline in the schools. He makes transfers of teachers from one school to the other school within the district.

Question 11.
What do you know about District and Session Judge?
Answer:
The judicial department of the district is under the control of the District and Session Judge. He hears appeals in civil and criminal cases against the decisions of the subordinate courts of the district. The District Judge is under the control of the State High Court and the District Magistrate cannot interfere in his functions. He appoints the menial staff of the courts. He can inspect all the courts of the district and can issue any type of instructions to them. He can award death punishment in criminal cases. He is the guardian of the property of those who are not adults. He is also the guardian of disputed property and also of the property which belongs to nobody.

Question 12.
Write a short note on Advocate General.
Answer:
Advocate General is appointed by the Governor on the advice of Council of Ministers. The Advocate General is the legal advisor to the state Govt. He discharges such legal functions as are assigned to him time to time. The constitution laid down for the qualification is that he should be qualified to be a judge of a High Court. When the different departments drafted some bill, he uses to examine that. He is not a member of state legislature, but he can attend the meetings. He has the right to take part in the activities of the legislative and to speak in it. But he has not been given the right to vote.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 28 District Administration

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain any two types of Districts in India.
Answer:

  1. Rural Districts: India is a land of villages and about 70 per cent of its population lives in villages. So the largest number is that of rural districts. The average district in India continues to be on the whole a rural district.
  2. Urban District: The another type of district is an urban district. This type of districts are in those territories where the local administration concentrates more on urban problems or urban areas rather than rural ones.

Question 2.
What do you mean by District Administration?
Answer:
District administration is the basic unit of Indian Administration. In other words district administration is that part of public administration which functions in the territorial limits of a district. In brief, district administration means the management of task of government so far it lies with an area legally recognised as a district. This task is of following types: .

  1. Executive
  2. Judicial
  3. Revenue
  4. Magisterial
  5. Development.

Question 3.
Write down any two features of District Administration.
Answer:
1. Result of Evolution:
District administration in India is a result of evolution. The present systematic form of district administration is a heritage of British rule, but the roots of district administration can be seen even before British regime.

2. Main Unit of Indian Administration:
District administration is the main unit of Indian administration because Government performs its important functions through district administration.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 28 District Administration

Question 4.
Describe two functions of District Administration.
Answer:

  1. Maintenance of Law and order: To maintain law and order and to protect the life and property of the people is the most important function of district administration.
  2. To Administer Justice: District administration has been given power and responsibility of administering justice at district level.

Question 5.
Give two functions of Deputy Commissioner.
Answer:
Following are the main functions of the Deputy Commissioner:

  • Deputy Commissioner is the chief executive officer of the district. He controls and supervises the entire district administration.
  • To maintain law and order is his important function. For this purpose Deputy Commissioner has been given power to take appropriate steps.

Question 6.
Explain the role of Deputy Officer as a Collector.
Answer:

  • D.C. is the incharge of the revenue department of one district and he collects the revenue with the help of the officials of his department.
  • He is the head of the district treasury. Treasury officer works under his control.,

Question 7.
Mention any two functions of Deputy Commissioner as the Chief Executive officer of the district.
Answer:
The Deputy Commissioner is the chief executive officer of the District. As a chief executive officer of the District, the Deputy Commissioner performs the following functions:

  • It is his important duty to maintain law and order in the district. He can take appropriate steps for this purpose.
  • He can enforce section 144 in the whole of the district or in a part of it for the maintenance of peace and can forbid an assembly of 5 or more than 5 persons.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 28 District Administration

Question 8.
What do you know about Superintendent of Police?
Answer:
Superintendent of police is the highest officer of police administration in the district. He is a member of Indian Police Service. All the police force of the district works under his control. He is responsible for maintaining peace and order, for arresting the criminals and for the prevention of crimes in the district.

Question 9.
Write a note on District Education Officer?
Answer:
The head of the education department in the district is called the District Education Officer. Ifo supervises and inspects the schools in the district. He is responsible for the educational set up of the district.

One Word to One Sentence Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How many states and Union territory are there in India.
Answer:
At present there are 28 States and 9 Union territories.

Question 2.
Write down any two types of districts.
Answer:
1. Rural districts
2. Urban districts.

Question 3.
Write down any one feature of district administration?
Answer:
District Administration in India is result of evolution.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 28 District Administration

Fill in the blanks

1. ……………… is the head of district administration.
Answer:
Deputy Commissioner

2. ……………… is the heart of district administration.
Answer:
District head quarter

3. In the district the head of the police department is a ……………… of police.
Answer:
Superintendent.

True or False statement

1. The district administration maintain the law and order in the district.
Answer:
True

2. D.C. is responsible for the co-ordination among various department.
Answer:
True

3. D.C. is not head of the district treasury.
Answer:
False.

Choose The Correct Answer

Question 1.
Which of the following is the basic unit of Indian administration?
(A) District
(B) Village
(C) Block
(D) State.
Answer:
(A) District

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 28 District Administration

Question 2.
Every district is headed by:
(A) S.D.M.
(B) Chief Minister
(C) Commissioner
(D) Deputy Commissioner.
Answer:
(D) Deputy Commissioner.

Question 3.
Who is the pivot of district administration?
(A) Superintendent of Police
(B) District and Session Judge
(C) Deputy Commissioner
(D) District Health Officer.
Answer:
(C) Deputy Commissioner

Question 4.
Who said, “District administration means, the total functions of government in a district”?
(A) S.S. Khera
(B) V.K. Puri
(C) K.K. Puri
(D) M.P. Sharma.
Answer:
(A) S.S. Khera

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 23 Union and State Relations

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Political Science Book Solutions Chapter 23 Union and State Relations Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 23 Union and State Relations

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Discuss the legislative relations between the center and the states in Indian Constitution.
Or
How have the legislative powers been distributed between the center and the states?
Answer:
The Constitution of India very clearly distributes the legislative powers between the Center and the States. Both the sets of governments can frame laws independently in their respective spheres. There are three lists of powers given in the Constitution:

1. Union List:
In the Union list there are 97 subjects. The laws on all these 97 subjects can be framed by the Federal Government i.e., the Parliament of India. The list contains subjects of national importance. These subjects concern all the citizens of India equally. Subjects mentioned in this list are defence, foreign affaris, peace and war, communications, railways, posts and telegraph, currency and coinage, banking, foreign trade, shipping and civil aviation, etc. Laws framed on these subjects are enforced in all States and on all citizens equally.

2. State List:
In the state list there are 66 subjects. These subjects can be legislated upon by the States. Subjects mentioned in this list are like the law and order, police, jails, public health, education, agriculture, local self-government, hospitals, justice, organisation of judiciary except Supreme Court and High Courts, forests, revenue and unemployment, etc. The State Legislature frames laws on these subjects according to its will.

3. Concurrent List:
There are 47 subjects in the concurrent list. The subjects mentioned in the concurrent list are like the marriage, divorce, criminal law, civil procedure, newspapers, books, printing presses, electricity, price control, economic and social planning, trade unions, labour welfare, industrial and labour disputes, social security, legal and medical professions, bankruptcy, contempt of Court, adulteration of food stuffs, drugs and poisons, etc.

The principle underlying concurrent jurisdiction is that both the Centre and the States can frame laws on the subjects mentioned in the concurrent list. But if there is a conflict between the two, the Union law prevails and the state law fails to the extent of repugnancy. It is further provided that if the law, in question, made by the state legislature has been reserved by the Governor of the State concerned for the consideration of the President of India and has received his assent, then it will not be invalid. But Article 254 (2) empowers the Parliament to make a law with respect to the same subject matter adding to amending, varying or repealing the law made by the state with presidential assent.

Union Government is more powerful. From the distribution of powers between the Centre and the States it is clear that the Union government is more powerful than the States.
1. Residuary Powers:
Residuary powers have been allotted to the Central government by the Constitution. But in U.S.A., and Switzerland the residuary powers have been given to the States. It seems that the framers of the Constitution have followed the Canadian example with a view to keep the Centre in a very strong position.

2. Encroachment over the State list by the Union:
The Constitution gives the States power to frame laws on all the subjects included in the State list. But the Central Government has the authority to interfere even in these powers of States under certain special circumstances.

(i) At the resolution of Rajya Sahha. The Union Parliament will be authorized to pass a law on a subject list about which the Rajya Sabha passes a resolution with 2/3rd majority of the members present and voting saying that subject has attained national importance. Such a resolution of the Rajya Sabha will give the Parliament the legislative power for one year at a time. The power may extended yearly till the need is felt. The law of the Parliament in such circumstances will come to an end six months after the lapse of the resolution of the Rajya Sabha.

(ii) At the request of two or more states. Article 252 empowers the Parliament to legislate on a matter in the State list if two or more states desire that any of the matter in the State list be regulated by the Parliament. Any act so passed cannot be amended by a state legislature of which the law – applies.

(iii) On the failure of Constitutional machinery in the state. The Parliament is empowered to pass laws on the State subject for the State in which emergency has been proclaimed because of the failure of constitutional machinery. It may delegate its legislative power concerning the State to President of India if it so deems necessary.

(iv) At the time of emergency arising due to war, external aggression and armed revolt. The Parliament has the authority to pass laws on any subject of the State list during the emergency proclaimed because of war and external aggression, etc. Such a law may be made for the whole of India or any part thereof.

(v) To enforce international treaties, agreements and decisions of international conferences. The Parliament has the power to make law on any item of the State list in order to implement some international treaty or agreement or convention.

(vi) Prior approval before introducing the bill. Some bills require previous sanction of the President before their introduction in the State Legislature e.g., bill concerning restrictions on the Inter-State trade.

(vii) Assent of the President on certain bills is essential. Some bills are reserved by the Governor for the signature of the President after being pased by the State legislature, e.g., bills concerning restriction on the powers of High Courts or bills concerning acquisition of property by the State by paying compensation, etc. The President has the power of absolute veto over the bills which are thus reserved by the Governors for his signature.

A critical examination of legislative relations leaves the impression that the Centre is very powerful in legislative matters and it can impose its will on the State’ All subjects of national importance are in the Union list and in the Concurrent list. Centre is all powerful. It is rightly remarked by K.V. Rao that a mere glance at the State list “shows how unimportant the subjects are and also how ambiguous and blurred.”

Moreover, the Centre has strengthened its hand by virtue of taking recourse to the facilities provided to it as mentioned above. The way the Centre acted in the case of the Kerala Education Bill (1958) clearly proves that the legislative powers of the State are very limited. It has been remarked by S.N. Jain and Alice Jacob that “the Centre while communicating assent has often tended to dictate its policies to the States, though actual assent has been refused only in a few cases.” R.P. Pandey rightly feared that “the whole frame of the federal Constitution” falls if the President is pleased to take a more active part in the consideration of State Bill.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 23 Union and State Relations

Question 2.
Discuss the administrative relations between the Union and the States in India.
Answer:
Like the legislative powers the administrative powers are also divided between the Centre and the States. Administrative relations between the Union and the States largely follow the pattern laid down by the Government of India Act of 1935. Like legislative sphere, the Union is very strong in administrative matters.

According to Dr. Johri, ‘Though the areas of executive authority have been marked both for the Union and the States, the latter have become more or less like the vassals by virtue of the colossal power of the direction, superintendence and control vested in the hands of the Central Government.” As given in Part XI of the Constitution of India, the provisions of the Union-State Administrative relations are as,follows:

1. Art. 162 provides that the executive power of the Union extends to all matters on which Parliament can make laws. On the other hand, the states have executive powers over matters included in State List. In matters included in the Concurrent List the executive functions ordinarily remainwith the states.

2. Art. 256 says that the executive power of every state shall be so exercised as to ensure compliance with the laws made by the Parliament.

3. It is the function of the State executive to see that it does not become a hindrance in the way of the Central executive. For this purpose also the Central Government is empowered to issue direction to State executive.

4. The Central Government may ask the State Government to construct and maintain the means of communication of national and military importance. The Central Government may direct the State Government to protect the railway lines and the trains passing through the States.

5. The State executive is to see that the laws made by the Parliament and the other laws prevalent in the States are very well executed. The Central Government is authorized to give directions to the State governments for this purpose.

6. The President of India appoints the State Governors on the advice of the council of ministers at the Centre. He has the powor to remove them as well. That is why the Governors normally work as representatives of the Central Government in the States. They submit reports to the Centre about the conditions of the State off and on.

7. The federal government can enquire into the charges levelled against the Chief Ministers and may persuade them to vacate the office when the charges are proved.

8. The President can depute any of the State employees to work in accordance with the wishes of the Union Government. Of course the Central Government will pay to the State Government for the extra expenditure made in carrying out the orders.

9. The Parliament can make rules regarding the dispute between the two States with regard to the use of water and boundaries.

10. The President can form an Inter-State Council to advise the States in disputes.

11. All the big officers of the States are manned by the members of the All India Services. These officers are governed by the rules and regualtions of the Union Government.

12. The Union Government can hold a conference of the representatives of State governments to discuss the common problems of the States. The Union Government can ask the State governments to carry out the decisions taken at such conferences.

13. The Union Government enjoys vast powers during emergency. The Central Government may issue instructions to the State governments concerning any subject during the emergency proclaimed because of war or external aggression etc. During the operation of proclamation of emergency, the Union Government can take over the legislative and administrative powers of all the States and, thus suspend the working of federal polity for the country as a whole. As far as the Emergency proclaimed because of the failure of the Constitutional machinery of a State is cocerned, the powers of the State executive go to the Central Executive and the assembly of the State is dissolved and the Council of Ministers is dismissed.

14. If the Parliament makes laws declaring high waterways to be national highways or national waterways then the union government may undertake their construction and maintenance.

15. In Indian federal administration, trade commerce and intercourse is free throughout the country. The parliament has a power to restrict such intercourse for public interest. The states have no such freedom.

In administrative sphere, the Union Government is powerful. Though Governor is a constitutional head, yet he is the representative of the Centre and many times Centre intervenes in the the State affairs through governor. The Union Government is able to penetrate quite deep into the administrative affairs of the state through All India Services.

The way the Central Reserve Police was used by the Centre in Sept. 1968 to deal with the situation created by the strike of Central Government employees in Kerala was criticised by the opposition parties. But L.M. Singvi is of the opinion that “If properly understood, one must appreciate this observation that the use of the Central Reserve Police has proved a very effective device to exercise control over the recalcitrant States so that they do not run in flat contradiction to the spirit of the Constitution or important national policies.”

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 23 Union and State Relations

Question 3.
Discuss the financial relations between the Centre and States in India.
Answer:
If the legislative and administrative autonomy of the States are to be real then it must be accompanied by an adequate financial autonomy. It is an accepted principle of the federation that both the Union and the State Governments must have enough sources of revenue to carry out their legislative and administrative business. In India the financial powers have also been distributed between the Centre and the States.

The Central Government can impose the following taxes: income tax excepting the agricultural income, import and export duty, excise duty on tobacco, taxes on newspapers, taxes on railway fares and freights, corporation tax, estate duty on property other than agricultural land, terminal taxes on goods or passengers carried by air, sea or railway, taxes on the sale or purchase of goods in the inter-State commerce etc.

The power of the States, regarding the imposition of taxes extends to the he following matters-land revenue, taxes on agricultural land, income estate duty on agricultural land, taxes on lands and buildings, excise duty on alcoholic liquor, taxes on electricity, taxes on goods and passengers carried by road or on, inland waterways, taxes on vehicles, taxes on boats and animals, professional tax, taxes on luxuries, stamps duties, etc. But it is not enough to study the divisions of the power of taxation between the Centre and the States because the financial relations of the Centre and the States are complicated as given below:

1. There are faxes which are exclusively Central, and the revenues from which are wholly appropriated for the use of the Central government. These include export duties, corporation tax, taxes on the capital value of the assests, exclusive of agricultural land of individuals and companies.

2. Some taxes are levied by the Central Government and are also collected by it. But the income from these taxes is distributed among the States, for example income from income tax.

3. There are certain taxes which are levied by the Centre, but are collected by the States and appropriated by them for their own use. They are stamp duties and excise duties on medicinal and toilet preparations containing alcohol.

4. Some taxes are such as are levied and collected by Centre and those are distributed between the Centre and the States. Income tax on income other than from the agricultural land, is included in this category. Income tax is distributed between the Centre and the States on the recommendations of the Finance Commission. The share of union territories goes to the Cenrtre. Excise duties of the union other than those on medicine and toilet preparations, will be levied and collected by the Centre but may be distributed between the Centre and the States in accordance with the law made by the Parliament.

5. The States of Assam, West Bengal, Bihar and Orissa get grants-in-aid in lieu of the export duty on jute products on the recommendations of the Finance Commission.

6. Grants-in-aid. The Parliament may by law decide to give grants-in-aid to such States as are in need of the same in its opinion. The Centre may give special grants-in-aid to the states to complete some special plans for development. It is for the Union Parlimament to fix the extent of these grants and the Union government can lay down the condition, under which they are to be administered.

7. The Union Government may give loans to the states subject to the conditions laid down by an act of the parliament or may guarantee loans to the states provided that the limits set by the parliament to the Union loan are not exceeded.

8. The Comptroller and Auditor-General of India is appointed by the President and the Parliament may entrust duties and grant him such powers in relation to state accounts as it may deem proper.

9. The Parliament may by law impose certain restrictions on the inter-state trade for public purpose. But if a State Legislature wants to pass such law, it will require the previous sanction of the President.

10. The President appoints the Finance Commission of India for a term of five years. The Finance Commission recommends to the President the distribution of taxes between the centre and the states. Financial Emergency can be proclaimed by the President if he is satisfied that the financial stability or credit of India is threatened.

In such an Emergency also the powers of the federal Government increase as far as the financial sphere is concerned. The Central Government may issue any directions of financial nature to the States in such an Emergency. The money bills passed by the state legislatures will be reserved for the signatures of the President. The President may reduce the salaries of any category or categories of government servants including the judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 23 Union and State Relations

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Mention briefly the legislative relations between the Centre and the states in India.
Answer:
The Constitution of India very clearly distributes the legislative powers between the Centre and the states. There are three lists of powers given in the Constitution Union List, State List and Concurrent List.

  1. Union List: There are 97 subjects and Parliament can make laws on these subjects.
  2. State List: There are 66 subjects and on these subjects only states are competent to make law.
  3. Concurrent list: There are 47 subjects. Both the Centre and the States can frame laws on these subjects. But if there is a conflict between the two, the Union law prevails.
  4. Residuary Powers: Residuary powers have been allotted to the Central government by the Constitution.

In legislative matters Centre is more powerful than the States. The Central government has the authority to make laws on the subjects mentioned in the state list under certain special circumstances.

Question 2.
Discuss briefly the financial relations between the Centre and the States in India.
Answer:
In India the financial powers have been distributed between the Centre and the States.

  1. There are certain taxes which are exclusively assigned to the Central government.
  2. There are certain taxes which are exclusively assigned to the State governments.
  3. There are taxes which are exclusively central and the revenue from the wholly appropriated for the use of the Central government.
  4. Some taxes are levied and.collected by the Central government, but the income is distributed among the States.

Question 3.
How is the scheme of distribution of subjects between the Centre and the States is in favour of the Centre?
Answer:
The scheme of distribution of powers between the Centre and the States is clearly in favour of the Centre. The Union List consists of 97 subjects where State List includes 66 subjects only. Moreover, the Union List contains subjects of national importance, whereas State List includes subjects of local importance.

On 47 subjects of Concurrent list both the centre and state can frame laws but if there is a conflict between the two, the union law prevails and the state law fails to the extent of repugnancy. Residuary powers are also with the centre. Under certain special circumstances the centre has a right to make law on the subjects contained in the State list.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 23 Union and State Relations

Question 4.
What are the causes of tension between the relationship of the centre and the states?
Answer:
There are many causes of tension between the relationship of the centre and the states. Followings are some of them:

  • The division of financial resources and the system of financial relations as laid down by the constitution of India is the root cause of tension. The States find themselves financially poor and dependent on the centre.
  • Another major cause of tension is the dual role of the governor as the agent of the centre and the constitutional head of the state.
  • Misuse of Article 356.
  • Deployment of Central Forces in the States.

Question 5.
In what way the tension between the centre and state can be reduced?
Answer:

  • The states should be given adequate source of revenue.
  • There should be Clarify in the role of governor.
  • Art. 356 should not be misused for political purposes.
  • The centre should not misuse its power to amending the Constitution.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Mention briefly the legislative relations between the Centre and the states in India.
Answer:
There are three lists of powers given in the Constitution-Union List, State List and Concurrent List.

  1. Union List: There are 97 subjects and Parliament can make laws on these subjects.
  2. State List: There are 66 subjects and on these subjects only states are competent to make law.
  3. Concurrent list: There are 47 subjects. Both the Centre and the States can frame laws on these subjects. But if there is a conflict between the two, the Union law prevails.
  4. Residuary Powers: Residuary powers have been allotted to the Central government by the Constitution.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 23 Union and State Relations

Question 2.
Discuss briefly the financial relations between the Centre and the States in India.
Answer:
In India the financial powers have been distributed between the Centre and the States.

  • There are certain taxes which are exclusively assigned to the Central government.
  • There are certain taxes which are exclusively assigned to the State governments.

Question 3.
What are the causes of tension between the relationship of the centre and the states?
Answer:
The division of financial resources and the system of financial relations as laid down by the constitution of India is the root cause of tension. The States find themselves financially poor and dependent on the centre. Another major cause of tension is the dual role of the governor as the agent of the centre and the constitutional head of the state.

Question 4.
In what way the tension between the centre and state can be reduced?
Answer:

  • The states should be given adequate source of revenue.
  • There should be Clarify in the role of governor.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 23 Union and State Relations

One Word to One Sentence Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
In which article It Is mentioned that India will bé ‘Union of States’?
Answer:
Article I of indian Constitution.

Question 2.
From which country we have taken the idea of ‘Union of States?’
Answer:
Canada.

Question 3.
How many subjects are in the Union List?
Answer:
There are 97 subjects in the Union List.

Question 4.
How many subjects are in the State List?
Answer:
There are 66 subjects in the State List.

Question 5.
How many subjects are in the Concurrent List?
Answer:
There are 47 subjects in the Concurrent List.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 23 Union and State Relations

Fill in The Blanks

1.In the Union List there are subjects.
Answer:
97

2. In the State Lists there are subjects.
Answer:
66

3. There are 47 subjects in the List.
Answer:
Concurrent.

True or False statement:

1. The State governors are appointed by Chief Minister.
Answer:
False

2. In India, Residuary powers have been allotted to the State government.
Answer:
False

3. The President can form an Inter-States Council to advice the states in disputes.
Answer:
True.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 23 Union and State Relations

Choose The Correct Answer

Question 1.
Which one of the following articles declares India a ‘Union of States’?
(A) Art. 1
(B) Art. 10
(C) Art. 4
(D) Art. 2.
Answer:
(A) Art. 1

Question 2.
Who said, “The Indian Constitution is neither purely federal nor unitary but a combination of both.”
(A) D.D. Basu
(B) Dr. Jennings
(C) G.N. Singh
(D) Dr. John.
Answer:
(A) D.D. Basu

Question 3.
Union List includes:
(A) 66 Subjects
(B) 47 Subjects
(C) 97 Subjects
(D) 98 Subjects.
Answer:
(C) 97 Subjects

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 23 Union and State Relations

Question 4.
State List includes:
(A) 66 Subjects
(B) 47 Subjects
(C) 62 Subjects
(D) 52 Subjects.
Answer:
(A) 66 Subjects

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 22 Indian Federal System

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Political Science Book Solutions Chapter 22 Indian Federal System Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 22 Indian Federal System

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Discuss the nature of Indian Federalism.
Or
Describe the major characteristics of Indian Federal System.
Or
‘The Indian Constitution is federal in nature but unitary in spirit.’ Examine the statement.
Answer:
The Constitution of India establishes a federal system of government in the country. But the federal system of government in India has come under severe criticism at so many hands. Many people are of the view-point that the constitution of India is only federal in form but it is unitary in spirit. The administration has been organized in such a way that the units of federation cannot exercise their powers independently and they are merely reduced to administrative territories of the union.

The American Constitution established the federal system of government in U.S.A. first of all. In America the units enjoy more powers as compared to the Central government. In Switzerland also the Cantonal governments are more powerful than the Central government. But knowing all this the Indian Constitution allotted more powers to the union government and the states were given an insignificant position.

Dr. Basu is of the opinion that “The Constitution of India is neither purely federal, nor purely unitary, but is combination of both.” In the words of K.C.Wheare, “The Indian Constitution establishes a system of government which is at the most quasi-federal and revolutionary in character; a unitary state with subsidiary federal features rather than a federal state with unitary features.”

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 22 Indian Federal System

Question 2.
What are the major characteristics that made the Indian Constitution a Federal Constitution?
Or
Describe the major characteristics of Indian Federal System.
Answer:
Following are the main features of Indian federation:
1. Division of Powers:
The Constitution of India has established two forms of governments-union government and state governments. The Constitution distributes powers between these two sets of governments. There are three lists of powers in the Constitution-

  • Union list,
  • State list and
  • Concurrent List.

The Union list consists of 97 subjects: 42nd Amendment inserted 2 A in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution. In the union list those subjects have been included on which the central parliament can pass laws or levy taxes e.g. Defence, Atomic energy, Foreign affairs, War and Peace, Railways, Navigation, Post and Telegraph, Banks, Insurance, Census, Income-tax, Customs, Estate duty etc.

There are 66 subjects in the State list. In the State list those subjects are included on which, normally, the state legislature can pass laws or levy taxes, e.g., police, jails, local government, agriculture, forests, public services of the states, revenue, income- tax on agricultural income, professional tax, etc.

The Concurrent list consists of 47 subjects. The subjects included in the Concurrent list are criminal law, criminal procedure, marriage and divorce, bankruptcy, civil procedure, administration of , justice, forests, protection of wild animals and birds, population control and family planning, education, weights and measures except establishment of standards, etc.

On these subjects both the centre and the states can pass laws, but if there is a clash between a law of the centre and that of the State or States, the latter will automatically be null and void to the extent it comes into clash with the law of the Centre. The residuary powers have been given to the Centre by the Constitution.

2. Written Constitution:
The Indian Constitution is written and rigid. The Indian I Constituent Assembly sat from December 9, 1946 to November 26, 1949 to frame the Constitution of India. Every Article of the Constitution was passed after due ! consideration. Indian Constitution consists of 395 Articles and 12 Schedules.

3. Rigid Constitution:
The Constitution of India is also a rigid one. It is said that the Indian Contitution had adopted the middle course of the flexible and rigid Constitution. Certain articles of the Indian Constitution can be amended by the Parliament with simple majority only e.g. the Articles concerned with the formation of new states, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, allowances of the members of parliament, Indian citizenship, etc. The remaining Constitution can be amended in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 368.

The Constitution according to this Article can be amended by absolute majority and 2/3rd majority of the members present and voting in both the houses separately. But if the amendment is concerned with the articles mentioned in the Article 368, the approval of 50% of the states will be required in addition to the above written process in the parliament. The procedure of amendment given in Article 368 i.e., special majority in both the houses and approval of 50% states for some articles cannot, in any case, be called the simple procedure rather it is a special procedure because of which the Constitution of India is rigid.

4. Supremacy of the Constitution:
The Constitution in a federation is always kept supreme. The supremacy of the Constitution has been maintained in India too. The central and the state governments in India have to act in accordance with Constitution as the latter is above the government. The power of judicial review is kept in order to maintain the sanctity of the supremacy of the Constitution.

5. Supremacy of the Judiciary:
In a federal system of government, the judiciary is given a special place. The Indian Constitution establishes a powerful and independent judiciary in India. It decides disputes between the Centre and the States. It interprets the Constitution also. The interpretation of the Constitution given by the judiciary is considered final and the most authentic. It can declare any law unconstitutional if it is not in tune with the provisions of the Constitution.

6. Bicameral Legislature:
Bicameral system of legislature is also another important feature of a federal system of government. The Indian parliament also consists of two chambers-the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. The Lok Sabha is the lower chamber and it represents the masses.The Rajya Sabha is the second chamber and it represents the states. The Rajya Sabha is a permanent chamber and it cannot be dissoved. The members to the Rajya Sabha are elected by the state legislatures. Each state elects a fixed number of members to the Rajya Sabha.

7. Dual Polity:
India has two governments functioning at two different levels—the national or the federal government, on the one side, and the government of each component state, on the other. The state government draws its authority not from the federal government but from the Constitution of India, the same source from which the federal government draws its powers.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 22 Indian Federal System

Question 3.
What are the major characteristics that made the Indian Constitution a Unitary Constitution?
Answer:
Though all the characteristic features of a federation are present in India, yet the word, ‘Federation’ does not occur anywhere in the text of the Constitution of India. According to Art. 1 of the Constitution, “India shall be a Union of States.” The founding fathers purposefully avoided the word ‘Federation’. Art. 1 of the Constitution created a federation by describing India as a ‘Union of States’. In other words, our federation is a Union of States.

There are very strong trends towards the unitary government as the centre has been made very powerful. Moreover, in emergency, the form of government changes from federal into unitary because of which it is said that the form of government in India is federal in peace but unitary in emergency. The trend towards unitary government is clear from the following factors:

1. Division of Powers in favour of Centre:
The Indian Constitution has distributed the powers between the centre and the states in such a way that centre has become stronger than the states. The central government gets the lion’s share of the powers. Most important and almost all important subjects have been included in the union list. If there is a clash over a subject in the concurrent list between the centre and the states, the will of the centre will prevail.

2. Encroachment over the State list by the Union Government:
There are so many provisions in the Constitution with the help of which the centre can interfere with the powers of the states and can exercise these powers,

  • The Parliament by ordinary majority can change the names and boundaries of the states. It can create and abolish legislative councils in states.
  • Rajya Sabha can transfer a state subject in favour of the centre in the name of the national interest. It is to pass such a resolution by 2/3rd majority. Rajya Sabha is a part of Centre,
  • The Central Executive can give directions to the state executive from time to time. The powers of the state executive can be used this way by the Centre,
  • The parliament can make law on any subject in order to enforce a treaty or an agreement entered into between India and any other foreign power. The subject may be a Central subject or a State subject.
  • Many government officials are appointed in the States on behalf of the Central Government,
  • Some bills can be introduced in the State Legislature only by the prior permission of the President of India.
  • Some bills after they are passed by the state Legislature are to be sent to the President of India for his assent,
  • The state governors are appointed by the President of India. He is in fact an agent of the Central Government.

3. Influence of the Union Executive over the State Executive:
There are certain provisions in the Constitution with the help of which the union executive can exert a great degree of influence over the state executive. The union executive can also interfere in the working of the States:—

(i) The Governor of a State is appointed by the President of India. The entire state administration is run in the name of the Governor. The Governor is the head of the State as well as the agent of the Central Government. The Governor remains in office during the pleasure of the Central Government. In order to remain in office the governors are to act in acordance with the wishes of the Central Government.

(ii) There is large number of civil servants who work in the States but their appointment, promotion and dismissal is controlled by the Central government. These officials belong to the All India Services and occupy the important offices of the administrative machinery of the States.

(iii) The Central Government issues orders to the states from time to time. It is mentioned in the Constitution that the Government should exercise its powers in such a way that it does not come in clash with the Central Government in any way.

(iv) The President of India can issue the state essential orders regarding the protection of railway lines and other means of communication.

4. No Separate Constitution of the State:
In America and Switzerland the States have their own separate Constitutions and in them everything regarding the system of administration in the States is mentioned. The units can amend the Constitution according to their own sweet will. But in India except the state of Jammu and Kashmir, no other state has its own Constitution. Everything concerning the states’ administration has been mentioned in the Constitution of India. Dr. Ambedkar said, “The Constitution of the Union of States is a single frame from which neither can get out and within which they must work.”

5. Change in the boundaries of States:’
The Constitution of India empowers the parliament to change the boundaries of the existing States or create new States or change the names of the States on the recommendation of the President. In fact this has happened in India. In a perfect federation this cannot happen. The Central Government has no right to change boundaries of States and as such it is a departure from federal set-up.

6. Amendment in the Constitution:
It is said that the Constitution of India is rigid but the States do not play an important role in the amendment of the Constitution. First, only a part of the Constitution is rigid and for making amendment in this part the approval of half the States of India is required. While making amendment in other parts of the Constitution, the approval of the States is not at all required.

Secondly, resolution regarding the amendment of the Constitution can only be initiated by the parliament and not by the state. Both in America and Switzerland the units have the right to initiate an amendment to the Constitution. In India the State cannot initiate an amendment to the Constitution even if it conerns the State administration.

7. Unequal representation of the States in Rajya Sabha:
An important feature of federalism is that the States should get equal representation in the second chamber of the legislature. In a federation upper chamber secures an equality of representation to federating units irrespective of their size and population. In India, on the other hand, the States are represented in the Rajya Sabha not on the principle of equal representation but on the basis of population of every State. This is a fundamental departure from the federal principle.

8. Single Citizenship:
Normally there is double citizenship in a federation just like the U.S.A. But in India there is single citizenship, i.e. all the citizens of all the States are equally good citizens of India. This factor also indicates the trend towards the unitary government.

9. Uniformity in certain fundamental principles:
The Indian Constitution has displayed uniformity in certain fundamental principles which is not found in many other federal countries.

(i) The Constitution of India provides for a single integrated judicial system for the whole of India. The Supreme Court and the High Courts are links in the same chain. There are no two sets of laws but single civil and criminal code for the entire country. This is clear violation of the federal principle.

(ii) In the whole of the country there functions the same Election Commission, Finance Commission and the Comptroller and Auditor General. The States do not have their separate Election Commissions and Comptroller and Auditor Generals.

(iii) In the whole of India the members of All India Services serve both in the States and the Centre.
All the above mentioned things give an indication that there exists a unitary from of government in India.

10. Constitution does not mention the word federation:
The Indian Constitution does not make use of the word ‘federation’. It makes use of he word ‘Union’ in place of the word ‘federation’. The word ‘Federation’ points towards the autonomous status of the States but the word ‘Union’ does not lay stress upon the autonomous status of the States. The word Union points towards the supremacy of the Central Government. We can also say this thing that Indian federation is not formed in the way in which American federation has been formed. The Indian federal union was formed by those States which were under the Indian Union previously. Under such circumstances it is but natural that the union government should establish its own supremacy.

11. Unitary government in time of emergency:
During emergency the federal government can be changed into a unitary government. It is the President of India who proclaims emergency in the State and such an emergency order is to be approved by the parliament. The States are not consulted in this case. During emergency the President of India can take over the administration of all the States under his own control and the parliament gets the authority of framing all types of laws.

When an emergency is declared because of external aggression, war, armed rebellion or a threat of any of them, the form of government will change from the federal to unitary which implies that the centre will be empowered to exercise the legislative and executive powers of the States. During financial emergency and during the failure of State constitutional machinery the powers of the Centre increase.

12. Centralised Planning. In India, planning is centralised:
The Prime Minister is the chairman of the NITI Aayog and other members are appointed by the centre. According to K.S. Santhanam, “Planning has superseded the federation and our country is working as a unitary system in many respects.”

Real Position:
The Indian Constitution has federal features as well as unitary features. But the controversial point is whether Indian Constitution should be called federal or unitary. Mr. P.T. Chacko said, “What the Constitution would establish in the form of a federation is a federal type of State in which the central government has been given more powers.” During emergency the central government becomes more powerful.

During peace time India is very much a federal State. Whatever powers have been granted to the States by the Constitution they can excercise it according to their own sweet will. The Centre cannot interfere in the working of the administration of the States. But if the constitutional machinery fails in a State, or there are internal riots in the State, or there is danger of an external aggression then the central government takes away all the powers.

In the end we can conclude that the Constitution establishes a federal type of government in India. But during emergency it can be changed into unitary type of State in order to face the crisis. So the Constitution of India is federal in form and unitary in spirit.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 22 Indian Federal System

Question 4.
Why has a strong centre been established in Indian Federation?
Answer:
Indian Constitution establishes a federation, but at the same time strong centre is established. The factors behind making the Centre strong in the Indian Constitution were mentioned by Pt. Nehru as the Chairman of the Union Power Committee in the Constituent Assembly. He pointed out that a weak Centre can’t establish peace and order, nor can it co-ordinate common issues, nor can it represent the entire country in the international sphere. Following are the reasons for making the Centre so powerful:

1. Need of Strong Centre to face the Different Problems of the Country:
When Indian Constitution was being prepared, the country was facing many problems such as communal riots, Kashmir problem, problem of refugees, economic problems, etc. Only strong centre can solve all these problems. Hence, strong centre was established.

2. Strong Centre needed to face the external aggression:
Our founding fathers were aware of the fact that Pakistan may create problems by creating disturbances in the States if a weak centre is established. It was felt that only a strong Centre can meet the external foes. The Centre must be very powerful to meet any invasion successfully.

3. Responsibility of the Centre to defend and protect every part of the country:
It is the reponsibility of the Central Government to defend and protect every part of India. The Centre is to see that situation of law and order in the State is quite normal. To meet all these needs it is essential that Centre should be made very powerful. The Centre cannot face the crisis if it is not armed with full powers. It is why the Central Government can take over the administration of the entire States in its own hands during Emergency.

4. Communalism:
To curb communalism strong Centre was needed, “An equally forceful influence towards centralisation,” says Granville Austin, “was the national pre-occupation with communalism from the late twenties until partition…” And when communal demands did take federal forms as in the case of the Muslims, the explosiveness of the mixture made the Congress leaders more wary of the concept of provincial autonomy as well as of the communalism itself. In such an atmosphere unity gained further significance.

5. Social Revolution:
Another reason for a strong Centre, as given by Austin, was necessitated by the goal of social revolution for which a divisive formula was not quite suitable for India. There must be a strong Centre to think and plan for the well-being of the country as a whole which meAnswer:..having the authority…to co¬ordinate (and)…power of initiative. It should be in a position to supply the wherewithal to the provinces for the better administration whenever the need arises.

6. Partition:
Moreover, the partition had its effect. If India not been partitioned at the time it got its freedom, there would certainly have been far fewer features of centralisation in the Indian Constitution than we find today. By providing an example of the dangers inherent in separatism, it served to unite the Indians. So the Constitution makers did their best to provide a long arm to Centre to curb the fissiparous tendencies arising anywhere in the country in future.

7. Lesson from the Long History of India:
States cannot be granted complete autonomy because it proves harmful sometimes. The Central Government has been made more powerful on the basis of the exeperience of the past. Ther is a danger of the disintegration of the country if States are given frill autonomy. In U.S.A. once the States tried to scede themselves from the Centre: In India the people have sharp differences on the basis of religion, caste and language and there is always a danger of States having separatist tendencies.

8. Strong Centre needed to play effective role in International sphere:
It is most essential to make the Centre strong in the present age. Now-a-days different countries of the world have come closer to one another. Each State is to maintain various types of relations with other States. No State can gain importance in the ’ international sphere if the Centre is not strong.

9. Tendency towards Centralisation:
The Constitution makers were also aware of the modem trend towards Centralisation. Even the framers of the American Constitution as observed by Prof. Carr represented a substantial step towards centralised government and the first years after the adoption of the new Constitution continued to be marked by strong nationalist tendencies. While these (formative) periods have not followed one another in orderly fashion, in the long run there has been a tendency for the periods expanding national power to last longer and to have more permanent effects on national, political and economic affairs.

Due to all these reasons Centre was made very strong. Before the fourth general election in the Centre as well as in almost all the States the Congress Party was in power. The dominance of the Congress Party made Centre very powerful.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 22 Indian Federal System

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write the distribution of Powers in Indian Federalism.
Answer:
The Constitution of India very clearly distributes the powers between the centre and the states. There are three lists of powers between the centre and the states, given in the Constitution:

  1. The Union List. There are 97 Subjects in the Union List. Only union government can make laws on these subjects. The main subjects are-Railways, Post and Telegraph, Coinage and Currency, Defence and Foreign Affairs.
  2. The State List. There are 66 subjects in this list. The state governments can make laws on them. The main subjects are-law and order, police, agriculture, irrigation and public works.
  3. The Concurrent List. There are 47 Subjects in the Concurrent List. On these subjects both the centre and the states can make law. But if the two laws are contradictory, the laws of the Centre prevail.

Question 2.
Give four unitary features of the Constitution of India.
Answer:
Following are some of the Unitary features of the Constitution of India.

  1. Centre is very strong.
  2. There is single citizenship in India.
  3. Governors are appointed by the President.
  4. Single tmified judiciary.

Question 3.
Under what circumstances the Union Parliament can make laws on the subjects given in the State List?
Answer:
The Union Parliament can make laws on the subjects given in the State list under the following circumstances:
1. At the Resolution of Rajya Sabha. The Union Parliament will be authorised to pass a law on a subject of State List about which the Rajya Sabha passes a resolution with 2/3 majority of the members present and voting saying that subject has attained national importance.

2. At the request of two or more States. Article 252 empowers Parliament to legislate on a matter in the State list if two or more States desire that any of the matter in the states list be regulated by the Parliament.

3. The Parliament is empowered to pass laws on the State for the State in which emergency has been proclaimed because of the failure of Constitutional machinery.

4. The Parliament has the authority to pass laws on any subject of the State list during the emergency proclaimed because of war and external aggression etc.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 22 Indian Federal System

Question 4.
What was the need of a Strong Centre with a Federation India?
Answer:
Following are the reasons for making the Centre so powerful:
1. Need of Strong Centre to face the Different Problems of the Country. When Indian Constitution was being prepared, the country was facing many problems such as communal riots, Kashmir problem, problem of refugees, economic problems etc. Only strong Centre could solve all these problems. Hence strong Centre was established.

2. Strong Centre needed to face the External Aggression. Our founding fathers were aware if the fact that Pakistan may create problems by creating disturbances in the State of a weak Centre is established. It was felt that only a strong Centre can meet the external foes. The Centre must be very powerful to meet any invasion successfully.

3. Responsibility of the Centre to Defend and Protect every part of the Country. It is the responsibility of the Central Government to defend and protect every part of India. To meet all these needs it is essential that Centre should be made very powerful.

4. Communalism. To curb communalism strong Centre was needed.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write the distribution of Powers in Indiap Federalism.
Answer:
The Constitution of India very clearly distributes the powers between the centre and the states. There are three lists of powers between the centre and the states, given in the Constitution: 1. The Union List 2. The State List 3. The Concurrent List.

Question 2.
Write a note on Union List.
Answer:
There are 97 Subjects in the Union List. Only union government can make laws on these subjects. The main subjects are-Railways, Post and Telegraph, Coinage and Currency, Defence and Foreign Affairs.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 22 Indian Federal System

Question 3.
Write a note on State List.
Answer:
There are 66 subjects in this list. The state governments can make laws on them. The main subjects are-law and order, police, agriculture, irrigation and public works.

Question 4.
Write a note on Concurrent List.
Answer:
There are 47 Subjects in the Concurrent List. On these subjects both the centre and the states can make law. But if the two laws are contradictory, the laws of the Centre prevail.

Question 5.
Give two unitary features of the Constitution of India.
Answer:
Following are some of the Unitary features of the Constitution of India.

  • Centre is very strong.
  • There is single citizenship in India.

Question 6.
Under what circumstances the Union Parliament can make laws on the subjects given in the State List?
Answer:
1. At the Resolution of Rajya Sabha. The Union Parliament will be authorised to pass a law on a subject of State List about which the Rajya ’ Sabha passes a resolution with 2/3 majority of the members present and voting saying that subject has attained national importance.

2. At the request of two or more States. Article 252 empowers Parliament to legislate on a matter in the State list if two or more States desire that any of the matter in the states list be regulated by the Parliament.

Question 7.
What was the need of a Strong Centre with a Federation India?
Answer:
Following are the reasons for making the Centre so powerful:

  • Need of Strong Centre to face the Different Problems of the Country.
  • Strong Centre needed to face the external aggression.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 22 Indian Federal System

One Word to One Sentence Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name the first Country where federation was established?
Answer:
United Statea of America.

Question 2.
Mention the names of four countries where federation exist?
Answer:
India, U.S.A., Switzerland and Canada.

Question 3.
Write one basic feature of federation.
Answer:
Division of powers between the Centre and the States.

Question 4.
When Article 370, Abrogated from Indian Constitution?
Answer:
5-6 August, 2019.

Fill in the blanks

1. The Constitution in a ………… is always kept supreme.
Answer:
Federation

2. Normally there is ………….. citizenship in a federation.
Answer:
Double

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 22 Indian Federal System

True or False statement

1. In India, planning is centralised.
Answer:
True

2. In Indian Constitution has federal features as well as unitary features
Answer:
True

Choose The Correct Answer

Question 1.
Which one of the following is not a feature of Indian federation?
(A) Written Constitution
(B) Supremacy of the Constitution
(C) Distribution of Powers
(D) Dual Citizenship.
Answer:
(D) Dual Citizenship.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Political Science Book Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the composition of Indian Parliament and compare the powers of the Rajya Sabha with those of the Lok Sabha.
Or
Discuss the composition of Indian Parliament. Describe the relations between the two Houses of Parliament.
Answer:
All the legislative powers of the federal government are vested in the Parliament. The laws framed by the Indian Parliament are enforced in the whole of the country. The Parliament holds its meetings in New Delhi, the Capital of India.

Composition:
Article 79 of the Constitution provides a bicameral parliament for the Union. The Union Parliament consists of the president and the two Houses to be known respectively as the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha).

1. Rajya Sabha:
Rajya Sabha is the upper chamber of the Parliament. It can have at the most 250 members in it. The President of India nominates 12 members. These are the persons who have distinguished themselves in the field of art, literature, science and social service. Rest of the members are elected by the members of State legislatures. At present it consists of 245 (233 + 12) members in all. l/3rd of its members retire after every two years and other members are elected to fill up the vacancies. Each member remains in office for a period of 6 years.

2. Lok Sabha:
Lok Sabha is the lower chamber of the Parliament. It can have at the most 550 elected members. The members will be elected acording to the laws framed by the Union Parliament. The President can nominate two members of the Anglo-Indian community if he feels that in the Lok Sabha this- community has not got adequate representation. In this manner maximum strength of the Lok Sabha can be 552.

But at present Lok Sabha has 543 elected members. The members of the Lok Sabha are elected for a period of 5 years. The President of India can dissolve the Lok Sabha before the expiry of its term and can order fresh elections. The members of the Lok Sabha elect one Speaker and one Deputy Speaker from amongst its members.

Salary and Allowances of the Members of Parliament:
The salary and allowances of the members of Parliament are determined by Parliament from time to time. Session of the Parliament. The President of India convenes the session of the Parliament. He can call the sessions of both the Houses on the same date or on different dates. The second session of the Parliament must be convened within a period of 6 months. There should not be a difference of more than 6 months between the last meeting of the last session and the first meeting of the next session. This way two sessions are certainly called in one year.

Relations Between The Two Houses Of Parliament
Although the participation and collaboration of both the Houses are essential for all legislative activities, even a cursory perusal of the provisions of the Constitution with regard to the two Houses of Parliament will show that the Constitution recognizes the supremacy of the Lok Sabha over the Rajya Sabha. The two Houses, unlike the Australian Parliament do not stand on the footing of equality. The relation of the two Houses, unlike the Australian Parliament does not stand on the footing of equality. The relation of the two Houses may be discussed as under:

1. Ordinary Bills:
Ordinary Bills can originate in either House of Parliament. Unless passed by both the Houses they cannot be sent to the President for his assent. A Bill passed by one House is sent to the other House. If the other House passes the Bill in the form in which it was passed by originating House, it is sent to the President for his assent. The other House may propose amendments in the Bill or may even reject the Bill.

Thus, if the two Houses do not agree on the proposed amendments or if the two Houses finally disagree on the Bill, the President, under Art. 108 of the Constitution is empowered to call a joint meeting of the two Houses. In case the receiving House takes no action on the Bill for six months from the date of its receipt in that case also the President may summon a joint meeting of both the Houses. It should be noted that there can be no joint meeting of the two Houses if the Bill has lapsed because of the dissolution of the Lok Sabha.

Even if the President has already issued a notification for joint sitting and even if the date, time and place of the meeting have been announced and summons issued, the meeting shall have to be cancelled because no joint sitting can be held for deliberating and voting on a Bill which has already lapsed. When the President has notified his intention to summon the two Houses to meet in a joint sitting, neither House can proceed with the Bill.

If at the joint meeting of the two Houses the Bill is passed by a majority of the total number of members of both Houses present and voting, it shall be deemed to have been passed by both the Houses. At the joint sitting of the two Houses, the voice of the Lok Sabha should prevail because of its numerical strength. It should not, however, be taken for granted. In India, thus, the Rajya Sabha can delay a Bill or six months.

It may succeed in killing it also especially when the Government has a thin majority in the Lok Sabha and substantial opposition in the Rajya Sabha. In England, the House of Lords can delay a non-money Bill for one year. There is no provision for a joint sitting. In Japan also there is no provision for a joint sitting of the two Houses in case of a deadlock over a Bill. The Upper House of Japn (House of Councillors) can delay an ordinary Bill for sixty days. If the Lower House passes that Bill for the second time by a two-third majority of the members present the Bill is deemed to have been passed by both the Houses.

2. Money Bills:
Money Bills and Budget can originate in the Lok Sabha only. The Rajya Sabha is the receiving end. When a Money Bill is passed by the Lok Sabha it is sent to he Rajya Sabha for its recommendations. The Rajya Sabha, has the right to propose amendments in the Money Bill. It must return the Bill to the Lok Sabha, with or without amendments, within 14 days, but Lok Sabha may or may not agree to those recommendations.

If the Rajya Sabha does not return the Money Bill within 14 days from the date of the receipt of the Bill, the same shall be considered to have been passed by both the Houses of Parliament in the same form in which it was passed by the Lok Sabha. All these provisions clearly prove that the hold of the Lok Sabha over the finance of the country is complete and absolute. It should be noted that in case of disagreement over Money Bill, there cannot be a joint sitting of the two Houses. The Senate of Australia possesses the power to reject even a Money Bill.

The House of Lords of England can delay a money bill for a month. The Upper House of Japan can also delay the passage of a money bill for 30 days. In matters of finance the powers of the Rajya Sabha are insignificant.

3. Control over the Executive:
In India, Parliamentary system of Government has been established. The essence of this form of Government is that the executive is responsible to the legislature for its actions and policies. In practice it is answerable to the Popular House. Thus, according to the Constitution of India, the Council of Ministers has been made collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha.

No doubt, the Rajya Sabha can exert its influence on the Govenment in a number of ways and it may even put the Government in an awkward position, but it cannot remove the Government from office. This power belongs to the Lok Sabha only. This power of the Lok Sabha is exclusive and not concurrent. The Government must enjoy the confidence of the Lok Sabha or else resign. The Lok Sabha can express its lack of confidence in a number of ways, for example by rejecting a Government Bill, a Money Bill or by passing a no confidence resolution.

Thus, the Government must either be in tune with the Lok Sabha or face expulsion. One point may be noted here. The Council of ministers is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha. The Constitution does not speak of individual responsibility. Moreover, it is not clear that when the Lok Sabha stands dissolved, to whom is the Council of Ministers responsible then? Afer the dissolution of the Lok Sabha in December 1970, the continuance of Indira Government was challenged in the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court upheld the legality of the continuance of Indira Gandhi Government.

4. Other Matters:
On the other matters, the powers of the two Houses are almost equal. They are enumerated as under:

(i) Constitution Amending Bill can be introduced in either House of Parliament. It is deemed to have been passed only when each House passes it by the required majority. Since the Amending Bill has to be passed by each House, the question of joint sitting of the two Houses in case of disagreement does not arise. In this repsect the Rajya Sabha has co-equal powers with the Lok Sabha. It may even kill an amending Bill.

(ii) Both the Houses take part in the election of the President and Vice President.

(iii) Both the Houses have equal powers in the removal of the President, Charges can be preferred in either House, the other House investigates or gets them investigated by a court or a tribunal, but the House cannot abdicate its authority, it has to pass the resolution by 2/3rd majority if the impeachment proceeding is to succeed.

(iv) The Vice President can also be removed from office by the Parliament. Removal proceedings against the Vice President can start only in the Rajya Sabha, but the Lok Sabha must also agree if the Vice President is to be removed from office.

(v) Judges of the Supreme Court and State High Courts are also removed by both the Houses. In this .respect also the powers of both the Houses are equal.

In two matters the powers of the Rajya Sabha are exclusive. They are:
1. Under Article 249, the Rajya Sabha can pass a resolution by 2/3rd majority of its members present and voting that an item given on the State List has become of national importance, therefore, Parliament should make law on that. On the passing of such a resolution, it becomes lawful for Parliament to make laws with respect to that matter for the whole or any part of India for a period of one year.

2. The second exclusive power of the Rajya Sabha. is connected with the setting up of All India Services. Under Article 312, the Rajya Sabha by passing a resolution by two-thirds majority of the members present and voting can set up All India Service.

From the above discussion it is clear that the Lok Sabha is more powerful than the Rajya Sabha. And he who holds the purse, holds the power. Likewise, the Council of Ministers can be removed from office by the Lok Sabha only. The Lok Sabha is thus the King- maker. It was the intention of the makers of the costitution to make the Lok Sabha more powerful than the Rajya Sabha because it is in accordance with the theory and practice of Parliamentary system of Government.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 2.
Discuss the powers and functions of Indian Parliament.
Or
Discuss financial and judicial functions of Parliament.
Answer:
The Indian Parliament has been given several types of powers. The powers of Parliament include law-making or legislation, financial, executive and judicial powers.
1. Legislative Powers:
The Parliament has the right to frame laws for the whole of the country. It can frame laws on the subjects mentioned in the Union list and concurrent list. Under certain special circumstances the Parliament gets the right to frame laws on the subjects mentioned in the State list. The Parliament frames laws on State subjects for union territories. The Rajya Sabha can transfer a State subject in favour of the centre for the purpose of making laws.

In case of the proclamation of emergency by the President, the Parliament can legislate on State subjects. The Residuary powers are under the control of the central government and so Parliament frames laws on all the residuary subjects. The bill is sent to the President after it is passed by both the Houses. Excepting the money bills he can give his assent and make use of his veto powers. If the Parliament passes that bill for second time then the President is bound to give his assent to that bill.

2. Financial Powers:
The Parliament controls the finances of the State. The government places the budget before the start of the financial year. The Parliament discusses the budget and gives its assent to the bill. The government can neither impose any tax upon the public nor can it spend the money without the approval of the Parliament. The President will have to give his assent to the money bill passed by the Parliament.

3. Control over the Executive:
The Parliament controls the Executive in the following ways:
(i) The Prime Minister and the other ministers are taken from the Parliament and after becoming ministers, they remain the members of the Parliament. They participate in the meetings of the Parliament.

(ii) The ministers are responsible to the Parliament for their actions and policies.

(iii) The members of the Parliament can ask the ministers questions regarding the functioning of the administration. The ministers are to give a satisfactory reply to all these questions.

(iv) The members of the Parliament by introducing ‘Adjournment Motion’ can invite the attention of the government to a serious problem or event.

(v) During discusion on budget the members of the Parliament discuss the working of different departments of the government and criticise the policies of the government.

(vi) The Cabinet continues to remain in office according to the wishes of the Lok Sabha. It can seek the removal of the Cabinet by passing a no-confidence motion against or by rejecting an important government bill or by passing a resolution for reducing the salary of a particular minister.

4. Judicial Powers:
The Parliament exercises some judicial powers also:

  • The Parliament can remove the President from office through impeachment.
  • The Parliament can also remove the Vice-President from office.
  • The Parliament can remove the judges of the High Court and Supreme Court by passing a resolution to that effect.

5. Electoral Powers:

  • The elected members of the parliament participate in the election of the President.
  • The Vice President is elected by the members of both the Houses of the Parliament.

6. Amendment of the Constitution:
It is the Parliament which can initiate a resolution for the amendment of the Constitution. Some provisions of the Constitution can be amended only by the Parliament. In some important matters the amendment proposals after being passed by the Parliament are to be sent for the approval of legislatures of the States. The States cannot introduce a resolution of amendment of the Constitution.

Position of the Parliament:
The Indian Parliament enjoys vast powers and it is a very important insitution. It represents the entire nation. The Laws framed by it are enforced in the whole of the State. But the Indian Parliament is not a supreme and sovereign body.The Indian Parliament is less powerful than the British Parliament. The sovereignty of the British Parliament is a well known fact.

The British Parliament can make, repeal, amend and abolish, any law it likes. But the Indian Parliament cannot make all the laws it likes. The reason for this is that in England there is unitary type of government and all powers are with the Centre, but in Indian there is a federal type of government and the powers have been distributed between ttie Centre and the States. Indian Parliament cannot be called a Supreme and sovereign body due to reasons given ahead:

  1. The powers in India are distributed between the Centre and the State and the Parliament cannot frame laws on the subjects mentioned in the State list during peace time.
  2. The Parliament cannot make any law which violates the fundamental rights of the people?
  3. The Parliament cannot amend the Constitution independently.
  4. The Constitution is considered the supreme law of the land. The Parliament can do nothing against it.
  5. The judiciary has the power of Judicial review over the laws framed by the Parliament. The Supreme Court of India can declare a law null and void if it is against the provisions of the Constitution.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 3.
Discuss the composition, functions and powers of Rajya Sabha in India.
Answer:
The legislative powers of the Union have been vested in the parliament. The Parliament consists of two Houses-the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha.
The members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected by the people. Hence, it is a national House or the popular House. The members of the Rajya Sabha are elected by the members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States. Hence its name is the Council of States.

Composition:
According to the constitution the maximum strength of the Rajya Sabha has been put at 250 members. Out of 250 members 12 members are nominated by the President. These members shall consist of persons having special knowledge of practical experience in literature, science, art and social service. The remaining 238 members represent the States and the Union Territories.

The representatives of the States are elected by the Elected members of their Legislative Assemblies in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote. The method of election is, accordingly, indirect. In the case of Union Territories members are chosen in such a manner as Parliament may by law determine.

Though the Indian Constitution establishes a federal polity, yet the federating units (State) have not been given equal representation in the Rajya Sabha, Representation of the States is on the basis of population. At present the Rajya Sabha has 245 mambers. Out of 245 members, 233 members represent the States and Union Territories and the remaining 12 members have been nominated by the president.

Term:
Like the Senate of the U.S.A.; the Rajya Sabha is a permanent House. It is not subject to dissolution. Members of the Rajya Sabha are elected for six years, one-third members retiring after every two years.

Qualifications for the members of the Rajya Sabha. A candidate for election to the Rajya Sabha must possess the following qualifications:

  1. He must be a citizen of India.
  2. He must have completed 30 years of age.
  3. He must be a parliamentary elector in the State from which he is seeking election and must have been residing in the state for the last six months.
  4. He must possess such other qualifications as parliament may by law prescribe.
  5. He must make and subscribe before some person authorised on that behalf by the Election Commission an oath or affirmation asserting his allegiance to the Constitution of India.

Disqualification for Membership:
A person is disqualified from being chosen a member of the Rajya Sabha if he holds any office of profit under the Government of India or any State Government, or if he is of unsound mind, or if he is an undischarged insolvent, or if he has ceased to be a citizen of India or has voluntarily acquired citizenship of a foreign State, or acknowledged allegiance to a foreign State, or if he is so disqualified under any law made by the Parliament.

A person cannot be a member of both the Houses simultaneously. Nor can he be a member of the Rajya Sabha and a State legislature at the same time. If he incurs any disqualification even after his election, he will have to vacate his seat.

Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sahha:
Like the Vice President of U.S.A., the Indian Vice-President is also the ex- officio Chairman of the Upper House. At present Sh. Venkaiah Naidu is the Chairman of Rajya Sabha. The Rajya Sabha elects a Deputy Chairman from among its own members and he presides in the absence of the Chairman or during the period when the Vice-President is discharging the function of the President. The Deputy Chairman is a member of the Rajya Sabha and he is to vacate the office if he ceases to be its member. On 9th August, 2018 Sh. Harivansh Narayan Singh, candidate of N.D.A. was elected as the Vice-Chairman of Rajya Sabha.

Quorum:
According to 42nd Amendment until parliament by law otherwise provides the quorum to constitute a meeting of either House of Parliamnet is one-tenth of the total number of members of the House. If at any time during a meeting of a House there is no quorum, it is the duty of the Chairman either to adjourn the House or to suspend the meeting until there is a quorum.

Powers And Functions Of The Rajya Sabha:
The Rajya Sabha performs a variety of functions. They may be discussed under the following heads:
1. Legislative Powers:
The Rajya Sabha is an integral part of the Indian Parliament. Since the main responsibility of the Parliament is to make laws, hence the Rajya Sabha takes part in the making of laws. Except Money Bills, all bills can originate in the Rajya Sabha. No Bill can become a law unless agreed to by both the Houses. The Lok Sabha by itself cannot pass a Bill and send it to the President for his assent.

In case of disagreement between the two Houses on a Bill or on the amendments made in the Bill, the President has been empowered to summon a joint meeting of the two Houses for the purpose of deliberating and voting on the Bill; At a joint sitting questions are decided by a majority of the members of both houses present and voting. A decision taken at a joint sitting shall mean the decision of both Houses. At the time of the joint sitting the Speaker of the Lok Sabha presides.

The President can also summon the joint sitting when a Bill passed by one House is not considered by the other House for six months. For the purpose of summoning the joint sitting it does not matter whether the Bill was introduced first in the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha.

2. Financial Powers:
In financial matters, it is the Lok Sabha which enjoys a pre-eminent position. The Rajya Sabha has not been given any susbstantial power with regard to finance. No Money Bill or Financial Bill can first be introduced in the Rajya Sabha. It is the privilege of the Lok Sabha to pass the Money Bill first and send it to the Rajya Sabha for its recommendation. It should be noted that the Bill is transmitted to the Rajya Sabha for its recommendation and not for its aproval. In America, the Money Bill must be approved by the Senate. It is not so in India.

The Rajya Sabha can make amendments in the Money Bill, it may even rejected the Money Bill. It has no effect on the Bill. The Lok Sabha is not bound to accept the recommendations made by the Rajya Sabha. In case the Lok Sabha rejects the recommendations of the Rajya Sabha, the Bill is deemed to have been pased by both Houses in the form in which it was passed by the Lok Sabha. Likewise if the Rajya Sabha does not return the Money Bill to the Lok Sabha within 14 days, it will be considered to have been passed by both Houses in the form in which it was passed by the Lok Sabha. Thus, the Lok Sabha possesses complete control over the purse of the nation.

3. Control over Executive:
The Rajya Sabha does not control Excecutive as the Constitution makes the Council of Ministers collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha. But this does not mean that the Rajya Sabha can exert no influence over the Executive. Some of the Ministers are taken from the Rajya Sabha. The members of the Rajya Sabha have the right to ask questions and supplementary questions from the Ministers. They can elicit information about the actions of Government and can move resolutions impressing on the Government the desirability of pursuing a particular line of policy.

As said, the Council of Ministers can be ousted from office by the Lok Sabha only. The Rajya Sabha can condemn the Government but it cannot kick the Government out of office.

4. Judicial Powers:
Like the Upper Houses in other countries, the Rajya Sabha has also been vested with some judicial functions. The President can be removed from office by the process of impeachment. A resolution to impeach the President may be moved in any House of Parliament. Such a resolution has to be pased by both the Houses separately by at least 2/3rd majority of the total membership of the house. Clearly, the Rajya Sabha enjoys co-equal powers with the Lok Sabha in the process of impeachment of the President.

In the removal of the Vice-Presidnet, a resolution to that effect can be moved in the Rajya Sabha only. But the Lok Sabha must agree with that resolution if the Vice-President is to be removed from the office. Likewise, it has identical powers with the Lok Sabha in the matter of removal of a judge of the Supreme Court or a High Court.

5. Constituent Powers:
The Rajya Sabha exercises constituent functions along with the Lok Sabha. A Bill to amend the Constitution may originate in either House of Parliament. And the Bill amending the Csonstitution is required to be pased in each House by a majority of its total membership and by a majority of two-third of its members present and voting. The Cosntitution is silent on how to resolve a dead-lock between the two . Houses.

6. Miscellaneous Powers:
The miscellaneous functions of the Rajya Sabha are:
(i) The elected members of the Rajya Sabha take part in the election of the President.

(ii) All the members (elected and nominated both) of the Rajya Sabha take part in the election of the Vice-President.

(iii) The reports of all the Commissions appointed by the President are considered both by the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha.

(iv) The approval of the Rajya Sabha is necessary for the continuance of the proclamation of emergency.

(v) Every order made by the president suspending the enformcement of Fundamental Rights is required to be laid before each House of Parliament.

(vi) Agreement of the Rajya Sabha is necessary if action is to be taken against the Chief Election Commissioner, Comptroller General and the members of the Union Public Service Commission.

(vii) In granting amnesty, the Rajya Sabha has equal power with the Lok Sabha. Special Powers of the Rajya Sabha. Under the constitution, the Rajya Sabha has been vested with two special and exclusive powers. They are:
1. Under Article 249 the Rayja Sabha may declare by resolution, passed by two-third majority of its members present and voting, that it is necessary or expedient in the national interest that Parliament should make laws with respect to any matter enumerated in the State List.

2. Under Article 312 of the Constitution, the Rajya Sabha is empowered to create one or more All-India Services, if the house passes a resolution by not less than two-thirds of the memebrs present and voting that it is neccessary or expedient in the national interest to do so.

Position of the Rajya Sahha:
After having an anylysis of the powers of the Rajya Sabha, it becomes clear that the makers of the Constitution intended it to be less powerful and influential than the Lok Sabha. In matters of ordinary legislation, it cannot prove to be an obstacle in the way of the Lok Sabha because of its half of strength of the Lok Sabha. At the most it can delay an oridnary bill for six months. It has absolutely no control over the purse of the nation.

Money Bills first originate in the Lok Sabha and then are transmitted to the Rajya Sabha for its recommendations. The Lok Sabha may not agree with the recommendations made by the Rajya Sabha. The Rajya Sabha can delay a Money Bill for 14 days only. There can be no joint sitting of the two Houses in case of disagreement on a Money Bill. Then the privilege to remove the Government from office belongs to the Lok Sabha only. The Rajya Sabha can denounce the Government but it cannot dislodge the Government. In certain repsects it is weaker than the House of Lords even. In the opinion of certain critics, the Rajya Sabha is only a Secondary Chamber.

All this, however, is not to suggest that the Rajya Sabha is only an appendage of the Lok Sabha. It is definitely more powerful than the British House of Lords and the Senate of Canada. While in certain matters it has co-equal powers with the Lok Sabha, in two cases it has exclusive powers as well. It has reacted very strongly whenever the Lok Sabha made an attack upon its privileges. In 1954, much excitement was caused in the Rajya Sabha by an alleged observation made in the Lok Sabha by N.C. Chatterjee that “The Upper House, which is suposed to be a body of elders, seems to be behaving irresponsibly like a pack of urchins.”

According to Morris Jones, “It has three outweighing merits, it supplies additional political positions for which there is demand, it provides some additonal debating opportunities for which there is occasional need and it assists in the solution of legislative limited problems.”

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 4.
Describe the composition and powers of the Lok Sabha. Is there any limitation to its authority?
Or
Discuss the Composition and Functions of Lok Sabha.
Answer:
Lok Sabha is the Lower House of Parliament. It is a popular House because it represents the nation at large. It is not only popular but a powerful House as well. It is the pivot of all political activities.

Composition:
Accroding to the 31st Amendment, the maximum strength of the Lok Sabha has been put at 547 members. But accroding to Goa, Daman and Diu Reorganisation Act 1987 maximum elected memebrs of the Lok Sabha can be 550. The President can appoint two Anglo-IndiAnswer: At present Lok Sabha consists of 543 members. 530 members are elected members from the States and the Union Territories and two are nominated by the President.

Election:
The members of the Lok Sabha are elected directly by the people. Every citizen of India of not less than 18 years has the right to vote provided, of course, he or she is not otherwise disqualified on grounds of unsoundness of mind, crime or corrupt or illegal practice. The voting is by secret ballot. Normally one member represents a population between 5 to 7 1/2 lakhs. As per Constitution, there shall be allotted to each State a number of seats in Lok Sabha in such a manner that the ratio between the population of the State as far as practicable, is same for all the Staes.

Each State shall be devided into territorial Constituencies in such a manner that the ratio between the population of each constituency and number of seats allotted to it, as far as practicable, is the same throughout the State. Though the system of separate communal electorate has been abolished yet the Constitution reserves certain seats for Scheduled Castes and Schedules Tribes. This reservation shall be vaild till 2020 because the term has been extended by amending the Constitution.

Term:
The life of the Lok Sabha is five years. All the members are chosen at one and at the same time. Unlike the election to the Rajya Sabha where l/3rd members retire every two years, all the members of the Lok Sabha are elected for a period of five years. However, the President can dissolve the Lok Sabha even before the expiry of its term, i.e. five years. On 26th April, 1999 the President dissolved the Lok Sabha on the advice of Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee. Thus the tenure of 12th Lok Sabha was 13 months only.

Qualification:
To be qualified for election to the Lok Sabha, a person must possess the following qualifications:
1. He must be a citizen of India.

2. He must have completed 25 years of age.

3. He must not hold any office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State.

4. He must possess such other qualifications as may be prescribed by the Parliament.

5. No person can be a member of both Houses of Parliament. In case he becomes, he must vacate one of the two seats. Likewise, one person cannot be a member of a House of Parliament and of a State Lsegislature simultaneously.

6. A person shall be disqualified for being chosen as, and for being, a member of either House of Parliament if he is of unsound mind and stands so declared by a competent court: if he is an undischarged insolvent; if he is not a citizen of India or has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of a foreign State or is under an acknowledgement of allegiance or adherence to a foreign State or if he is so disqualified by or under any law made by Parliament.

Quorum:
For a meeting of the Lok Sabha the presence of at least 1/lQth of its total members is essential. If at any time during meeting of a House there is no quorum, it is the duty of the Chairman either to adjourn the House or to suspend the meeting until there is a quorum.

Speaker:
The speaker is the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha. He is elected by the members of the Lok Sabha from among themselves. The Speaker presides over the meetings of the House; maintains order in the House and conducts the business of the House in accordance with the Rules of the House. The Constitution also provides for the office of the Deputy Speaker. He too is the member of the House and is elected by the members of the Lok Sabha from among themselves. The Deputy Speaker performs the duties of the speaker when the latter is absent or while the office of the Speaker is vacant.

Privileges:
Members of the Lok Sabha enjoy certain privileges:

  • Members have full freedom of speech in the House. No case can be started against a member for a speech given in the House.
  • Members cannot be arrested in any civil suit before 40 days of the beginning of the session.
  • During the session, members can be arrested in criminal cases only but information must be given to the speaker.
  • Members get a monthly salary and many other allowances.

Powers Of The Lok Sabha:
1. Legislative Powers:
Any type of bill can be introduced in the Lok Sabha. Laws in it, can be framed on any subject given on the Union list and the concurrent list. The Rajya Sabha can transfer any subject on the State List by passing a resolution in favour of the Centre and Lok Sabha can pass a law on the subject. Rajya Sabha can transfer a subject only in case of national importance. After the bill is passed by the Lok Sabha, it is sent to the Rajya Sabha and it can delay the bill at the most for 6 months.

If the Rajya Sabha rejects the bill or does not take any action over it for a period of six months, a joint session of the two Houses of the Parliament is called and the majority vote decides the bill. As the number of the members of the Lok Sabha is larger than that of the Rajya Sabha, so the Lok Sabha can get the bills passed according to its own wishes.

2. Financial Powers:
The Lok Sabha controls the finances of the State. A money bill can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha and not in the Rajya Sabha. If there is a difference of opinion whether a particular bill is a money bill or a non-money bill, the decision of the speaker of the Lok Sabha will be final. After a money bill is passed by the Lok Sabha, it is sent to the Rajya Sabha. The Rajya Sabha can delay the passage of a money bill at the most for 14 days. The Rajya Sabha may reject the bill or may not take any action over the bill for a period of 14 days, in both these conditions the bill will be considered as passed. It will be sent to the President and he gives his assent to the bill. The President cannot use his veto power in case of money bill.

3. Control over the executive:
It is the Lok Sabha which controls the executive. The leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha is the Prime Minister of the country. Most of the ministers are also taken from the Lok Sabha. The Cabinet is responsible to the Lok Sabha for all its actions and policies. The members of the Lok Sabha ask the ministers questions and supplementary questions and they are to answer these questions. The members of the Lok Sabha can criticise the functiuoning of the Cabinet. If the Lok Sabha passes a vote of no-confidence against the Cabinet, the Cabinet will have to resign. The Cabinet remains in office so long as it is supported by the majority of the members of the House.

4. Judicial Powers:
The Lok Sabha can start impeachment proceedings against the President of India. It investigates into the charges levelled against the Vice-President and gives its decision. It along with the Rajya Sabha passes a resolution for the removal of the judges from the High Court or the Supreme Court.

5. Electoral Functions:
The Lok Sabha participates in the election of the President. It has also the right to participate in the election of the Vice-President. The Lok Sabha elects a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker from amongst its members.

6. Amendment in the Constitution:
The resolution for amending the Constitution can be introduced in the Lok Sabha. In this field it enjoys equal powers with the Rajya Sabha.

Position Of The Lok Sabha:
Lok Sabha is the lower Chamber of the Parliament. Almost all its members are elected by the people. This Chamber is more important than the Rajya Sabha because it represents the nation. The Lok Sabha controls the ordinary and the money bills. No bill can be passed against the wishes of the Lok Sabha. The Lok Sabha has also control over the Cabinet. The Lok Sabha can remove the Cabinet by passing a vote of no-confidence’ or by rejecting the budget. The Lok Sabha is the most powerful, influential and an important part of the Parliament. In fact it is the Lok Sabha which exercises all the powers of the Parliament.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 5.
Discuss the election, powers and functions of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
Or
Discuss the functions of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
Or
Write a short note on the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
Answer:
The Lok Sabha is presided over by the Speaker who is elected by the House from among its own members. The Speaker’s office is one of much dignity, honor and power. He enjoys supreme authority on the floor of the House. In order of precedence of the state, he ranks seventh and enjoys a status equal to that of the Chief Justice of India. In the absence of the Speaker or when the office of the Speaker is vacant the Deputy Speaker discharges the functions of the Speaker.

Election:
The Speaker of the Lok Sabha is elected by the members of the Lok Sabha. The Speaker must necessarily be a member of the Lok Sabha. The primary function of the newly-elected Lok Sabha is to elect a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker. The Speaker is elected by a simple majority which in reality means, by the party in power. But in practice Prime Minister, after consultations with the leaders of the opposition parties, decides a name for speakership.

Generally the speaker is taken from the ruling party while deputy speaker is taken from the opposition parties. On 22nd Oct, 1999, Mr. Ganti Mohan Chandra Balayogi of the Telugu Desam party backed by BJP and its allies was elected the speaker of Lok Sabha unanimously. On 19th June 2019. Sh. Om Birla, a senior leader of B.J.P. was elected the speaker of Lok Sabha unanimously.

Term of Office:
Normally, the Speaker is elected for a period of five years. However, he continues in office until a new Speaker is elected by the new House. The Speaker does not vacate his office even when the House is dissolved. The Speaker has to vacate his office if he ceases to be a member of the House. He can be elected to this office for the second time also. The Speaker can resign his office at any time. He can also be removed from his office by a resolution passed by a majority of all members on the roll of the Lok Sabha.

Fourteen days’ notice for moving such a resolution is required to be given. The Speaker cannot preside over a meeting of the House when the House is considering the resolution of his removal. He has, however, the right to sit in the House and defend himself. He has the right to vote also.

Salary and Allowances:
The salary and allowances of the Speaker are determined by the Parliament, and these are charged on the Consolidated Fund of India. These cannot be varied to his disadvantage during his term of office.

Powers and Functions of the Speaker:
The Speaker performs various functions and enjoys wide powers drawn partly from the Constitution and partly from the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Parliament, 1950: Following are the functions of the Speaker:

1. In consultation with the Leader of the House, he determines the order of business and the time to be allotted to the debates on the address of the President. He also prescribes the form in which amendments may be moved-to the motion of thanks to the address of the President.

2. He allows members to ask questions. He has also the power to disallow questions in case they are not in conformity with the Rules of the House.

3. Adjournment motions are moved with his consent. He also prescribes the time-limit for speeches on the motion.

4. The Speaker may allow the publication of a Bill in the Gazette of India upon a request from a member initiating the Bill even before the motion for leave to introduce the Bill has been made. In such a case it does not remain necessary to ask for leave of the House to introduce the Bill.

5. His consent is necessary for a motion to adjourn the debate on a bill.

6. He appoints the Chairman of the Select Committees. He himself is ex-officer Chairman of some vital Committees, such as Rules Committee, the Business Advisory Committee and the General Purpose Committee.

7. He allots time for the discussion on Budget.

8. He is the channel of communication between the President and the Parliament.

9. He decides about the admissibility of a motion in the House.

10. No member can address the House without his permission. He is also to see that no member makes an irrelevant speech and thereby wastes the time of the House.

11. All members have to address the chair, they cannot address each other.

12. If any member raises any point of order, it is for the Speaker to give his own ruling and his ruling is final and binding on all. No member can challenge his ruling.

13. He preserves order in the House. If the situation goes out of control he can adjourn or suspend the meeting of the House.

14. In case he finds the conduct of a member disorderly, he can order him to leave the House.

15. If a member disregards his authority in spite of warning, he can name him for suspension. In case a member does not leave the
House on the order of the Speaker, the Speaker can ask the Watch and Ward Staff to lift him bodily and remove him from the House.

16. He exercises control over the Visitors Gallery. It is he who regulates the admission of outsiders into the House. He can ask them to leave the House.

17. He puts questions to vote and announces the results.

18. He can order the expunging of a word or words used in debate from the proceedings of the House.

19. The Speaker conducts the business of the House. However, he cannot preside over the meeting of the House when the House is considering the resolution of the removal of the Speaker from office. But he has the right to sit, take part in the proceedings and defend himself. He has the right to vote also but he has no casting vote then.

20. Business of the Lok Sabha is valid only when the quorum of the House is complete. It is for the Speaker to see whether quorum is complete or not. If he finds that there is no quorum, he can suspend the business of the House till the required quorum is complete.

21. The Speaker is the guardian of the privileges of the members of Lok Sabha. He can insist that action must be taken against any one guilty of violating the privileges of the members of the House.

22. The Speaker is the custodian of the dignity of the House.

23. Before sending a Bill to Rajya Sabha or the President, he signs the Bill as a token of having been passed by the Lok Sabha.

24. It is for the Speaker to certify whether a particular Bill is a money-bill or not and his certificate is final on the point.

25. The Speaker has no right to vote in the first instance but he has the right to vote in case of a tie.

26. When the Speaker rises, others must sit down and must not leave when he addresses the House.

27. In case of a joint meeting of both the Houses on a disputed Bill, the Speaker of the Lok Sabha presides.

28. The Speaker represents the House and not the Government. For him the humblest back-bencher is no less than a Member and the greatest Minister is no more than a Member. He protects the members from the high-handedness of the Government. The Speaker can pull the Ministers up whenever answers given by them are not clear, adequate or deliberately postponed for no valid reason.

29. The Speaker also performs some important administrative functions. The Secretariat Staff of the Lok Sabha works directly under him.

Position of the Speaker:
The office of the Speaker is one of honour, dignity and authority. He presides over a House which is the pivot of all political activity. He symbolises the House and his authority. In the words of G. V. Mavlankar, “He is supreme in the House.” According to former Speaker Shri Hukam Singh, “Speaker is one of the highest offices in the land.” Shri L. K. Advani said in March 1977 that the Speaker or Chairman is an institution by himself.

In the Order of Precedence he is placed seventh and is bracketed with the Chief Justice of India. He interprets the Rules of the House and his ruling is final. Till today, the office of the Speaker has been occupied by very capable and illustrious personalities. They have enhanced the prestige of the Office. Shri G. V. Mavlankar was the first Speaker of the Lok Sabha.

According to late Pandit Nehru, “The Speaker represents the House, the freedom of the House, and because the House represents the nation, in a particular way, the Speaker becomes the symbol of the nation’s freedom and liberty. Therefore, it is right that his should be an honoured positon; a free position and should be occupied always by men of outstanding ability and impartiality.”

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 6.
What are the different stages through which the budget passes? Discuss.
Or
Discuss the financial procedure allowed in the Indian Parliament.
Answer:
The Budget is known as the Annual Financial Statement. The Constitution provides that the President shall, in respect of every financial year, cause to be laid before both the Houses of Parliament a statement of the estimated receipts and expenditures of the Government of India for that year. “The President gets the Budget presented through the Finance Minister. The Budget shows the estimated receipts and expenditure for the ensuing year and is, thus the most important financial document.

In India the Budget is presented to the Parliament in two parts ; the Railway Budget and the General Budget. The Railway Budget deals exclusively with the income and expenditure relating to Railways. It is presented to Parliament by the Minister for Railways. The General Budget deals with the estimate of revenues and expenditure relating to all other Union Ministers and is presented by the Finance Minister. The two Budgets, however, are similar in form and are passed in the same manner.

The General Budget consists of the two parts-one of dealing with the expenditure and the other with the income side of the Union finances. The expenditure embodied in this Budget is divided into two parts:

  • Expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India and
  • Other Expenditure. The expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India is non-volatile. Either House of Parliament can discuss it but not vote on it.

The other expenditure is submitted in the form of demand for grants to the Lok Sabha. The Lok Sabha may assent or refuse to assent any demand or suggest reduction of the amount specified therein. It is voteable. The Lok Sabha cannot, however, suggest increase in the demand for grants. It is so because no demand for grant can be made except on the recommendation of the President.

Stages in Financial Legislation:
The Budget is presented to the Lok Sabha with the Budget Speech of the Finance Minister. The Budget Speech is one of the most important speeches made in Parliament. In his speech, the Finance Minister sums up the general positon of the country and outlines the economic and fiscal policy of the Government for the ensuing year.

Like ordinary bills, the Budget has also to pass through five stages. They are
1. introduction or presentation,
2. general discussion,
3. voting of demands,
4. consideration and passing of the Appropriation Bill and
5. consideraton and passing of the taxation proposals embodied in the Finance Bill.

1. Introduction of Budget in the Parliament:
It is the constitutional duty of the President to get the Budget prepared and cause to be laid before Parliament. The Budget is presented to the Lok Sabha by the Finance Minister with a speech known as the Budget Speech. The Budget Speech is a survey of the financial position of the country and the economic policy of the Government for the ensuing year. The copies of the Budget, thereafter, are printed and circulated amongst members. The Budget contains the estimates of receipt and expenditure. There can be no discussion on the Budget the day it is presented.

2. General Discussion on the Budget:
After the presentation of the Budget, its printed copies are circulated among members. Generally after three days a general discussion on the Budget is held. The general debate on the Budget is spread over three or four days. It is customary that the leaders of the Opposition initiate the discussion.

But at this stage the Houses discuss the Budget as a whole and any question of principle involved in it. No discussion of details is in order and no cut motions are allowed at this stage This stage also provides an opportunity for the discussion of the non-votage expenditure” charged on the Consolidated Fund of India.”

The debate offers an occasion for a general service of the administration and for ventilation of grievances. In the words of Morris-Jones: “It is an occasion on which each House is able to express its mood and the Government may learn how a particular proposal will be received in the subsequent stage.” This stage is, thus, an expression of the mood of the House. No vote is taken at this stage.

3. Voting of DemandL:
After the completion of general discussion on the Budget, the way is clear for the business of voting the grants. The voting of demands or grants is the exclusive privilege of the Lok Sabha. The Rajya Sabha has no share in it. The ‘demands’ are related to the ‘expenditure’ part of the Budget. They are in the nature of requests made by the Executive to the Lok Sabha for grant of outhority to spend the amounts asked for in order to run the administration.

Lok Sabha has the following powers in respect of each demand:

  • to assent to the i demand; or
  • to refuse it; or
  • to reduce it.

The Lok Sabha has no power to increase a demand because no demand for grant can be moved except on the i recommendation of the President.

4. Appropriation Bill:
When all demands for grants have been voted by the Lok Sabha, they are put together and along with charges of the Consolidated fund,
incorporated into what is known as the Appropriation Bill. The Appropriation bill is presented to the Lok Sabha and is passed in the same manner as any other Bill. The debate on the Bill is restricted to those points only which have not been discussed during the debates on estimates. No amendments to the grants as voted by the Lok Sabha previously or to the charges on the Consolidated Fund are followed. The allotment of time for the different stages of the Bill is determined by ! the Speaker. It does not take long for the Lok Sabha to pass the Appropriation Bin.

When the Appropriation Bill has been pssed by the Lok Sabha, it is certified by the Speaker as a Money Bill and is transmitted to the Rajya Sabha for its recommendations. It is open to the Lok Sabha to accept or reject the recommendation made by the Rajya Sabha. The Rajya Sabha has to return the ‘ Money Bill, with or without amendment, within 14 days of the receipt of the Bill.

In case the Lok Sabha does not agree with the recommendations of the Rajya Sabha or if the Rajya Sabha does not return the Bill within 14 days, it is deemed to have been passed by both the Houses in the form in which it was passed by the Lok Sabha. It is then sent to the President for his assent. The President must give his assent to the Money Bill. He can neither withhold his assent nor can he send the Bill back for reconsideration. The Appropriation Act authorises the Government to spend money as authorised in the Act. Without such an authority the Government cannot incur an expenditure.

5. Finance Bill:
A Finance Bill is that which embodies all the taxation proposals of the Government for the ensuring year. While the Appropriation Act authorises the Government to spend money as authorised in the Act, the Finance Bill deals with the legislation which authorises the raising of Funds through taxation as embodied in the financial proposals of the year. The Finance Bill has to go through three readings and the procedure followed is that of a Money Bill. The discussion of the Finance pill in the second reading is confined to general principles.

It is only in the Select Committee that the Bill is considered in details and amendments are moved. Clause by clause consideration of the Bill follows after the presentation of the Committee Report. There is one important difference between the Report Stage of Finance Bill and that of the Appropriation Bill. In the case of Appropriation Bill, no amendments can be moved. In that of the Finance Bill amendments seeking to reject or reduce a tax can be moved. Sometimes the Cabinet voluntarily agrees with the opposition in the reduction of a tax. But if a cut motion is carried against the opposition of the Government, it means a lack of confidence in the Government. In that case the Government has to resign.

As soon as the Finance Bill is passed by the Lok Sabha, it is certified by the Speaker as Money Bill and is sent to the Rajya Sabha for its recommendations. The Rajya Sabha has to return the Finance Bill, with or without recommendations within 14 days. The Lok Sabha may or may not agree with the recommendations made by the Rajya Sabha. After the expiry of 14 days the Finance Bill is sent to the President for his assent. He cannot refuse his assent.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 7.
How does a bill become an Act in the Indian Parliament?
Or
Describe the various stages through which the budget passes. Discuss.
Answer:
What is a Bill? The Parliament frames laws for the country. Any member of the House can introduce a resolution for the purpose of making a law. That resolution is to be introduced in the House in a special form and the resolution which is placed before the House in a special form is called a bill. Hence, the resolutions which are introduced in the Parliament for the purpose of making laws or changing old laws or amending the Constitution are called bills. The bill is passed by both the Houses and then it is sent to the President for his assent, and then it becomes a law. But before the Bill becomes a law, it is to pass through so many stages.

Kinds of Bill:
The Constitution divides Bills into two categories i.e., Money Bills and Non- Money Bills. The bills which are introduced in the Parliament by the ministers are called government bills. The bills which are introduced in the House by ordinary members of the House are called Private Members’ bills. Government bills are of two types, money bills and ordinary bills. A money bill is concerned with the imposition of taxes and the expenditure of amount thus collected.

The bill is to pass through so many stages before it becomes a law. The bill is discussed and debated thoroughly in these stages. These stages are mentioned as follows:
1. Introduction of the Bill:
An ordinary bill can be introduced in any House and by any member of the House. But a member can introduce the bill in the same House of which he is a member. The mover of the bill is to give a notice to this effect a month earlier. The admission of the notice brings a particular bill in the agenda or ‘the order of the day’.

There is no need for the ministers to give a month’s notice for the purpose. The agenda of the House or the programme of the House is prepared by the Cabinet and they can fix the date of the introduction of their bills. Money Bills can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha and not in the Rajya Sabha. Money Bills can only be introduced by the ministers and not by the ordinary members of the House.

On the fixed date the mover of the bills seeks the permission of the House for moving the bill and it is very much a formality. On getting the permission of the House he only reads the title of the bill. After this he gives a copy of the bill to the clerk of the House. It is called the introduction of the bill. The bill is sent to the Gazette of India for publication and its copies are distributed among the members of the House. The government bills can be published in the Government Gazette even without introducing them in the House and this method has been generally adopted.

2. First Reading:
After the introduction there is a first reading of the bill. Sometimes there is a first reading of the bill just after the introductory stage. Sometimes another date is fixed for the first reading of the bill. On the fixed date the mover of the bill stands up at his place and requests that the bill should be read for the first time. On getting permission of the House he explains the main principles and objectes of the bill.

After this other members of the House express their opinions in favour of and against the bill. The bill at this stage is not debated and discussed in detail, only the objects and the main principles involved are discussed. Then the mover of the bill puts a resolution that the bill be sent to a Select Committee. Three decisions can be taken on such a resolution:

  • The bill should be sent to a Select Committee for giving its report on the bill.
  • The bill should be sent to the press and states for propaganda and public opinion should be elicited. The people send their views in favour or against the bill to the Parliament.
  • If the majority is opposed to the bill, it is dropped. Most of the bills of private members are rejected at this stage, if they are not supported by the Cabinet.

3. Select Committee:
If the bill is not rejected in the first reading, it is sent to a Select Committee. The committee consists of 20 to 30 members which are taken from among members of the House. The bill which is published for eliciting public opinion is also sent to the Select Committee. The members of the Select Committee discuss the bill in detail and debate the merits and demerits of the bill. The Committee can suggest amendments in the provisions of clauses of the bill.

After discussing the bill thoroughly the committee prepares its report in favour of or against the bill or suggests some amendments in the bill. While preparing the report the committee takes into consideration public opinion also. Then the committee sends its report to the House.

4. Second Reading:
A day is fixed for discussing the report of the Select Committee on the bill. The mover of the bill on the fixed date requests the House that the report of the Select Committee on the bill may be discussed. The House discusses the bill in detail. The bill is discussed clause by clause and item by item. The views of the Select Committee on all clauses are discussed. The members of the Houses can suggest amendments in the bill. After the bill is seriously discussed the opinion of the House is sought on each clause and amendment proposals are also put to vote. The bill is passed according to the viewpoint of the majority of the members. This stage is very important in the passage of the bill.

5. Third Reading:
After the bill is passed in the second reading, another date is fixed for the third reading of the bill. This is the last stage in the passage of the bill. Like the first stage there is not much of discussion on the bill at this stage also. There is a little chance of the rejection of the bill at this stage. At this stage the proposals for amending the bill cannot be moved. Only proposals for change in the working of the bill can be given. The entire bill is put to vote at this stage and it is either rejected or passed.

Bill in the Second House:
After the bill is passed by one House, it is sent to the second House. It is to pass through all the stages in this House. After the ordinary bill is passed by both the Houses it is sent to the President for his assent. If the two houses differ over a particular bill, a joint meeting of the two Houses is called for and the bill is placed before it. The joint meeting of the two Houses decides the fate of the bill by a majority vote. As the Lok Sabha is a larger body compared with the Rajya Sabha, hence the bill is passed according to the wishes of the Lok Sabha.

The Rajya Sabha can delay the passage of a money bill at the most for 14 days. If the Rajya Sabha rejects the money bill or does not take any action for 14 days, under both these conditions the money bill is considered passed.

Assent of the President. After the bill is passed by both the Houses, it is sent to the President for his assent. The President cannot refuse to give his assent to the money bill. In case of ordinary bill the President can make use of his veto power, that means that the President can refuse to give his assent to the ordinary bills.

However, the President may return a Bill to the Parliament. If the Parliament passes such a bill again, the President cannot withhold his assent to such a bill. The bill becomes an Act when the President gives his assent to it. It can be enforced after the President’s assent has been taken. It is published in the Government Gazette.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain in brief the composition of the Union Legislature or Parliament.
Answer:
The Union Legislature or the Parliament of India is a bi-cameral legislature. According to Article 79 of the Constitution, there shall be Parliament for the Union which shall consist of President and two houses respectively, known as the Council of the States and the House of the People. Council of the States or the Rajya Sabha is the Upper House of the Parliament.

It can have at the most 250 members in it. This is a permanent house. 1/3 of its members retire after every two years. Lok Sabha is the lower house of the Parliament. It can have at the most 550 elected members. The members of the Lok Sabha are elected for 5 years. The President of India can dissolve the Lok Sabha on the advice of Council of Ministers before the expiry of its term.

Question 2.
Discuss any four features of Indian Parliament.
Answer:

  • Indian Parliament is Bi-cameral.
  • Upper House of the Parliament is permanent.
  • Lower house of the Parliament can be dissolved before its expiry term.
  • The membership of both the houses is not equal.

Question 3.
What are the main functions and powers of Parliament?
Answer:
Following are the main functions and powers of the Parliament-

  • The Parliament has the power to enact laws for the whole of the country.
  • The Parliament controls the Cabinet and Cabinet is responsible to the parliament.
  • The Parliament controls the finance of the State and it passes the budget.
  • The Parliament formulates national and foreign policies of the country.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 4.
Explain the executive powers of the Parliament.
Or
How does Indian Parliament control the executive?
Answer:
The Parliament controls the executive in the following ways:
1. The Prime Minister and the other ministers are taken from the Parliament and after becoming ministers, they remain the members of the Parliament. They participate in the meetings of the Parliament.

2. The ministers are responsible to the Parliament for their actions and policies.

3. The members of the Parliament can ask the ministers questions regarding the functioning of the administration. The ministers are to give satisfactory replies to all these questions.

4. The members of the Parliament by introducing ‘Adjournment Motion’ can invite the attention of the government ti!> a serious problem or event.

5. During discussion on budget the members of the Parliament discuss the working of different departments of the government and criticize the policies of the government.

6. The Cabinet continues to remain in office according to the wishes of the Lok Sabha. It can seek the removal of the Cabinet by passing a no-confidence motion against it or by rejecting an important government bill or by passing a resolution for reducing the salary of a particular minister. The bill is sent to a small committee which discusses the bill in detail and then sends it with amendments, if any. In second reading, there is clause by clause discussion. Then the bill is put to vote. After the bill is passed it is sent to the other House. The bill passes through similar stages in the other House and is then sent to the president for his assent. After his signature the bill becomes an Act.

Question 5.
Discuss the legislative powers of the Parliament.
Answer:
The Parliament has the right to frame laws for the whole of the country. It can frame laws on the subjects mentioned in the Union List and Concurrent List. Under certain special circumstances the Parliament gets the right to frame laws on the subjects mentioned in the State List.

The Parliament frames laws on State subjects for Union Territories. The Rajya Sabha can transfer a State subject in favor of the Centre for the purpose of making laws. In case of the proclamation of emergency by the President, the Parliament can legislate on State subjects. The Residuary powers are under the control of the Central Government and so Parliament frames laws on all the residuary subjects.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 6.
Discuss in brief the judicial powers of the Parliament.
Answer:
Following are the judicial powers of the Parliament:

  • The Parliament can remove the President from office through impeachment.
  • The Parliament can also remove the Vice-President from office.
  • The Parliament can remove the judges of the High Courts and the Supreme Court by passing a resolution to that effect.

Question 7.
What are the qualifications to become a member of the Parliament?
Answer:

  • He must be a citizen of India.
  • He must have completed the age of 25 years in case of Lok Sabha and 30 years in case of Rajya Sabha.
  • He must not hold any office of profit.
  • He must possess qualifications laid down by the Parliament of India.
  • He must not be of unsound mind and should not have been declared disqualified by a competent court.

Question 8.
Write the composition of the Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
According to the constitution the maximum strength of the Rajya Sabha has been put at 250 members. Out of 250 members, 12 members are nominated by the President. These members shall consist of persons having special knowledge or practical experience in literature, science, art and social service.

The remaining 238 members represent the States and the Union Territories. The representatives of the States are elected by the elected members of their Legislative Assemblies in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote.

At present the Rajya Sabha has 245 members. Out of 245 members, 233 members represent the states and Union Territories and the remaining 12 members have been nominated by the President.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 9.
What are the qualifications of a member of the Rajya Sabha?
Answer:

  • He must be a citizen of India.
  • He must have completed 30 years of age.
  • He must possess such other qualifications as prescribed by the Parliament.
  • He must be a parliamentary elector in the state from which he is seeking election and must have been residing in the state for the last six months.
  • He should not hold any office of profit under the government of India or any State government.

Question 10.
Mention the powers of the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
The Indian Vice-President is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. As Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, he performs the following functions:

  • He presides over the meetings of the Rajya Sabha.
  • He preserves order in the House. If the situation goes out of control he can adjourn or suspend the meeting of the Rajya Sabha.
  • He allows the members to speak.
  • As he is not a member of the Rajya Sabha, he is not allowed to vote, but in case of equality of votes he has a casting vote.

Question 11.
Describe the legislative powers of the Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
The Rajya Sabha is an integral part of the Indian Parliament. Since the main responsibility of the Parliament is to make laws, hence the Rajya Sabha takes part in the making of laws. Except Money Bills, all bills can originate in the Rajya Sabha. No Bill can become a law unless agreed to by both the Houses.

In case of disagreement between the two Houses on a Bill or on the amendments made in the Bill, the President has been empowered to summon a joint meeting of the two Houses for the purpose of deliberating and voting on the Bill. At a joint sitting, questions are decided by a majority of the members of both houses present and voting. A decision taken at the joint sitting shall mean the decision of both Houses.

Question 12.
Explain in brief the financial powers of the Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
In financial matters, it is the Lok Sabha which enjoys a pre-eminent position. No Money Bill can first be introduced in the Rajya Sabha. It is the privilege of the Lok Sabha to pass the Money Bill first and send it to the Rajya Sabha. The Lok Sabha is not bound to accept the recommendations made by the Rajya Sabha. In case the Lok Sabha rejects the recommendations of the Rajya Sabha, the Bill is deemed to have been passed by both Houses in the form in which it was passed by the Lok Sabha.

Likewise, if the Rajya Sabha does not return the Money Bill to the Lok Sabha within 14 days, it will be considered to have been passed by both Houses in the form in which it was passed by the Lok Sabha. Thus, the Lok Sabha possesses complete control over the purse of the nation.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 13.
Write down the judicial powers of the Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
The Rajya Sabha enjoys co-equal powers with the Lok Sabha in the process of impeachment of the President. In the removal of the Vice-President, a resolution to that effects can be moved in the Rajya Sabha only. But the Lok Sabha must agree with that resolution if the Vice-President is to be removed from the office. Likewise, it has itjentical powers with the Lok Sabha in the matter of removal of a judge of the Supreme Court or a High Court.

Question 14.
Describe the constitutional powers of the Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
The Rajya Sabha exercises constituent functions alongwith the Lok Sabha. A Bill to amend the Constitution may originate in either House of the parliament. And the Bill amending the Constitution is required to be passed in each House by a majority of its total membership and by a majority of two-thirds of its members present and voting. The Constitution is silent on how to resolve a dead-lock between the two Houses.

Question 15.
Mention special powers of the Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
Under the Constitution, the Rajya Sabha has been vested with special powers enumerated in the state list.
1. Under Article 249, the Rajya Sabha may declare by resolution, passed by two- thirds majority of its members present and voting, that it is necessary or expedient in the national interest that the Parliament should make laws with respect to any matter enumerated in the State List.

2. Under Article 312 of the Constitution, the Rajya Sabha is empowered to create one or more All-India Services, if the house passes a resolution by not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting that it is necessary or expedient in the national interest to do so.

3. Rajya Sabha alone can initiate the proposal for removing the Vice-President.

Question 16.
What are the previleges of the members of Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
The members of the Rajya Sabha enjoy following previleges:

  • The members of the Rajya Sabha enjoy unrestricted freedom to express their views on the floor of the house. No action can be taken against them for the expression of their views.
  • The members of the Rajya Sabha can’t be arrested for any civil offence during and 40 days before and after the session.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 17.
Describe the organisation of the Lok Sabha.
Answer:
According to the re-organisation of Goa, Daman and Diu Act of 1987 the maximum elected members of the Lok Sabha can’be 550. members. Two members of Anglo-Indian Community can be appointed by the President. At present Lok Sabha consists of 545 members.

Out of 545 members 543 are directly elected by the people. The members of Lok Sabha are elected by single member constituency. The whole country is divided into equal constituencies. Every citizen whose name is on the voter’s list can cast his vote. A candidate getting highest votes is declared elected.

Question 18.
Describe the qualifications to become a member of the Lok Sabha.
Answer:

  • He must be a citizen of India.
  • He must have completed 25 years of age.
  • He must not hold any office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State.
  • He must possess such other qualifications as may be prescribed by the Parliament.
  • No person can be a member of both Houses of Parliament. In case he becomes, he must vacate one of the two seats. Likewise, one person cannot be a member of a House of Parliament and of a State Legislature simultaneously.

Question 19.
How are the members of Lok Sabha elected?
Answer:
The members of the Lok Sabha are elected directly by the people. Every citizen of India of not less than 18 years has the right to vote provided, of course, he or she is not otherwise disqualified on grounds of unsoundness of mind, crime or corrupt or illegal practice. The voting is by secret ballot. Normally one member represents a population between 5 to 714 lakhs.

As per constitution, there shall be allotted to each State a number of seats in Lok Sabha in such a manner that the ratio between the population of the State as far as practicable, is same for all the States. Each State shall be divided into territorial constituencies in such a manner that the ratio between the population of each constituency and number of seats allotted to it, as far as practicable, is the same throughout the State.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 20.
Define in brief the tenure of the Lok Sabha.
Answer:
The life of the Lok Sabha is five years. All the members are chosen at one and at the same time. Unlike the election to the Rajya Sabha where 1/3 members retire every two years, all the members of the Lok Sabha are elected for a period of five years. However, the President can dissolve the Lok Sabha even before the expiry of its term i.e. five years.

Question 21.
Write in brief the privileges of the members of the Lok Sabha.
Answer:
Members of the Lok Sabha enjoy certain privileges:

  • Members have full freedom for speech in the House. No case can be started against a member for a speech given in the House.
  • Members cannot be arrested in any civil suit before 40 days of the beginning of the session.
  • During the session, a member can be arrested in criminal cases only but information must be given to the speaker.
  • Members get monthly salary and many other allowances.

Question 22.
Describe the legislative powers of the Lok Sabha.
Answer:
Any type of bill can be introduced in the Lok Sabha. Laws in it, can be -framed on any subject given on the Union list and the concurrent list. The Rajya Sabha can transfer any subject on the State List by passing a resolution in favour of the Centre and Lok Sabha can pass a law on the subject. Rajya Sabha can transfer a subject only in case of national importance.

After the bill is passed by the Lok Sabha, it is sent to the Rajya Sabha and it can delay the bill at the most for 6 months. If the Rajya Sabha rejects the bill or does not take any action over it for a period of six months, a joint session of the two, Houses of the Parliament is called and the majority vote decides the fate of the bill. As the number of the members of the Lok Sabha is larger than that of the Rajya Sabha, so the members of the Lok Sabha can get the bills passed according to its own wishes.

Question 23.
Discuss about the Financial powers of the Parliament.
Answer:
The Parliament controls the finances of the State. The goverenment places the budget before the start of the financial year. The Parliament discusses the budget and gives its assent to the bill. The government can neither impose any tax upon the public nor can it spend the money without the approval of the Parliament. The President will have to give his assent to the money bill passed by the Parliament.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 24.
Write down the executive powers of the Lok Sabha.
Or
How does Lok Sabha controls the Executive?
Answer:
It is the Lok Sabha which controls the executive. The leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabh is the Prime Minister of the country. Most of the ministers are also taken from the Lok Sabha. The Cabinet is responsible to the Lok Sabha for all its actions and policies.

The members of the Lok Sabha ask the ministers questions and supplementary questions and they are to answer these questions. The members of the Lok Sabha can criticize the functioning of the Cabinet. If the Lok Sabha passes a vote of no-confidence against the Cabinet, the Cabinet will have to resign. The Cabinet remains in office till it is supported by the majority of the members of the House.

Question 25.
Discuss the financial powers of the Lok Sabha.
Answer:
The Lok Sabha controls the finances of the state. As money bill can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha and not in the Rajya Sabha. If there is a difference of opinion whether a particular bill a money bill or a non-money bill, the decision of the speaker of the Lok Sabha will.be final.

After a money bill is passed by the Lok Sabha, it is sent to the Rajya Sabha. The Rajya Sabha can delay the passage of a money bill at the most for 14 days. The Rajya Sabha may reject the bill or may not take any action over the bill for a period of 14 days, in both these conditions the bill will be considered as passed. It will be sent to the President and he gives his assent to the bill. The President cannot use his veto power in case of money bill.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 26.
Who is the speaker?
Answer:
The speaker is the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha. He is elected by the members of the Lok Sabha from among themselves. The Speaker presides over the meetings of the House; maintains order in the House and conducts the business of the House in accordance with the Rules of the House. The Constitution also provides for the office of the Deputy

Speaker:
He too is the member of the House and is elected by the members of the Lok Sabha from among themselves. The Deputy Speaker performs the duties of the speaker when the latter is absent or while the office of the Speaker is vacant.

Question 27.
Who is the Chairman of Lok Sabha? List his four main functions.
Answer:
Chairman of Lok Sabha is popularly known as Speaker. He performs ahead functions:

  1. Preserve Order: He presides over the meetings of the House and preserves order in the House. If the situation goes out of control he can adjourn or suspend the meeting of the House.
  2. Money-Bill: He decides whether a bill is a money-bill.
  3. Guardian of Rights: He is the guardian of the privileges of the member of Lok Sabha.
  4. Joint Meetings: He presides over the joint meetings of both the Houses of Parliament.

Question 28.
How is the Lok Sabha more powerful than the Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
Lok Sabha is more powerful because

  1. The members of Lok Sabha are directly elected while the members of house of Rajya Sabha are indirectly elected.
  2. Money bill cannot be introduced in Rajya Sabha. It originates in the Lok Sabha only. It is sent for recommendation to Rajya Sabha and not for passing. If Rajya Sabha returns it after 14 days it is assumed as passed.
  3. Lok Sabha controls the executive whereas Rajya Sabha has no effective control over the executive.

Question 29.
Explain the relationship between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
Lok Sabha is a lower house while Rajya Sabha is a upper house of the Parliament. Both the houses do not enjoy equal powers. Lok Sabha is more powerful than the Rajya Sabha. Ordinary bills can originate in either House of Parliament. Rajya Sabha can delay an ordinary bill maximum for a period of six months. Money bill can originate in the Lok Sabha only. Rajya Sabha can delay the money bill for 14 days only.

In the matters of finance the powers of the Rajya Sabha are insignificant. Members of the Rajya Sabha can ask questions to the ministers and they can criticise the policies of the government but they are having no power to remove the Council of Ministers. The Lok Sabha can remove the Council of Ministers by passing a vote of no-confidence against the Council of Ministers. Thus Lok Sabha is having a real control over the government.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 30.
Narrate the circumstances under which a joint session of the Parliament is summoned. Who presides over this?
Answer:
The President summons the joint session of the Parliament on the following occasions:

  1. Joint session of the Parliament is summoned to resolve the conflict between the two Houses of the Parliament.
  2. Joint session is summoned when a bill is passed by one House and is rejected by the other. The speaker of the Lok Sabha presides over the joint session of the Parliament.

Question 31.
What is the difference between the election of Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
The members of Lok Sabha are elected directly by the people. Every citizen of India of not less than 18 years of age has the right to vote. From each territorial constituency one member is elected and the candidate getting the highest votes in the election is declared elected. The members of the Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members of the state Assemblies.

Question 32.
What is understood by Adjournment Motion?
Answer:
An adjournment motion is a proposal for postponing the normal business of the House in order to discuss a matter of urgent public importance such as a serious riot, a case of police firing on a procession or a grave railway accident and so on.

The real object of an adjournment motion is to bring to light the inefficiency or corruption of the administration and the mistakes of policy of which the government is considered to be guilty. Such a motion can be moved any time provided the presiding officer of the House is satisfied of its urgent public nature. When such a motion is moved, the House suspends its normal work.

Question 33.
What do you understand by Question Hour?
Answer:
Members of Parliament are free to ask questions to elicit information on matters of public concern from ministers of the government. The First hour of every sitting in both houses is devoted to asking and answering of questions. It is known as the ‘Question Hour’.

During this hour, matters concerning the Government of India are raised and problems are brought to the notice of the government to seek their intervention to meet any situation and to redress public grievances. ‘Question Hour’ forms the most interesting part of the Parliamentary procedure. The government is put on trial during this hour.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 34.
What do you understand by ‘Zero Hour’?
Answer:
The time immediately following the ‘Question Hour’ in both Houses has come to be populary known as ‘Zero Hour’. It is a Zero Hour in more than one sense. It is a non¬existent hour. If starts at 12 noon which is the zero hour of the day. It came to be called an Hour also because very often it continued for one full hour, until the House rose for lunch at 1 p.m. In the rules there is no mention of any Zero Hour at all. It is the press that gave the name Zero Hour, sometimes in the early sixties. In the eyes of Rules Book the so called Zero Hour is an irregular affair. But, as thing can, Zero Hour seems to have come to say.

Question 35.
What is money bill?
Answer:
A money bill is that which contains provisions dealing with all or any of the following matters:

  • the imposition, abolition, remission, alternation or regulation of any tax.
  • the regulation of the borrowing of money or creation on any financial obligation to be undertaken by the Government in India.
  • payment of money into or withdrawal of money from the consolidated Fund or the Contingency Fund of India.
    appropriation of money out of the Consolidated Fund of India.
  • the declaring of any expenditure to be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India of the amount of. any such expenditure.
  • receipt of money on account of the public account of India and the audit of accounts and incidental matter.

Question 36.
Describe the law-making procedure in the Parliament of India.
Answer:
The Parliament is the supreme body of making laws. Ordinary bills can be introduced in either House of Parliament. In the first reading, general principles involved in the bill are read. After first reading the bill is sent to small committee which discusses the bill in detail and then sends it with amendments if any. In second reading, there is clause by clause discussion. Then the bill is put to vote. After bill is passed it is sent to other House. The bill passes through similar stages in the other House and is then sent to the President for his assent. After his signature the bill becomes an act.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 37.
Write down the name of Speaker of Lok Sabha and Chairman and Vice-Chairman of Rajya Sabha.
Answer:

Name of Post Name of Person
1. Speaker of Lok Sabha Sh. Om Birla
2. Chairman of.Rajya Sabha Sh. Venkaiah Naidu
3. Vice-Chairman of Rajya Sabha Sh. Harivansh Narayan Singh

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain in brief the composition of the Union Legislature or Parliament.
Answer:
The Union Legislature or the Parliament of India is a bi-cameral legislature. Council of the States or the Rajya Sabha is the Upper House of the Parliament. It can have at the most 250 members in it. This is a permanent house. Lok Sabha is the lower house of the Parliament. It can have at the most 550 elected members. The members of the Lok Sabha are elected for 5 years. The President of India can dissolve the Lok Sabha on the advice of Council of Ministers before the expiry of its term.

Question 2.
Explain any two features of Indian Parliament.
Answer:

  • Indian Parliament is Bi-cameral.
  • Upper House of the Parliament is permanent.

Question 3.
What are the main functions and powers of Parliament?
Answer:
Following are the main functions and powers of the Parliament-

  • The Parliament has the power to enact laws for the whole of the country.
  • The Parliament controls the,Cabinet and Cabinet is responsible to the parliament.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 4.
How does Indian Parliament control the executive?
Answer:
The Parliament controls the executive in the following ways:

  • The Prime Minister and the other ministers are taken from the Parliament and after becoming ministers, they remain the members of the Parliament. They participate in the meetings of the Parliament.
  • The ministers are responsible to the Parliament for their actions and policies.

Question 5.
Explain the legislative powers of the Parliament.
Answer:
The Parliament has the right to frame laws for the whole of the country. It can frame laws on the subjects mentioned in the Union List and Concurrent List. Under certain special circumstances the Parliament gets the right to frame laws on the subjects mentioned in the State List. The Parliament frames laws on State subjects for Union Territories.

Question 6.
Discuss in brief the judicial powers of the Parliament.
Answer:
Following are the judicial powers of the Parliament:

  • The Parliament can remove the President from office through impeachment.
  • The Parliament can also remove the Vice-President from office.

Question 7.
What are the qualifications to become a member of the Parliament?
Answer:

  • He must be a citizen of India.
  • He must have completed the age of 25 years in case of Lok Sabha and 30 years in case of Rajya Sabha.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 8.
Write the composition of the Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
According to the constitution the maximum strength of the Rajya Sabha has been put at 250 members. Out of 250 members, 12 members are nominated by the President. The remaining 238 members represent the States and the Union Territories. At present the Rajya Sabha has 245 members. Out of 245 members, 233 members represent the states and Union Territories and the remaining 12 members have been nominated by the President.

Question 9.
What are the qualifications of a member of the Rajya Sabha?
Answer:

  • He must be a citizen of India.
  • He must have completed 30 years of age.

Question 10.
Discuss the powers of the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
The Indian Vice-President is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. As Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, he performs the following functions:

  • He presides over the meetings of the Rajya Sabha.
  • He preserves order in the House. If the situation goes out of control he can adjourn or suspend the meeting of the Rajya Sabha.

Question 11.
Mention special powers of the Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
Under the Constitution, the Rajya Sabha has been vested with special powers enumerated in the state list.
1. Under Article 249, the Rajya Sabha may declare by resolution, passed by two- thirds majority of its members present and voting, that it is necessary or expedient in the national interest that the Parliament should make laws with respect to any matter enumerated in the State List.

2. Rajya Sabha alone can initiate the proposal for removing the Vice-President.

Question 12.
Explain previleges of the members of Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
The members of the Rajya Sabha enjoy following previleges:

  1. The members of the Rajya Sabha enjoy unrestricted freedom to express their views on the floor of the house. No action can be taken against them for the expression of their views.
  2. The members of the Rajya Sabha can’t be arrested for any civil offence during and 40 days before and after the session.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 13.
Describe the organisation of the Lok Sabha.
Answer:
Elected members of the Lok Sabha can be 550 members. Two members of Anglo- Indian Community can be appointed by the President. At present Lok Sabha consists of 545 members. Out of 545 members 543 are directly elected by the people. The members of Lok Sabha are elected by single member constituency. A candidate getting highest votes is declared elected.

Question 14.
Describe the qualifications to become a member of the Lok Sabha.
Answer:

  • He must be a citizen of India
  • He must have completed 25 years of age.

Question 15.
What is the tenure of the Lok Sabha?
Answer:
The life of the Lok Sabha is five years. All the members are chosen at one and at the same time. Unlike the election to the Rajya Sabha where 1/3 members retire every two years, all the members of the Lok Sabha are elected for a period of five years. However, the President can dissolve the Lok Sabha even before the expiry of its term i.e. five years.

Question 16.
Write down the executive powers of the Lok Sabha.
Answer:
It is the Lok Sabha which controls the executive. The members of the Lok Sabha ask the ministers questions and supplementary questions and they are to answer these questions. If the Lok Sabha passes a vote of no-confidence against the Cabinet, the Cabinet will have to resign. The Cabinet remains in office till it is supported by the majority of the members of the House.

Question 17.
Explain the financial powers of the Lok Sabha.
Answer:
The Lok Sabha controls the finances of the state. As money bill can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha and not in the Rajya Sabha. After a money bill is passed by the Lok Sabha, it is sent to the Rajya Sabha. The Rajya Sabha can delay the passage of a money bill at the most for 14 days. The Rajya Sabha may reject the bill or may not take any action over the bill for a period of 14 days, in both these conditions the bill will be considered as passed. It will be sent to the President and he gives his assent to the bill.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 18.
Who is the speaker?
Answer:
The speaker is the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha. He is elected by the members of the Lok Sabha from among themselves. The Speaker presides over the meetings of the House; maintains order in the House and conducts the business of the House in accordance with the Rules of the House.

Question 19.
Write down any two functions of Speaker.
Answer:
Chairman of Lok Sabha is popularly known as Speaker. He performs functions given ahead:

  • Preserve Order. He presides over the meetings ofeihe House and preserves order in the House. If the situation goes out of control he can adjourn or suspend the meeting of the House.
  • Money-Bill. He decides whether a bill is a money-bill.

Question 20.
How is the Lok Sabha more powerful than the Rajya Sabha?
Answer:

  1. The members of Lok Sabha are directly elected while the members of house of Rajya Sabha are indirectly elected.
  2. Money bill cannot be introduced in Rajya Sabha. It originates in the Lok Sabha only. It is sent for recommendation to Rajya Sabha and not for passing. If Rajya Sabha returns it after 14 days it is assumed as passed.

One Word to One Sentence Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name the two Houses of Indian Parliament.
Answer:

  1. Lok Sabha
  2. Rajya Sabha.

Question 2.
Which one House of the Union Parliament is more powerful?
Answer:
Lok Sabha is more powerful than Rajya Sabha.

Question 3.
How many members can be nominated in Lok Sabha by the President?
Answer:
Two members from Anglo-Indian Community.

Question 4.
How many members can be nominated in Rajya Sabha by the President?
Answer:
12 members are nominated in Rajya Sabha from amongst the scholars, artists and social workers.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 5.
How are members of Lok Sabha elected?
Answer:
The members of Lok Sabha are elected directly by the people. Every citizen of 18 years and above has a right to vote.

Question 6.
What is the total strength of Rajya Sabha?
Answer:
The maximum strength, of Rajya Sabha can be 250.

Question 7.
For what PAC stands?
Answer:
Public Accounts Committee.

Question 8.
What is the present strength of Lok Sabha?
Answer:
The Lok Sabha consists of 545 members- 543 elected and 2 nominated Anglo- Indian.

Fill in The Blanks

1. ……………. presides over the joint session of the Parliament.
Answer:
Speaker

2. Cabinet is responsible to ……………. .
Answer:
Parliament

3. The candidate constituting for ……………. should not be less than 25 years.
Answer:
Lok Sabha

4. ……………. members are nominated by the President in Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
12

5. The candidate constituting for ……………. should not be less than 30 years.
Answer:
Rajya Sabha.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

True or False statement

1. Two members are nominated by the President in the Rajya Sabha.
Answer:
False

2. The session of the Indian Parliament are held at least twice a year.
Answer:
True

3. Vice-President presiding Officer of the Lok Sabha.
Answer:
False

4. The budget is introduced in Lok Sabha by Finance Minister.
Answer:
True

5. President presides over the Lok Sabha.
Answer:
False

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Choose The Correct Answer

Question 1.
The Indian Parliament is:
(A) Uni-cameral
(B) Three Houses
(C) Bi-cameral
(D) Four Houses.
Answer:
(C) Bi-cameral

Question 2.
The Lower House of the Indian Parliament is known as:
(A) Rajya Sabha
(B) Lok Sabha
(C) Legislative Assembly
(D) Council of States.
Answer:
(B) Lok Sabha

Question 3.
The Upper House of the Indian Parliament is known as:
(A) Lok Sabha
(B) Rajya Sabha
(C) Council of ministers
(D) Legislative Council.
Answer:
(B) Rajya Sabha

Question 4.
The tenure of the members of the Rajya Sabha is:
(A) 5 years
(B) 4 years
(C) 6 years
(D) 3 years.
Answer:
(C) 6 years

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 25 The Union Legislature

Question 5.
Who is the presiding officer of the Rajya Sabha?
(A) Prime Minister
(B) Vice-President
(C) President
(D) Speaker.
Answer:
(B) Vice-President

Question 6.
Speaker is elected for a period of:
(A) 5 years
(B) 6 years
(C) 7 years
(D) 4 years.
Answer:
(A) 5 years

Question 7.
The tenure of the Lok Sabha in normal times is:
(A) 6 years
(B) 5 years
(C) 4 years
(D) 3 years.
Answer:
(B) 5 years

Question 8.
How many members are nominated by the president in Lok Sabha?
(A) 12 Members
(B) 3 Members
(C) 18 Members
(D) 2 Members.
Answer:
(D) 2 Members.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 24 The Union Executive-President, Vice-President, Council of Ministers and Prime Minister

Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Political Science Book Solutions Chapter 24 The Union Executive-President, Vice-President, Council of Ministers and Prime Minister Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

PSEB Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 24 The Union Executive-President, Vice-President, Council of Ministers and Prime Minister

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Discuss the qualifications, mode of election and procedure for impeachment of the President of India.
Or
How is the President of India elected?
Answer:
Since India is a Republic, the President of India is elected by the people in an indirect manner for a fixed time. As to what method should be adopted for the election of the President, there was no unanimity of opinion in the Constituent Assembly. One suggestion was that the President should be directly elected by the people.

It will not only be in consonance with the democratic principles but it will also make the President the direct representative of the people. This proposal was rejected on the ground that such a method will unnecessarily convulse the nation, particularly when he was being made the nominal head of the State. The other proposal was that the President should be elected only by the members of the Union Parliament.

This proposal was equally rejected because in that case the President would become a puppet in the hands of the majority party. That would rob him of all his appearance of independence and dignity. In order to uphold the federal principle, it was finally agreed that the States should also be given a share in the election of the President.

Qualifications:
The Constitution prescribes the following qualifications for a presidential candidate-

  • He should be a citizen of India.
  • He must have completed the age of 35 years.
  • He must be qualified to be elected as a member of the Lok Sabha.
  • He must not hold any office of profit under the Government of India or any State Government or local authority.However, this provision is not applicable to a person who holds the office of the President, Vice-President, Governors and Ministers of the Central and State Government.
  • He cannot at the same time be a member of the Parliament or a member of State Legislature; his seat will be deemed to have been vacated on the date he assumes his office as President.
  • According to Presidential and Vice-Presidential Elections Act, the candidate for the office of president must deposit Rs. 15,000 as security.
  • The name of the candidate for the office of President must be proposed by 50 electors and seconded by 50 electors.

Method of Election:
Following are the features of the election of the President of India-

1. President elected by an Electoral College:
The President of India is elected by an electoral college consisting of the elected members of the Lok Sabha, the elected members of the Rajya Sabha and the elected members of the State Legislative Assemblies.

2. System of Proportional Representation:
The election of the President is held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote.

3. Uniformity of Representation:
According to the Constitution, as far as possible, there is to be maintained uniformity of representation of the different States at the presidential election and parity between the States as a whole and the Union. In other words, in the election of the President, the principle of ‘One member- One-vote’ had not been and could not be adopted. In different States different ratios prevail between the population and the number of legislators.

The Constituencies in the different States are unequal in the matter of population. For example, in one State it may be one representative for every 50,000 of the population while in another the proportion may be one to 75,000 or more. Thus since the States differ in their population, the strength of the elected members of the State Legislative Assemblies also differs. Then, the total strength of the elected members of the State Legislative Assemblies is far greater than that of the elected members of both the Houses of Parliament. That being so, the problem was to ensure that the votes cast will have a value in proportion to the population that the votes represented.

4. Procedure of determining the votes of the Members of the State Assembly:
Article 55(4) of the Constitution lays down the procedure of determining the votes of the member of the State Assembly, which is as follows:
PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 24 The Union Executive-President, Vice-President, Council of Ministers and Prime Minister 1
If the remainder is less than 500, it is ignored.
If it is more than 500, then the vote of each member shall be further increased by one.
For example, in 2017 population of Punjab was 27,704,236 and the Legislative Assembly of Punjab consists of 117 members. Hence each member was entitled to cast 237 votes:
PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 24 The Union Executive-President, Vice-President, Council of Ministers and Prime Minister 2
5. Procedure of determining the votes of the Members of the Parliament:
The Constitution lays down the following procedure of determining the votes of the member of Parliament.
PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 24 The Union Executive-President, Vice-President, Council of Ministers and Prime Minister 3
Fraction exceeding one-half being counted as one. Let us explain this formula also by taking an example. Suppose the total number of votes assigned to the elected members of all the State Legislative Assemblies is 424856 and the total strength of elected members of the Parliament is 705. Now to obtain the number of votes which elected member of the Parliament will have at the election of the President:
PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 24 The Union Executive-President, Vice-President, Council of Ministers and Prime Minister 4
In the presidential election in July 2017, the number of votes of each member of the Parliament entitled to vote was 708.
Total votes of the elected member of State Assemblies = 5,49,495
No. of elected members of the Parliament = 776 (Lok Sabha 543 + Rajya Sabha 233)
No. of votes of each member of the Parliament = \(\frac {5,49,495 }{776}\) = 708
Total votes of the members of the Parliament = 708 x 776 = 5,49,408
Total votes of the electoral college = 5,49,495 + 5,49,408 = 10,98,903

6. Vacant Seats in Electoral College:
The President of India, as said, is elected by an electoral college. Now the question arises if the electoral college is not complete, how to proceed with the election of the President. Our Constitution was not clear on this point. To remove this flaw 11th Amendment (1961) was made in the Constitution.
According to this amendment, the election of the President or the Vice-President cannot be challenged on the ground of any vacancy in the electoral college for whatever reason among the members of the electoral college electing him.

7. Method of Fixing the Quota:
Under the system of Proportional Representation a candidate to be elected, must secure the necessary quota of votes. The quota is determined by the following formula:
PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 24 The Union Executive-President, Vice-President, Council of Ministers and Prime Minister 5
Suppose the total number of valid votes polled at the presidential election is 8,00,000. Applying the above-mentioned formula, the quota shall be:
\(\frac {800000}{1+1}\) + 1 = 4,00,001
In order to be elected, the candidate must secure 4,00,001 votes-an absolute majority of votes. If the first counting does not give any candidate the quota of votes, the candidate who got the least number of votes is eliminated and his votes transferred to the remaining candidates on the basis of the preferences shown. The process is repeated until one candidate gets the requisite number of votes. Let us explain the system in detail.

Assuming that there are four candidates and the total number of valid votes cast are 15,000.
To be declared elected President, a candidate must secure a minimum of 7501 votes. Now suppose the first preference votes secured by the four candidates are as follows:
A—5250
B—4800
C—2700
D—2250
Since the candidate D gets the least number of votes, hence he is eliminated. Now the second preference votes on his 2250 ballot papers shall be counted.
Suppose A gets 300, B gets 1050 and C gets 900.

Now the total votes of A are 5250 + 300 = 5550, of B are 4800 + 1050 = 5800 and of C are 2700 + 900 = 3600. It means even now no candidate is securing the requisite quota of 7501 votes.

Now candidate C shall be eliminated because he got the least number of votes. Now third preference votes on the 3600 votes of C shall be counted. In the third preference suppose A gets 1700 and B gets 1900.
Now the total votes of A are 5550 + 1700 = 7250
Total votes of B are = 5850 + 1900 = 7750

According to the Proportional Representation system, B shall be declared President. The system proves the doctrine that candidate B is preferred by a numerically large number of electors than candidate A. It may be recalled that the election of Mr. V. V. Giri was decided in the Second Count. “It made the people realise the significance of the system of proportional represenataion by means of single transferable vote.”

So far fifteen presidential elections have been held in India:

  1. First election was held in 1952 and Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected.
  2. Second election was held in 1957 and again Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected.
  3. Third election was held in 1962 and Dr. Radhakrishnan was elected.
  4. Fourth election was held in 1967 and Dr. Zakin Hussain was elected.
  5. Fifth election was held in 1969 and Shri V. V. Giri was elected.
  6. Sixth election was held in 1974 and Shri Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed was elected.
  7. In July, 1977, for the first time, Shri Sanjiva Reddy was nominated by a consensus of all paries and was elected unopposed.
  8. Eighth election was held in July, 1982 and Congress (I) candidate Giani Zail Singh was elected and opposition candidiate Justice Khanna was defeated.
  9. Ninth Presidential election was held in July, 1987 and Congress (I) candidate R. Venkataraman was elected and opposition candidate Justice V. R. Krishna Iyer was defeated.
  10. Tenth Presidential election was held in July, 1992 and Congress (I) candidate Dr. Shankar Dyal Sharma was elected and opposition candidate was defeated.
  11. Eleventh Presidential election was held in July 1997. Joint candidate of United Front and Congress Mr. K. R. Narayanan supported by BJP and others was elected and Mr. T. N. Seshan was defeated. Mr. K. R. Narayanan secured 94.97 per cent of the votes.
  12. Twelfth Presidential election was held in July, 2002. Joint candidate of rulling National Democratic Alliance Dr. A.P. J. Abdul Kalam supported by Indian National Congress, Bahujan Samaj Party, Samajvadi Party, Janata Dal and others was elected and Capt. Lakshmi Sahgal, the opposition candidate supported by Communist Parties was defeated.
  13. 13th Presidential election was held in July 2007, joint candidate of United Progressive Alliance Mrs. Pratibha Devi Singh Patil was elected and Independent Candidate Mr. Bhairon Singh Shekhawat was defeated.
  14. 14th Presidential election was held in July 2012. Candidate of UPA and Supported by S.P., B.S.P., Janata Dal (U) and Shiv Seva, Mr. Pranab Mukherjee was elected and independent candidate Mr. P.A. Sangma was defeated.
  15. 15th Presidential election was held in July 2017. Candidate of N.D.A. Sh. Ram Nath Kovind was elected and U.P.A. candidate Smt. Meera Kumar was defeated.

The election of the President is conducted by the Chief Election Commissioner. He issues the notification and fixes dates for nomination, scrutiny of nomination and withdrawal of candidature. Only those eligible to vote in the election of the President, i.e. elected members of Parliament and elected members of the State Legislative Assemblies can propose a candidate for election. The Chief Election Commissioner counts the votes cast and declares the result.

The validity of the election of the President can be challenged by the electors only. The election of the President can be challenged only after the completion of the election, i.e., after a candidate is declared to be elected to the office of the President. If a petition is allowed before such election, it would involve the non-compliance with the mandatory provisions of Art. 62 which says that an election to fill a vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of the office of the President shall be completed before the expiration of the term.

Oath of the President:
Before entering upon his office, the President elected or any person acting as President for discharging the functions of President, is required to take an oath in the presence of the Chief Justice, or in his absence, the senior-most judge of the Supreme Court available.

Tenure:
The President is elected for a period of five years. The period of five years begins from the day he enters upon his office. The President is eligible for re-election.

Removal by Impeachment:
The President can be removed from office by impeachment only. The Constitution lays down a detailed procedure for the impeachment of the President. He can be impeached “for violation of the Constitution”.

When a President is to be impeached for the violation of the Constitution, the charges can be prepared by either House of the Parliament. In other words, the impeachment charged may be initiated by the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha. (in the United States of America, this right belongs exclusively to the Lower House, i.e., the House of Representatives). But no such charge is to be preferred unless the proposal to prefer such a charge is contained in a resolution which has been moved after at least 14 days’ notice in writing signed by not less than one-fourth of the total number of members of the House.

The resolution must be passed by a two-third majority of the total membership of the House. If passed by the requisite majority in one house, it is sent to the other House for investigation. The other House is empowered to entrust this job of investigation to a court or tribunal.

However, the resolution had got to be passed by the other house by a two-third majority of the total membership of this House. If the other House also passes the resolution by a two-third majority of the total membership of this House, then it means the charge is proved and the President is removed from his office from the ‘date’ (word ‘time has not been used’) on which the investigating House passes the resolution.

However, the President has the right to be heard and defended when the charges against him are being investigated. He may defend himself in person or through his council. One thing to be noted here is that there is no provision for suspension of the President under impeachment. He continues to hold his office during the period of investigation.

Salary and Allowances:
The President of India gets a salary of Rs. 5,00,000 per month and an official residence (called Rashtrapati Bhavan in New Delhi) free of rent. In addition to the salary, the President also gets handsome allowances of various kinds as determined by Parliament. According to the President’s Pension Act, a person who ceases to hold office as President, either by expiration of his term of office or by resignation, is entitled to a monthly pension of Rs. 2,50,000. The Government may also allow him a free medical aid as was done in the case of Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

The salary and other allowances of the President are charged on the Consolidated Fund of India. According to Art. 59 (4), the emoluments and allowances of the President shall not be diminished during his term of office.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 24 The Union Executive-President, Vice-President, Council of Ministers and Prime Minister

Question 2.
Describe the powers of the President of India
Or
Discuss the executive and judicial powers of the President.
Or
Explain the powers of the President of India other than emergency powers.
Answer:
The Constitution of India establishes a federal form of government.
According to Art. 53, the executive powers of the Union have been vested in the President which shall be exercised by him directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with the Constitution. However, India being a parliamentary form of government, the President is only a nominal head and the working executive is the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister.
The powers of the President can be divided into two categories-
(A) Powers in normal times and
(B) Emergency powers.

(A) POWERS IN NORMAL TIMES:
During normal times the President exercises four types of powers:
1. Executive Powers
2. Legislative Powers
3. Financial Powers
4. Judicial Powers.

1. Executive Powers:
The President is the Chief Executive or Head of the State. According to Art. 53 (1) of the Constitution, the executive powers of the Union have been vested in the President. He may exercise these powers himself or get them exercised through officers subordinate to him.

(i) Appointments:
The President is authorised to make a number of appointments. He appoints the Prime Minister and the other Ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister, the Attorney General, the Comptroller and the Auditor General, Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts, the Chairman and Members of Joint Public Service Commission, the Chairman and members of Joint Public Service Commission, the Election Commission, Finance Commission, the Official

Language Commission and Commission for the Scheduled Castes, Tribes, Backward Classes, etc. He also appoints the State Governors, Lt. Governors and Chief Commissioners of the Union Territories. He also sends and receives diplomatic representatives. He makes rule for the convenient transaction of business of the Government of India and allocates this business among the Ministers. Under Art. 78, the Prime Minister is bound to communicate to the President all decisions of the Cabinet relating to administration and such proposals for legislation as the President may call for.

(ii) Military Powers:
The President is the Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces, but the exercise of military powers of the President is regulated by the Parliament. The President cannot declare war or deploy forces without the sanction of the Parliament or in anticipation of the sanction by the Parliament.

(iii) Power Relating to Foreign Affairs:
The President has extensive diplomatic powers. He represents his country in international affairs. He appoints Indian representatives to foreign countries and also receives diplomatic representatives of other States which have been recognised by Parliament.

(iv) Power of Direction, Control and Co-ordination:
The President has the power of direction, control and co-ordination of the work in the States. He can issue directions to the States for the compliance of Union laws. In particular, he can direct a State or States to construct and maintain communications of national or military importance and for the protection of railways. He can establish an Inter-State council to advise him upon co-ordination of policy and settlement of disputes between the States.

(v) Administration of Union Territories:
Art. 239 provides that every Union Territory shall be administered by the President acting through an administrator. The administrator, given any designation by the President, is appointed by the President. The President may appoint the Governor of a State as the administrator of an adjoining Union Territory. When the Governor is discharging the duties of the administrator he shall exercise his functions as administrator independently of his Council of Ministers.

The Parliament by law can establish democratic institutions in the Union Territories. The President can make regulations for the peace, progress and good government of the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Islands. The regulations made by the President have the same effect as an act of Parliament. The President is also competent to repeal or amend, through such regulations, any existing Act dealing with the administration of these Islands.

(vi) Informative Powers:
The President had a right to ask for information with regard to the decision of the Council of Ministers. The Prime Minister is required to keep in touch with the President for this purpose.

(vii) Sending back the decision of the Council of Ministers for reconsideration:
Under 44th amendment the President is empowered to send back the decision of the Council of Ministers for reconsideration, but if the council of Ministers repeats the decision, then the President is bound to accept the decision.

(viii)Link between the Centre and States:
The President is the link between the centre and the states. He is the executive head both of the union and of the federation.

2. Legislative Powers:
The President enjoys many legislative powers. He is a part of the Parliament. Besides the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha, the President is also a part of the Parliament. The legislative powers of the President are provided by Article 123.

(i) Power to Summon:
Prorogue and Dissolve the Parliament. The President can convene, prorogue and dissolve the Parliament. He can order fresh elections to the Lok Sabha on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. He must call the session of the Parliament within 6 months.

(ii) Address to the Parliament:
He can address the two Houses of the Parliament jointly or he may address them independently. The first session of the Parliament after the General elections is inaugurated by the President. He also addresses the first session of the Parliament every year. In his address the President explains the policy of the Government to the House.

(iii) Nominates the Members of the Parliament:
He nominates 12 persons to the Rajya Sabha. These persons must have distinguished themselves in the fields of art, literature, science and social service. He can nominate two persons of the Anglo-Indian community to the Lok Sabha if he feels that the community has not got adequate representation.

(iv) Assent on Bills:
No bill passed by the Parliament can become an Act without the assent of the President. He can reject an ordinary bill only once and when passed for the second time, the President is to give his assent.

(v) He gives approval to many bills passed by the State Legislatures.

(vi) Joint Session:
He can call a joint session of the two Houses of the Parliament. If the two Chambers differ on an ordinary bill, only then he calls a joint session.

(vii) Power to Send Messages: He can send messages to any House from time to time.

(viii)Ordinance:
During the intervals of the sessions of the Parliament he can issue ordinances. These ordinances have the force of laws. The ordinance is put before the Parliament as soon as it meets. The Parliament has the authority to reject the ordinance. It can be withdrawn by the President also. If it is neither rejected by the Parliament nor withdrawn by the President, it will automatically end six weeks after the first meeting of the Parliament. On Sept. 22, 1980 the President promulgated the National Security Ordinance to enable the government to detain any person to prevent him from acting against the defence or security of the country.

(ix) Constitutional Amendment Bill:
A Constitutional Amendment Bill is finally sent to the President for his assent. The President is bound to give his assent to the Constitutional Amendment Bilk

3. Financial Powers:
The financial powers of the President as mentioned in the Constitution are as follows:

(i) It is the duty of the President to place the Budget for the current year before the Parliament. It is to be presented before the beginning of the financial year. Normally the budget is presented to the Parliament by the Finance Minister on behalf of the President.

(ii) Money Bills can only be introduced in the Parliament on the recommendation of the President.

(iii) The President has full control over the contingency fund and he can spend it according to his sweet will.

(iv) He distributes the share of income tax among the States.

(v) He appoints Finance Commission. 15th Finance Commission was appointed on 27 Nov.- 2017 in the Chairmanship of Sh.N.K. Singh.

4. Judicial Powers:
The President has some judicial power also. It is provided by Article 122 of the Constitution.

  • The President appoints the judges and the chief justice to the Supreme Court and the State High Courts.
  • The President cannot be sured in any court of India in connection with any matter concerning his office.
  • He has the power to pardon, reprieve and commute punishment.

(B) EMERGENCY POWERS
Besides powers in normal times the President of India has Emergency Powers as well. The President enjoys three types of emergency powers:
1. Emergency due to external aggression or armed rebellion.
2. Emergency arising out of failure of the constitutional machinery a State.
3. Financial emergency.

For detailed study of Emergency Powers:
1. Emergency arising out of external aggression or Armed Rebellion:
According to Art. 352 if the President is satisfied that a grave emergency exists whereby the security of India or any part of India is threatened by war, external aggression or armed rebellion, he may proclaim a state of emergency. Under 59th amendment in Punjab emergency can be declared on the ground of internal disturbances. The President can declare emergency even before the actual occurrence of war, external aggression or armed rebellion.

But in the 44th Amendment it is provided that the President shall not issue a proclamation of Emergency unless the decision of the Cabinet that such a proclamation may be issued has been communicated to him in writing. According to 42nd Amendment, President can declare emergency in the whole of India or in such part of the territory there of as may be specified in the proclamation. Such a Proclamation may be revoked by a consequent proclamation. If the proclamation has not been approved within one month by both the Houses of Parliament by two-thirds of the majority of the members present and voting, it will become ineffective. If such a

proclamation is issued at a time when the Lok Sabha has been dissolved or the dissolution of the Lok Sabha takes place during the period of one month, and if the Rajya Sabha has approved the proclamation within one month, but it had not been approved by the Lok Sabha, the proclamation shall cease to operate at the expiration of 30 days from the date on which the Lok Sabha sits after its reconstitution. However, if within 30 days the Lok Sabha approves the proclamation, it continues.

After approval of the Parliament emergency continues till the President revokes it by a subsequent proclamation. But it is provided in the 44th Amendment that for the continuance of the emergency, approval by resolution of both Houses would be required every six months. Provision is also made in the 44th Amendment that the proclamation of Emergency would cease to be opeative whenever a resolution to that effect is adopted by the Lok Sabha by a simple majority of the members of the House present and voting.

Ever since the operation of the Constitution (Jan. 26, 1950), such an emergency has been declared three times. First, when India was attacked by China in October, 1962 and second when all of a sudden, Pakistan attacked India on December 3, 1971. Third time internal emergency was declared on 26th June, 1975 and this emergency was-removed on 21st March, 1977 whereas external emergency declared in 1971 was lifted on 27th March, 1977.

Effects of this Proclamation:
1. The most significant effect of this proclamation is that the federal form of the Constitution is converted into unitary form of government. The authority of the Centre is increased till the emergency lasts. It should be remembered the State Governments do not cease to function. They continue, to function as before under normal conditions. But the Centre gets the authority to give directions to the States as the manner in which the executive power of the States is to be exercised. The legislative power of the Centre is also widened.

2. Parliament will have the power to make laws for the whole or part of India with respect to any of the matters given in the State List. Laws so made by Parliament shall cease to operate six months after the Proclamation of Emergency has come to an end.

3. The President, may by an order, modify the provisions relating to distribution of revenues between the Union and the States.

4. The Fundamental Rights given under Art. 19 (six freedoms) are automatically suspended throughout the country. The suspension of Art. 19 continues until the proclamation of emergency ends. However, under 59th Amendment this right can be suspended when emergency is declared in Punjab.

5. The President by order can also suspend the right to move the courts to enforce any Fundamental Rights. All proceedings pending in any court for the enforcement of the rights so mentioned may remain suspended for the period during which Proclamation is in force or for such short period as may be specified in the order. But according to 44th Amendmenl the enforcement of the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 cannot be suspended. The order so made may extend to the whole or to any part of the territory of India. However, the order of the

parliament is required to be laid before each House of Parliament “as soon as may be after it is made.” And what is the definition of ‘as soon as may be’, the constitution does not fix any time limit for the order to be laid before Parliament.

2. Emergency arising out of the failure of constitutional machinery in a State. (Art. 356):
The second type of emergncy powers given to the President deal with the failure of constitutional machinery in the State. If the President, either on the receipt of a report from the Governor of a State or otherwise, is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the Government of the State cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution, the President can proclaim emergency in that state.

In May, 1994, the Supreme Court had declared that dismissal of a state government by the President under Article 356 of the Constitution is open to judicial scrutiny. The apex Court had held that presidential proclamation under Article 356 could be challenged only on the ground that the exercise of power was malafide or based on wholly extraneous and irrelevant grounds.

Any proclamation made under Art. 356 may be revoked or varied by a subsequent Proclamation. The Proclamation issued by the President is required to be laid before each House of Parliament and it ceases to operate after the expiry of two months unless before the expiration of that period it has been approved by resolutions of both Houses of Parliament. If approved by Parliament, the Proclamation, remains in force for six months after the parliamentary approval. The duration of the proclamation can be extended for six months at a time and the maximum period is one year.

According to 44th Amendment, a resolution with respect to the continuance in force of a Proclamation under the article for any period beyond the expiration of one year from the date of issue of such proclamation shall not be passed by either House of Parliament unless a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation at the time of the passing of such resolution and the Election Commission certifies that the continuance in force of the proclamation under the Article during the period specified in such resolution is necessary on account of difficulties in holding elections to the Legislative Assembly of the State concerned.

Under 59th Amendment in Punjab President’s rule can be extended up-to three years. Under 64th Amendment President’s rule in Punjab was extended six months more beyond three years. By 68th amendment President’s rule in Punjab can be extended up-to 5 years.

Effects of this Proclamation:
(i) The President can assume to himself all or any of the functions of the State or he may vest all or any of those functions in the Governor or any other executive authority.

(ii) The President can suspend or dissolve the State Legislative Assembly. He may declare that the powers of the State Legislature shall be exercisable by or under the authority of Parliament. However, Parliament will be competent to confer that power on the President and also authorise him to delegate those powers to anybody he thinks fit. .

(iii) The President can make any other incidental or consequential provisions necessary to give effect to the object of the Proclamation.

(iv) If the Lok Sabha is not in session then the President sanctions the expenditure from the consolidated fund of the State.

President’s rule has been promulgated almost 121 times in states since the enforcement of the Constitution. Almost all the States have been, at one time or the other, been put under President’s Rule.

3. Financial Emergency (Art. 360):
If the President is satisfied that a situation has arisen whereby the financial stability or credit of India or any part of it is threatened, he may declare a Financial Emergency under Art. 360 of the Constitution. Such a Proclamation may be revoked by a subsequent Proclamation. The proclamation has to be laid before each House of Parliament.

It ceases to operate at the expiration of two months unless it is approved earlier by a resolution of both Houses of Parliament. The Proclamation in this case also should be approved by Parliament as in the other two cases of emergency. Like the Proclamation of war-emergency, Financial Emergency also continues for an indefinite period. Fortunately, this kind of Emergency has not been declared so far.

Effects of this Proclamation:
(i) During the Financial emergency, the executive authority of the union shall extend to the giving of directions to any State to observe such canons of financial property as may be specified in the direction or any other directions which the President may deem necessary for this purpose.

(ii) The President can ask a State to reduce salaries and allowances of all or any class of public servants connected with the affairs of a State.

(iii) The President can give direction to a State to reserve all Money Bills for the consideration of the President after they have been passed by the State Legislature.

(iv) The President shall be competent to issue directions for the reduction of salaries and allowances of all or any class of persons serving in connection with the affairs of the Union including the judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts.

Criticism:
Evidently the Constitution gives the President very drastic powers to deal with Emergency. Emergency powers of the President were criticised within and outside the Constituent Assembly. It has been said that these powers are not compatible with democracy. When the provisions relating to Emergency powers were passed, Sh. H. V. Kamath, member of the Constituent Assembly, declared, “ It is a day of shame and sorrow, God save the Indian people.”

Sh. K. T. Shah described Article 359, which empowers the President to suspend the right to seek enforcement of fundamental rights “as the grand final and crowning glory of this chapter of reaction and retrogression.” The power to abrogate fundamental rights of citizens during Emergencies can easily be abused for depriving the people of their liberty and imposing a totalitarian rule on the country.

According to H. V. Kamath, “ There is no parallel to the chapter of Emergency in any Constitution of democratic countries of the world”. He further said,, “I fear that by the single chapter we are seeking to lay the foundation of a totalitarian State, a police State, State completely opposed to all the ideas and principles that we have held aloft during the last few decades, a State where the rights and liberties of millions of innocent men and women will be in continuous jeopardy, a State where if there be peace it will be the peace of the grave and the void of the desert. I only pray to God that He may grant us wisdom, wisdom to avert any such catastrophe, grant us fortitude and courage.”

Another point of criticism is that during Emergency federal structure is changed into unitary one. T. T. Krishnamachari said, “The Constitution of India is designed to work as a federal system in normal times and as a unitary system in war and other emergencies.” Moreover, ruling party at the Centre by using Article 356 can declare President’s rule in a particular State simply because some other party is ruling the State. Article 356 was misused when nine state governments were dismissed on 30th April 1977 and in Feb 1980.

Justification of Emergency Powers. Emergency powers of the President are defended on the ground that Strong Centre is needed for security of the country. V. N. Shukla writes, “ These provisions may appear to be harsh, particularly in a constitution which professes to be built upon an edifice of fundamental rights and democracy. But the provisions may be studied in the light of India’s past history. India has had her inglorious days whenever the Central power was weak.

It is well that the Constitution guards against the forces of disintegration. Events may take place threatening the very existence of the State, together with all that is desired to remain basic and immutable will be swept away.” Country’s security is more important than the federal system. In the words of Dr. Ambedkar, “ It is only the Centre which can work for the common purpose and for the general interest of the country as a whole. Herein lies the justification of giving to the Centre overriding power to be used in the Emergency.”

It is not possible for the President to become a dictator. In India there exists a parliamentary form of Government. The essence of parliamentary form of Government is that the Head of the State is a nominal head. It is the Council of Ministers which is the real executive.

According to 44th Amendment, an Emergency can be proclaimed only on the basis of written advice tendered by the cabinet. In addition a Proclamation of Emergency must be approved by the two Houses of parliament by two-thirds majority within a period of one month.

As a further check against the misuse of the emergency powers and to put the right to life and liberty on a secure footing, it is provided in 44th Amendment Act that the power to suspend the right to move the court for the enforcement of a fundamental right cannot be exercised in respect of the fundamental right to life and liberty.

According to 44th Amendment the provisions of Article 19 will become suspended only in the case of a proclamation of Emergency issued on the ground of war or external aggression and not in the case of a Proclamation of Emergency issued on the ground of armed rebellion. Moreover, if the President tries to become a despot, he will be impeached by the Parliament.

There is no question of autocracy under any circumstances. Only State autonomy may suffer temporarily.” Sh. Amar Nandi rightly remarked that the power conferred on the central executive to meet national emergencies is, so as to say, a loaded gun which can be used both to protect and to destroy the liberty of citizens. The gun must be used, therefore, with extreme caution.

Position of the President:
What exactly is the position of the President in the Indian Constitution? Different writers have taken different and sometimes radical views. A lay man who reads the provisions of the Constitution may literally interpret them and come to the conclusion that he has been armed with drastic powers. His Emergency Power “is a bottomless well of dictatorial possibilities”. Under Art. 53 of the Constitution,
“The Executive power of the Union shall be vested in the President and shall be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with the Constitution.”

It means the President can use the executive powers himself. Under Art. 74 of the Constitution there shall be a Council of Ministers to aid and advise the President in the exercise of his functions. But nowhere it had been stated that the President shall be bound to act in accordance with the advice of the Council of Ministers. Then, the President of India can dissolve Parliament, issue ordinances, declare emergency and can take into his hands the administration of the whole of the country. Being the Supreme Commander of all the forces he can establish his personal rule with the help of the armed forces of the country.

But this is a legal view. And the fact is a legal truth, may be a political untruth. In India, there exists parliamentary form of government. The essence of the parliamentary form of government is that the Head of the State is a titular head, a constitutional head. His powers are formal. It is the Council of Ministers which is the real functionary.

By 42nd amendment even legal position of the President has changed. Under this amendment he was bound to accept the advice of the Council of Ministers. But according to 44th Amendment the President may require the Council of Ministers to reconsider any advice tendered by them and that the President shall act in accordance with the advice tendered after such reconsideration, Thus, the critics argue that the position of the Indian President is one of honour and dignity but not of power.

Commenting upon the position of the President, Dr. Ambedkar had himself said in the Constituent Assembly: “The President occupies the same position as the King under the British Constitution. He is the head of the State but not of the Executive. He represents the nation but does not rule the nation.” To quote him again: “The President of the Indian Union will be generally bound by the advice of ministers.

He can do nothing contrary to their advice nor can he do anything without their advice.” According to late Pt. Nehru, “We have not given our President any real power but we have made his position one of great authority and dignity’. Expressing his views on the position of the President, Sh. Morarji Desai said, “It is wrong to think that our President is vested with any real power of rulership; in normal times he has none, under the Constitution he is merely a constitutional head, very much like the British King.”

However, all the critics do not subscribe to the view that the President under the Constitution is only a figure head. These critics draw our attention to the Weimar Constitution of Germany. The Weimar Constitution was based on thoroughly democratic lines. Yet it gave rise to a dictator, Hitler who trampled under his feet all the democratic principles of the Constitution. Similarly, Dr. Ambedkar himself used the words “ generally bound”. It shows that the President is not a rubber stamp, he is not a puppet in the hands of the Council of Ministers.

The Constitution allows him opportunities when he can use his discretion. For example, he can use his discretion in the appointment of the Prime Minister when no political party gets absolute majority in the Lok Sabha. After all, the President is a promoted politician. As Jennings has said, “He cannot be expected to play the same role of impartiality as is expected from the British Monarch.”

Under Art. 78 of the Constitution, it shall be the duty of the Prime Minister to communicate to the President all decisions of the Council of Ministers relating to the administration of the affairs of the Union and proposals for legislation, to furnish such information ralting to the administration to the affairs of the Union and proposals for legislation as the President may call for Under Art. Ill the President can use his veto power also.

His emergency powers are so sweeping that, as H. V. Kamath feared, he can lay the foundation of a totalitarian State, a police State…. In his address delivered on the occasion of the laying of the foundation stone of the Indian Law Institute, New Delhi in November, 1960, President Rajendra Prasad urged the Institute to make a study of the powers and functions of the President and find out to what extent they differed from those of the King of England.

He was doubtful that the position of the President is like the position of the British Monarch. He clearly pointed out that because the conditions in India were different from those in England, “ It may not be desirable to treat ourselves so strictly bound by the interpretations which have been given from time to time to expressions in England.”

His successor Dr. Radhakrishnan also expressed publicly similar views. While speaking in the civic reception at Kanpur, he said, “Jpdia was suffering because sufficient care had not been taken to explain our position abroad.” Dr. Radhakrishnan was criticising the foreign policy of the country. At the time of the assumption of his office the President has to take the oath to protect, preserve and defend the Constitution and to devote himself to the service and well-being of the people of India. No wonder, he may veto a Bill which in spirit, runs counter to the Directive Principles of State Policy.

Conclusion:
The conclusion is clear. The President is not a rubber-stamp under the Constitution. Accroding to B. Shiva Rao, the President is more than a figure-head. Even President Giri agreed to this view when he said that the country needed a “really independent and strong President who could see things straight and do justice well without fear or favour.” In his election campaign he clearly said, “If elected he would not be a sleeping partner, nor a rubber stamp

He would be an active partner within the four walls of the Constituion.” Thus, a fairly large section of the educated public opinion in the country feels that the president has a share in the actual government of the country. Even Dr. Radhakrishnan on the the day of his retirement indirectly hinted on such a role of the President when he said, “The President symbolizes national purpose and national unity and can be a great influence for stability and progress.”

The real position of the President depends upon his relationship with the Council of Ministers and, to a great extent, upon his personality. It he is a man of dynamic personality, he will have an edge over the Council of Ministers.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 24 The Union Executive-President, Vice-President, Council of Ministers and Prime Minister

Question 3.
Explain emergency powers of the President.
Or
Discuss the emergency powers of the President of India. Do you agree with the view that the President can become a dictator by exercising them?
Answer:
Besides powers in normal times the President of India has Emergency Powers as well. The President can use the emergency powers even when there is the likelihood of an emergency.
1. Emergency due to external aggression or armed rebellion.
2. Emergency arising out of the failure of the constitutional machinery in the States.
3. Financial emergency.

1. Emergency arising out of external aggression or Armed Rebellion:
According to Art. 352 if the President is satisfied that a grave emergency exists whereby the security of India or any part of India is threatened by war, external aggression or armed rebellion, he may proclaim a state of emergency. Under 59th amendment in Punjab emergency can be declared on the ground of internal disturbances. The President can declare emergency even before the actual occurrence of war, external aggression or armed rebellion.

But in the 44th Amendment it is provided that the President shall not issue a proclamation of Emergency unless the decision of the Cabinet that such a proclamation may be issued has been communicated to him in writing. According to 42nd Amendment, President can declare emergency in the whole of India or in such part of the territory there of as may be specified in the proclamation. Such a Proclamation may be revoked by a consequent proclamation. If the proclamation has not been approved within one month by both the Houses of Parliament by two-thirds of the majority of the members present and voting, it will become ineffective. If such a

proclamation is issued at a time when the Lok Sabha has been dissolved or the dissolution of the Lok Sabha takes place during the period of one month, and if the Rajya Sabha has approved the proclamation within one month, but it had not been approved by the Lok Sabha, the proclamation shall cease to operate at the expiration of 30 days from the date on which the Lok Sabha sits after its reconstitution. However, if within 30 days the Lok Sabha approves the proclamation, it continues.

After approval of the Parliament emergency continues till the President revokes it by a subsequent proclamation. But it is provided in the 44th Amendment that for the continuance of the emergency, approval by resolution of both Houses would be required every six months. Provision is also made in the 44th Amendment that the proclamation of Emergency would cease to be operative whenever a resolution to that effect is adopted by the Lok Sabha by a simple majority of the members of the House present and voting.

Ever since the operation of the Constitution (Jan. 26, 1950), such an emergency has been declared three times. First, when India was attacked by China in October, 1962 and second when all of a sudden, Pakistan attacked India on December 3, 1971. Third time internal emergency was declared on 26th June, 1975 and this emergency was-removed on 21st March, 1977 whereas external emergency declared in 1971 was lifted on 27th March, 1977.

Effects of this Proclamation:
1. The most significant effect of this proclamation is that the federal form of the Constitution is converted into unitary form of government. The authority of the Center is increased till the emergency lasts. It should be remembered the State Governments do not cease to function. They continue, to function as before under normal conditions. But the Center gets the authority to give directions to the States as the manner in which the executive power of the States is to be exercised. The legislative power of the Center is also widened.

2. Parliament will have the power to make laws for the whole or part of India with respect to any of the matters given in the State List. Laws so made by Parliament shall cease to operate six months after the Proclamation of Emergency has come to an end.

3. The President, may by an order, modify the provisions relating to distribution of revenues between the Union and the States.

4. The Fundamental Rights given under Art. 19 (six freedoms) are automatically suspended throughout the country. The suspension of Art. 19 continues until the proclamation of emergency ends. However, under 59th Amendment this right can be suspended when emergency is declared in Punjab.

5. The President by order can also suspend the right to move the courts to enforce any Fundamental Rights. All proceedings pending in any court for the enforcement of the rights so mentioned may remain suspended for the period during which Proclamation is in force or for such short period as may be specified in the order. But according to 44th Amendmenl the enforcement of the right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 cannot be suspended. The order so made may extend to the whole or to any part of the territory of India. However, the order of the

parliament is required to be laid before each House of Parliament “as soon as may be after it is made.” And what is the definition of ‘as soon as may be’, the constitution does not fix any time limit for the order to be laid before Parliament.

2. Emergency arising out of the failure of constitutional machinery in a State. (Art. 356):
The second type of emergency powers given to the President deal with the failure of constitutional machinery in the State. If the President, either on the receipt of a report from the Governor of a State or otherwise, is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the Government of the State cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution, the President can proclaim emergency in that state.

In May, 1994, the Supreme Court had declared that dismissal of a state government by the President under Article 356 of the Constitution is open to judicial scrutiny. The apex Court had held that presidential proclamation under Article 356 could be challenged only on the ground that the exercise of power was malafide or based on wholly extraneous and irrelevant grounds.

Any proclamation made under Art. 356 may be revoked or varied by a subsequent Proclamation. The Proclamation issued by the President is required to be laid before each House of Parliament and it ceases to operate after the expiry of two months unless before the expiration of that period it has been approved by resolutions of both Houses of Parliament. If approved by Parliament, the Proclamation, remains in force for six months after the parliamentary approval. The duration of the proclamation can be extended for six months at a time and the maximum period is one year.

According to 44th Amendment, a resolution with respect to the continuance in force of a Proclamation under the article for any period beyond the expiration of one year from the date of issue of such proclamation shall not be passed by either House of Parliament unless a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation at the time of the passing of such resolution and the Election Commission certifies that the continuance in force of the proclamation under the Article during the period specified in such resolution is necessary on account of difficulties in holding elections to the Legislative Assembly of the State concerned.

Under 59th Amendment in Punjab President’s rule can be extended upto three years. Under 64th Amendment President’s rule in Punjab was extended six months more beyond three years. By 68th amendment President’s rule in Punjab can be extended up-to 5 years.

Effects of this Proclamation:
(i) The President can assume to himself all or any of the functions of the State or he may vest all or any of those functions in the Governor or any other executive authority.

(ii) The President can suspend or dissolve the State Legislative Assembly. He may declare that the powers of the State Legislature shall be exercisable by or under the authority of Parliament. However, Parliament will be competent to confer that power on the President and also authorize him to delegate those powers to anybody he thinks fit.

(iii) The President can make any other incidental or consequential provisions necessary to give effect to the object of the Proclamation.

(iv) If the Lok Sabha is not in session then the President sanctions the expenditure from the consolidated fund of the State.

President’s rule has been promulgated almost 121 times in states since the enforcement of the Constitution. Almost all the States have been, at one time or the other, been put under President’s Rule.

3. Financial Emergency (Art. 360):
If the President is satisfied that a situation has arisen whereby the financial stability or credit of India or any part of it is threatened, he may declare a Financial Emergency under Art. 360 of the Constitution. Such a Proclamation may be revoked by a subsequent Proclamation. The proclamation has to be laid before each House of Parliament.

It ceases to operate at the expiration of two months unless it is approved earlier by a resolution of both Houses of Parliament. The Proclamation in this case also should be approved by Parliament as in the other two cases of emergency. Like the Proclamation of war-emergency, Financial Emergency also continues for an indefinite period. Fortunately, this kind of Emergency has not been declared so far.

Effects of this Proclamation:
(i) During the Financial emergency, the executive authority of the union shall extend to the giving of directions to any State to observe such canons of financial property as may be specified in the direction or any other directions which the President may deem necessary for this purpose.

(ii) The President can ask a State to reduce salaries and allowances of all or any class of public servants connected with the affairs of a State.

(iii) The President can give direction to a State to reserve all Money Bills for the consideration of the President after they have been passed by the State Legislature.

(iv) The President shall be competent to issue directions for the reduction of salaries and allowances of all or any class of persons serving in connection with the affairs of the Union including the judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts.

Criticism:
Evidently the Constitution gives the President very drastic powers to deal with Emergency. Emergency powers of the President were criticised within and outside the Constituent Assembly. It has been said that these powers are not compatible with democracy. When the provisions relating to Emergency powers were passed, Sh. H. V. Kamath, member of the Constituent Assembly, declared, “ It is a day of shame and sorrow, God save the Indian people.”

Sh. K. T. Shah described Article 359, which empowers the President to suspend the right to seek enforcement of fundamental rights “as the grand final and crowning glory of this chapter of reaction and retrogression.” The power to abrogate fundamental rights of citizens during Emergencies can easily be abused for depriving the people of their liberty and imposing a totalitarian rule on the country.

According to H. V. Kamath, “ There is no parallel to the chapter of Emergency in any Constitution of democratic countries of the world”. He further said,, “I fear that by the single chapter we are seeking to lay the foundation of a totalitarian State, a police State, State completely opposed to all the ideas and principles that we have held aloft during the last few decades, a State where the rights and liberties of millions of innocent men and women will be in continuous jeopardy, a State where if there be peace it will be the peace of the grave and the void of the desert. I only pray to God that He may grant us wisdom, wisdom to avert any such catastrophe, grant us fortitude and courage.”

Another point of criticism is that during Emergency federal structure is changed into unitary one. T. T. Krishnamachari said, “The Constitution of India is designed to work as a federal system in normal times and as a unitary system in war and other emergencies.” Moreover, ruling party at the Centre by using Article 356 can declare President’s rule in a particular State simply because some other party is ruling the State. Article 356 was misused when nine state governments were dismissed on 30th April 1977 and in Feb 1980.

Justification of Emergency Powers. Emergency powers of the President are defended on the ground that Strong Centre is needed for security of the country. V. N. Shukla writes, “ These provisions may appear to be harsh, particularly in a constitution which professes to be built upon an edifice of fundamental rights and democracy. But the provisions may be studied in the light of India’s past history. India has had her inglorious days whenever the Central power was weak.

It is well that the Constitution guards against the forces of disintegration. Events may take place threatening the very existence of the State, together with all that is desired to remain basic and immutable will be swept away.” Country’s security is more important than the federal system. In the words of Dr. Ambedkar, “ It is only the Centre which can work for the common purpose and for the general interest of the country as a whole. Herein lies the justification of giving to the Centre overriding power to be used in the Emergency.”

It is not possible for the President to become a dictator. In India there exists a parliamentary form of Government. The essence of parliamentary form of Government is that the Head of the State is a nominal head. It is the Council of Ministers which is the real executive.

According to 44th Amendment, an Emergency can be proclaimed only on the basis of written advice tendered by the cabinet. In addition a Proclamation of Emergency must be approved by the two Houses of parliament by two-thirds majority within a period of one month. As a further check against the misuse of the emergency powers and to put the right to life and liberty on a secure footing, it is provided in 44th Amendment Act that the power to suspend the right to move the court for the enforcement of a fundamental right cannot be exercised in respect of the fundamental right to life and liberty.

According to 44th Amendment the provisions of Article 19 will become suspended only in the case of a proclamation of Emergency issued on the ground of war or external aggression and not in the case of a Proclamation of Emergency issued on the ground of armed rebellion. Moreover, if the President tries to become a despot, he will be impeached by the Parliament.

Conclusion:
We can conclude safely that it is not possible for the President to become a dictator. No doubt suspension of rights of the citizens is against democratic system but rights of the individual are not more important than the security of the State. To quote K. Santhanam, “The net result of Article 356 is that when there is a proclamation the State Government may come to be temporarily merged with the Government of the Union.

There is no question of autocracy under any circumstances. Only State autonomy may suffer temporarily.” Sh. Amar Nandi rightly remarked that the power conferred on the central executive to meet national emergencies is, so as to say, a loaded gun which can be used both to protect and to destroy the liberty of citizens. The gun must be used, therefore, with extreme caution.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 24 The Union Executive-President, Vice-President, Council of Ministers and Prime Minister

Question 4.
Discuss the election, powers and functions of the Vice-President of India.
Or
Write a short note on the Vice-President of India.
Answer:
Article 63 of the Constitution lays down that there shall be a Vice-President of India. Like the President of India, the Vice-President is also elected indirectly by the people. Whenever the office of the President falls vacant due to the death, resignation or removal of the President, the Vice-President acts for him. However, he acts for limited period only.

Qualifications:
A candidate for the office of the Vice-President must possess the following qualifications:
1. He should be a citizen of India.

2. He should have completed the age of 35 years.

3. He should be eligible to be elected as a member of the Rajya Sabha.

4. He must not hold any office of profit under any Government—Centre, State of Local. For purposes of this provision, the Constitution lays down that the offices of the President or Vice- President, Governor of a State or Ministers of the Union or State Governments, shall not be considered places of profit.

5. The Vice- President cannot be a member of either House of Parliament or of a State Legislature. If he is a member of either of these Houses at the time when he is elected as Vice- President, his seat in that Legislature is declared vacant from the date he takes over as Vice-President.

6. The name of the candidate for the office of Vice-President must be proposed and seconded by at least 20 electors each.

Election:
The Vice-President of India is elected by an electoral college consisting of the members of both Houses of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting at such election shall be by secret ballot. The two Houses need not sit together for this purpose. (The Eleventh Amendment).

It is significant to note that in the election of the Vice-President the nominated members of both the Houses have the right to vote while in the election of the President only the elected members of Parliament are eligible to vote. According to the Eleventh Amedment (1961) of the constitution the election of the President or Vice-President is not to be questioned on the ground that there was a vacancy in the Electoral College.

In August 2017. Sh. Venkaiah Naidu candidate of National Democratic Alliance was elected Vice¬President of India. Sh. Venkaiah Naidu defeated United Progressive Alliance candidate Sh. Gopal Krishna Gandhi. Sh. Venkaiah Naidu secured 516 votes while Sh. Gopal Krishna Gandhi secured 244 votes.

Term:
The Vice-President is elected for a term of five years. The period of five years starts from the date on which he enters upon his office. He is eligible for re-election. The Vice-President may resign his office by writing to the President before the expiry of five years. In 1969 when the Acting President V.V. Giri resigned, he addressed his letter of resignation to the President. This he had done on the advice of the Attorney-General. The office of the Vice-President may also fall vacant either on the death of the Vice-President or when he has been removed from office by impeachment.

Removal by Impeachment:
The Vice-President can be removed from office by impeachment. He can be removed from office if a resolution to that effect is passed by the Rajya Sabha by a majority of its then members and if the resolution is approved by the Lok Sabha. Fourteen days’ notice is necessary for moving such a resolution.

Salary:
As Vice-President of India, he gets no salary. The Vice-President is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha and he receives- a salary of Rs. 4,00,000 per month. He is also entitled to the use of offical residence. When the Vice-President acts as President, he has all the privileges, powes and immunities of the President. According to Vice¬President Pension Act, a person who ceases to hold office as Vice-President, either by expiration of his term of office or by resignation, is entitled to a monthly pension of Rs. 2,00,000.

Functions:
The duties of the Vice-President are two-fold: 1. He is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha and 2. He acts for the President when the office of the President is vacant. Even when the President is ill or otherwise unable to perform the duties of his office, the Vice-President acts for him.

As Vice-President. In the absence of the President or during casual vacancy in the office of the President, the Vice-President shall perform all the functions of the President. If the President is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence, illness or any other cause, the Vice-President will discharge his functions until the date on which the President resumes his duties. Under such circumstances:

  1. The Vice-President performs the duties of the President.
  2. The Vice-President has the authority to exercise all the powers concerning the office of the President.
  3. He can remain for a period of 6 months in the office of the President in the case of President’s resignation, death and removal from office. He cannot continue in the office of the President more than this period.
  4. He makes arrangement for the election of the new President within a period of six months. The new President must be elected within this period.
  5. The Vice-President can himself contest for Presidentship of the country.

The office of the Vice-President is next to the office of the President of the country. But the Vice-President has no functions to perform as the President of the country. He has the functions to perform only in the absence of the President. It is only an office of pride and honour.

As Chairman of Rajya Sabha. The Vice-President is the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha. That means that being the Vice-President of the country he is the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. He is to perform various functions in this capacity as the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha and they are given as follows:

  1. He presides over the meetings of the Rajya Sabha.
  2. He maintains decorum and decency in the House.
  3. He allots time to the members to speak.
  4. He is not a member of the Rajya Sabha. Therefore, he is not entitled to cast his vote but in case of a tie he makes use of his casting vote.

The Vice-President cannot perside over the meeting of the Rajya Sabha when:

  • He is acting as the President of the country and
  • When the Rajya Sabha is considering charges against him.

Position of the Vice-President:
The office of the Vice-President is not of any great importance. No doubt his office is next to the office of the President of India but he does not exercise any powers. The American Vice-President enjoys the remaining tenure of the President in case of President’s death or resignation or removal but in India under such circumstances the Vice-President works only as the acting President till the newly elected President joins.

As acting President the Vice-President will enjoy all the privileges and powers of the President. When a vacancy is caused, new President is to be elected within 6 months. The office of the Vice-President is not of great importance. But we will have to admit this that much depends upon the personality of the person who becomes the Vice-President. A person with a wonderful personality can become a very useful part of administration.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 24 The Union Executive-President, Vice-President, Council of Ministers and Prime Minister

Question 5.
What do you know of the composition, powers and functions of the Union Council of Ministers?
Answer:
The Constitution of India provides for parliamentary government in the country. At the Centre as well as in the States there is parliamentary government. The President is only the nominal head of the State. He exercises his powers on the advice of the Council of Ministers. It is written in the Constitution that there will be a Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister to aid and advise the President. In fact all the powers of the President are actually exercised by the ministers. The Council of Ministers takes decisions and the President can give them a piece of advice. The ministers run the administration according to their sweet will. It is why the parliamentary system of Government is called the Cabinet Government.

Composition:
The only provision made in the constitution for the formation of the Council of Ministers is that the President appoints the Prime Minister and the other ministers are appointed by him with the consultation of the latter. But the fact is that the President does not appoint, the Prime Minister of his own sweet will. Normally the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha is made the Prime Minister and all other ministers are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. The President cannot make any change in the list of ministers.

It is again the Prime Minister who distributes portfolios among the ministers. The ministers are taken out of the members of the legislature. If any outsider is appointed a minister, he must become the member of the legislature within 6 months. In Feb. 1988, Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi reorganized his Council of Ministers and there were 60 members in the Council of Ministers. In the Constitution, 91st Amendment Act provides that the total number of ministers including the Prime Minister, shall not exceed 15% of the total number of members of the Lok Sabha.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 24 The Union Executive-President, Vice-President, Council of Ministers and Prime Minister 6

In May 2019, there were 57 members in the Council of Ministers. It included 24 cabinet ministers, 24 ministers of state and 9 ministers having independent charge.

Term of Office:
It is written in the Constitution that the ministers will remain in the office during the pleasure of the President, It means that the President can remove the ministers from office whenever he likes. But it is not so. If the majority of the members of the Lok Sabha supports the Council of Ministers, it will continue to remain in office and the President cannot remove it. The ministers remain in office so far as they enjoy the confidence of the members of the Lok Sabha.

Salary:
The Constitution of India lays down that the salaries, allowances, etc. of the ministers shall be decided by the Parliament. The ministers are entitled to a salary, daily allowances and constituency allowances at the same rate as the members of Parliament.

Powers and Functions Of The Cabinet:
The Cabinet is the real ruler of the country. All the executive authority of the President is exercised by the cabinet. Following are the powers and functions of the Cabinet:

1. Determination of National Policy:
The polity of the nation is formulated by the Cabinet. After taking office the Cabinet is to formulate its internal and external policy according to which it is to run the administration of the State. It is the Government which is responsible for internal peace and order, and freedom from external aggression and better living of the people of the country. It has, therefore, to formulate policies in a way that they are helpful for the people of the country at large.

2. Control over Administration:
The administration of the country is to be run by the ministers. Every member of the Council of Ministers has one or more departments under his charge and he has to look after its working and administration. No doubt, it is the civil servants who carry on the administration but this administration has to be within the framework of the policies laid down by the Council of Ministers. Departmental administration has to be run by the civil servants but it is the minister who is responsible for the smooth running of the administration.

3. Foreign Relations:
It is the function of the Cabinet to maintain relations with other countries. These relations are established according to the policies laid down by the Cabinet. The ambassadors to foreign countries are appointed on the advice of the cabinet. The correspondence with other countries is done of course in the name of the President but actually it is the Cabinet who performs this function. It is the Cabinet which enters into treaties with other countries.

4. Legislative Powers: In a Parliamentary Government there is a close relationship between the Cabinet and the legislature. It enjoys many legislative powers.

  1. The ministers are taken from among the members of the Parliament and they have a big share in law-making.
  2. The President convenes the meetings of the Parliament on the advice of the Council of Ministers.
  3. The Cabinet prepares the programme of the session.
  4. The ministers introduce the bills in the House and see them through. Most of the bills in a Parliamentary Government are introduced in the Parliament by the ministers. They explain the policy and the purpose of the bills to the Parliament.
  5. Laws in the Parliament are framed in accordance with the wishes of the Cabinet. As the ministers belong to the majority party so they are sure of the support of the members to their bills.
  6. The President issues ordinances on the advice of the ministers.

5. Financial Powers: The Cabinet enjoys many financial powers:

  1. The budget is prepared by the Finance Minister in consultation with other ministers.
  2. It is the ministers who suggest an increase, decrease or abolition in the taxes. Money bills can only be introduced by the ministers.

6. Appointments:
Important appointments are made only on the advice of the ministers. For example, the appointments of Governors, Ambassadors and members of the Union Public Service Commission are made on the recommendations of the ministers.

7. Administrative Justice:
The ministers also exercise judicial powers. They are to decide many administrative matters. They are to give a decision in administrative matters and decisions of the ministers are final. While deciding cases the ministers have the right to adopt judicial methods like all other courts.

Conclusion:
The above mentioned powers and functions of the Cabinet clearly explain that the administration of the State is run according to the wishes of the Cabinet. It can run the administration in a way it likes. It is rightly said that the ‘Cabinet is the steering wheel of the ship of the State’. It is said that the British Cabinet has become the virtual dictator, the State and the Parliament have become subservient to it.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 24 The Union Executive-President, Vice-President, Council of Ministers and Prime Minister

Question 6.
Distinguish between the Cabinet and the Council of Ministers.
Answer:
There are some differences between the Cabinet and the Council of Ministers. This distinction must be clarified. The Cabinet is a part of the Council of Ministers and the real authority is enjoyed by it.

Council of Ministers:
The Council of Ministers consists of the following types of ministers:
1. Cabinet Ministers:
These are the most important ministers. They control the important departments of administration. They frame policies and decide all other important matters, They are generally 25 to 30 in number. It is these ministers who form the Cabinet. All the powers of the Council of Ministers are exercised according to the wishes of the Cabinet.

2. State Ministers:
The State Ministers also head some departments. But they are not entitled to participate in the meetings of the Cabinet. They can be invited to attend the meetings of the Cabinet when some special issue or the issue concerning their department is to be discussed.

3. Deputy Ministers: The Deputy Ministers are appointed to assist the Cabinet ministers and the State ministers in the performance of their functions. The Deputy Minister is not the head of any department. The Deputy Ministers are appointed almost in each department.

4. Parliament Secretaries:
The Parliamentary Secretaries are not minister and they are not members of the Council of Ministers. Parliamentary Secretaries are not appointed by the President. They are appointed by the Prime Minister. They have no independent powers or functions. They assist the ministers to whom they are attached to do their parliamentary work. They have no control over the administrative departments. They are, infact, probationers under training and may hope to rise to higher ranks if they make good.

5. Deputy Prime Minister:
Neither the Constitution nor any of the Union laws provide for the office of the Deputy Prime Minister. It is the sole discretion of the Prime Minister to bestow the rank and the status of Deputy Prime Minister on any number of members of the Cabinet. Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel was given the status and rank of Deputy Prime Minister in the Council of Minister headed by Late Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.

Similarly in the Cabinet headed by Late Mrs. Indira Gandhi, Mr. Morarji Desai was ranked as Deputy Prime Minister of the country. The rank and status’of Deputy Prime Minister was conferred on Sarvashri Charan Singh and Jagjivan Ram in the Council of Ministers headed by Sh. Morarji Desai.

In the Ministery headed by Sh. V.P. Singh, Ch. Devi Lai was sworn in as the Deputy Prime Minister of the country. In June, 2002, Mr. Lai Krishan Adwani sworn in as the Deputy Prime Minister of India in the ministry of Mr. Atal Behari Vajpayee. The office of the Deputy Prime Minister carries neither special responsibilites nor special privileges.

The Council of Ministers consists different types of ministers. Their number is near about 65. But the Cabinet consists of only the Cabinet ministers and all important decisions are taken by them. Whatever decisions are taken by the Cabinet all the ministers are to abide by them. All the members of the Council of Ministers are to carry out those decisions.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 24 The Union Executive-President, Vice-President, Council of Ministers and Prime Minister

Question 7.
What are the main features of the Cabinet System in India?
Answer:
In India the parliamentary system of government has been adopted. The Council of Ministers exercises all the powers of the President. It performs its functions on the basis of the following principles:

1. President a Constitutional Head:
The first important feature of the parliamentary system of government is that the Head of State enjoys only nominal powers. The entire administration of the State is run in the name of the President but in reality it is the Cabinet which is responsible for running the administration of the State. The President takes all the decisions on the advice of the Prime Minister.

The Prime Minister is the head of the government whereas the President is the head of the State. The President cannot participate in the meetings of the Cabinet and he is kept out of the Cabinet. The President appoints the Prime Minister, but he must appoint the leader of the majority party as the Prime Minister of India. He does not interfere in the formation, meetings and the decisions of the Cabinet.

2. Close relationship between the Cabinet and Parliament:
There is a very close relationship between the Cabinet and the Parliament. The Cabinet is formed from among the members of the Parliament. If any outsider is appointed a minister he must become the member of the Parliament within six months otherwise he will have to quit the office.

3. Leadership of the Cabinet:
The Cabinet performs its functions under the control and guidance of the Prime Minister. The appointments of the ministers are made by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister presides over the meetings of the Cabinet. He can remove any minister from office. He also co-ordinates the working of the ministry.

4. Political Homogeneity:
The members of the Cabinet hold the same view point because they belong to the same political party. The Cabinet works like a unit. Therefore, all the members of the. Cabinet must agree with one another. If the ministers are taken from different political parties, they will never agree over policy matters because each political party would like to implement its own policy. It is very necessary that the ministers should be taken from the same party so that administration could be run smoothly.

5. Cabinet works as a Team:
The Cabinet works as a team. The members of the Cabinet swim and sink together. They perform their functions in consultation with one another. All the ministers are individually as well as collectively responsibly for their work. No-confidence motion against a particular minister means a no-confidence motion against the entire ministry and the entire ministry is to resign. The resignation of the Prime Minister means the resignation of the entire ministry. All the ministers are to abide by the decisions taken by the Cabinet. All the ministers remain in office or lose office together.

6. Leadership of the Prime Minister:
Indian Cabinet works under the leadership of the Prime Minister. According to Art. 74, there shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister at its head to aid and advise the President in the exercise of his functions. Ministers are appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister. Portfolios are distributed by the Prime Minister and he has the power to change the portfolios of the ministers.

He presides over the meetings of the Cabinet. In case of disagreement between a minister and the Prime Minister, the minister will have to resign. No person can remain in the Cabinet against the wishes of the Prime Minister. The resignation of the Prime Minister means the resignation of the whole Council of Ministers.

7. Prime Minister’s right to get the Lok Sabha dissolved:
Another feature of the Indian Cabinet system is that the Prime Minister can advise the president to dissolve the Lok Sabha. On Feb. 6, 2004 the President Dr. A.P.J. Adbul Kalam dissolved the Lok Sabha on the advice of the Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee.

8. Secrecy:
Cabinet keeps the proceedings of its meetings absolutely secret. No minister can convey to anybody the decisions taken by the ministry and the discussion which took place while taking the decisions. The decisions can be announced by the concerned minister at the proper time.

9. Ministerial Responsibility:
The ministers cannot exercise their powers in an arbitrary manner. They are responsible for their actions and policies to the legistature. The members of the Parliament can ask them questions and supplementary questions and they are to answer them on the floor of the House. In case, the Parliament loses confidence in the ministers, they will have to resign. The Parliament can indicate its lack of no-confidence over the ministry by passing a no-confidence resolution. Even if the Parliament passes a no-confidence motion against one minister the entire ministry is to resign.

PSEB 11th Class Political Science Solutions Chapter 24 The Union Executive-President, Vice-President, Council of Ministers and Prime Minister

Question 8.
How is the Prime Minister appointed? Discuss his powers and functions.
Or
Discuss the position of the Prime Minister.
Answer:
The Prime Minister is the most important and powerful functionary of the State. He can be called the ruler of the State. The Prime Minister is the head of the Council of Ministers and all the powers of the President are actually exercisd by the Prime Minister. He can rule the country in a way which he thinks the best. He is the architect of the fate of State. The Government can do nothing against his will.

Appointment:
The Prime Minister is appointed by the President but while doing so the President is not having a free hand. Only that person can be appointed to the office of Prime Minister who is the leader of majority party in the Lok Sabha. After the general election the President invites the leader of the party which has gained majority in the Lok Sabha to form the Government.

In Dec. 1984, Mr. Rajiv Gandhi was appointed Prime Minister because he was the leader of the majority party (Congress I) in the Lok Sabha. If no political party gets an absolute majority in the Lok Sabha even then the President is not free to appoint anybody the Prime Minister. Under such circumstances only that person will be invited to form the Government who can seek the co-operation of the majority of members in the Lok Sabha.

After the 17th Lok Sabha election held in April-May, 2019, Sh Narender Modi was appointed as the Prime Minister.
Term of Office. The Prime Minister does not have a fixed tenure of offfice. He remains in office so long as he enjoys the support of the majority party. If the majority of members of the Lok Sabha loses confidence in the Prime Minister, he is to resign the office. On 11th April, 1997 Prime Minister H.D. Deve Gowda resigned because his resolution of vote of confidence was rejected by the majority members of the Lok Sabha.

Salary and Allowances. The Prime Minister gets the same salary and allowances which are paid to members of Parliament. He also receives a constituency allowance like other M.Ps. He is also entitled to free official residence, free travels, medical facilities, etc.

Powers And Functions Of The Prime Minister:
The Prime Minister enjoys vast powers which have made his office very important and powerful. His powers and functions are given as follows:
1. Prime Minisiter and the Cabinet:
The Prime Minister is the maker of the Cabinet. The Cabinet has no existence without the Prime Minister. He can make or unmake a Cabinet. The Cabinet performs all its functions under the control and guidance of the Prime Minister. Therefore, he is called “the keystone of the Cabinet arch” or “shining moon among the stars”. He enjoys the following powers in connection with the Cabinet:

(i) Formation of the Council of Ministers:
His first duty after assuming office is the formation of the Council of Ministers. He prepares a list of ministers according to his sweet will. He has a free hand in the selection of ministers. Nobody can be appointed a minister against the wishes of the Prime Minister. Number of Council of Ministers depends upon him. In the Constitution, 91st Amendment Act provides that the total number of ministers including the Prime Minister, shall not exceed 15% of the total number of members of the Lok Sabha. In May 2019, there were 57 members in the Council of Ministers.

(ii) Distribution of Portfolios:
The Prime Minitser distributes work among the ministers. He decides what department is to be allotted to a particular . minister. He controls the working of the departments of his ministers. If the Prime Minister is not satisfied with the working of a department, he can change the department of that minister. He distributes particular departments to ministers in such a way that they can run the departments quite efficiently. He also co-ordinates the working of different departments.

(iii) Removal of the Minister:
The ministers remain in office during the pleasure of the Prime Minister. If the Prime Minister is not satisfied with the working of a minister or the minister does nto run the department in accordance with wishes of the Prime Minister, he can ask him to quit the office and can appoint someone else in his place. In June, 1978 Prime Minister Morarji Desai asked Home Minister Char an Singh and Mr. Raj Narayan to resign from the cabinet and Mr. Charan Singh and Raj Narayan submitted their resignations.

On 1st August, 1990 the Prime Minitser V.P. Singh sacked his Deputy Prime Minister, Mr. Devi Lai, from the Council of Ministers. On April 20, 1998 Prime Minister Vajpayee sacked Communication Minister Buta Singh because he refused to resign. The Prime Minister can make changes in the Cabinet whenever he likes. With the resignation of the Prime Minister the entire ministry falls.

(iv) Leadership of the Cabinet:
The Prime Minister is the leader of the Cabinet. The Cabinet functions under the conrol of the Prime Minister. He can call the meetings of Cabinet whenever he likes. The Prime Minister prepares the agenda of the meeting as