Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 10 Social Stratification Important Questions and Answers.
PSEB 11th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 10 Social Stratification
Multiple Choice Questions:
1. What is meant by the stratification of castes?
(a) Division of society in different parts
(b) To unite .society
(c) To divide society
(d) None of these
(a) Division of society in different parts
2. Disadvantage of caste system is …………….
(a) Division of society
(b) Obstacle in the way of social progress
(c) Obstacle in social reform
(d) All of these
(d) All of these
3. Marriage within caste or sub-caste is known as ……………….
4. Caste system is a ………………..
(b) social institution
(b) social institution
5. Ancient Indian society was divided into ………….. parts.
6. What is the function of caste system?
(a) To control behaviour
(b) To give occupation
(c) To provide social security
(d) All of these
(d) All of these
7. What is the impact of class system on society?
(a) Caste system is weakening
(b) Lower caste people are moving upward
(c) One gets a chance to show his individual abilities
(d) All of these
(d) All of these
8. Which of these is not a feature of class system?
(a) Completely achieved
(b) Change in status of groups
(c) Membership based on birth
(c) Membership based on birth
9. What is the difference between caste and class?
(a) Caste is based on birth and class is based on ability
(b) One can change class but not class
(c) Many restrictions are there in caste but not in class
(d) All of these
(d) All of these
10. Which of these-is a feature of class?
(a) Feeling superiority and inferiority
(b) Social mobility
(c) Development of sub-classes
(d) All of these
(d) All of these
11. The system in which individuals get different social status on different bases is known as …………….
(a) Caste system
(b) Class system
(c) Community system
(d) Social system
(b) Class system
PSEB 11th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 10 Social Stratification
Fill in the Blanks:
1. …………….. is the process of dividing society into different layers.
2. Caste is an ……………… group.
3. Ghurye gave …………….. features of caste.
4. Varna system was based on ………………
5. Caste system is based on …………………
6. …………….. explained about capitalist and labour class.
7. There were ……………….. major castes in caste system.
1. Caste is an exogamous group.
2. Ghurye gave six features of caste.
3. The concept of untouchability came forward due to caste system.
4. Jyotiba Phule did a lot to bring reforms in caste system.
One Word/Line Question Answers:
Which system has divided our society?
Caste system has divided our society.
From which language’s word, the word caste came?
Word ‘caste’ has originated from a Portuguese word ‘CASTA’.
Which type of class is caste?
Caste is a closed class.
Who were given the highest place in Caste system?
Brahmins were given the highest place in caste system.
Which caste was greatly exploited in Caste system?
Fourth caste was greatly exploited in caste system.
What is meant by Endogamy?
When marriage is done within own caste then it is known as endogamy.
Which type of occupation of an individual is there in caste system?
In caste system, occupation of an individual is based on birth. It means one is required to adopt the occupation of his family.
On what, mutual relations in caste system are based?
In caste system, mutual relations are based on superiority and inferiority.
What is meant by closed caste system?
The class tvhich cannot be changed is known as closed caste system.
What is used to make Kachcha food and Pakka food?
Water is used to make Kachcha food and oil is used to make Pakka food. Question 11. How many features of caste system are given by G.S. Ghurye? Answer: G.S. Ghurye has given six features of Caste system.
When was Untouchability Offence Act passed?
Untouchability Offence Act was passed in 1955.
When was Civil Rights Protection Act passed?
Civil Rights Protection Act was passed in 1976.
When was Hindu Marriage Act passed?
Hindu Marriage Act was passed in 1955.
Which thing was restricted in Untouchability Offence Act?
It was restricted that no one will be called as untouchable.
How many castes approximately are available in India?
Approximately 3,000 castes are available in India.
Which type of marriage is allowed in caste system?
Endogamy is allowed in caste system.
In how many parts, ancient Indian society was divided?
Ancient Indian society was divided into four parts.
What was the merit of caste system?
It has protected Hindu society, has given stability to society and definite occupation to the people.
Which type of change is coming in caste system?
Prestige of Brahmins is declining, untouchability remains no more and traditional occupations are coming to an end.
Give main features of caste system.
Membership of caste remains for life, segmental division of society is there and one has to adopt his traditional occupation.
What is the demerit of caste system?
Lower castes are exploited, untouchability increased and personality of an individual is unable to develop.
How is caste a closed group?
Caste is a closed group because one cannot change it even if he has the ability to do so.
How occupation is fixed in caste system?
Occupation in caste is traditional. It means one has to adopt the occupation of his family.
Which two laws have helped in the weakening of caste system?
- Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.
- Untouchability Offence Act, 1955.
How has industrialization affected the caste system?
In industries, people of different castes started to work together with which caste based restrictions came to an end.
When people, of two different castes marry each other then it is known as inter-caste marriage.
Is caste system changing?
Yes, caste system is changing due to a number of factors like education, industrialisation, urbanisation, laws etc.
Maintenace of Purity of Blood.
When one marries within his own caste then it maintains the purity of blood as blood of other castes never mixes with one’s caste.
When an individual does marriage within his own caste or group then it is known as Endogamy.
Is class intermarriageable?
Yes, class is intermarriageable. It means endogamous as well as exogamous.
Hierarchy in Caste.
There were four castes—Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Lower castes. This was the hierarchy in caste.
What is the basis of class?
Money, wealth, prestige, education, occupation etc. are the bases of class.
Short Answer Type Questions:
Hierarchy of Castes.
Society was divided into four castes and due to this division, there was a definite system of high or low social status in society. This system of division of society into four castes is known as hierarchy of castes.
How is the social status of an individual determined?
In caste system, the social status of an individual was determined by the caste in which he was born. But in class system, the social status of an individual is based on his individual ability.
Caste develops the sense of Co-operation.
It is a fact that caste develops the sense of co-operation among its members. As members of one particular caste has same occupation, that’s why they work in co-operation with each other.
What is Kachcha food?
Kaccha food is that food in whose making, oil or ghee is not used, only water is used. In caste system, it is fixed that from which caste one can take kaccha food and from which caste one can take pakka food.
What is Pakka food?
Pakka food is exactly opposite to Kachcha food. Pakka food is that food in whose making ghee or oil is used. It is fixed that from which caste one can take Pakka food.
Modern Education and Caste.
Now people are taking modern education which is based on Science and reason. That’s why gradually people come to know about demerits of caste and it leads to removal of caste restrictions from the society.
Social Security in Caste.
If any problem comes to an individual then all the members of one caste collectively solve that problem. In this members of each caste get social security from their respective castes.
Membership of caste based on birth.
It is a fact that membership of caste is based on birth. One cannot leave the caste in which he is born. At any cost he cannot leave his caste even if he is having the ability to do so.
To maintain purity of blood.
Caste is an endogamous group in which one needs to marry in his own caste. It helps in maintaining purity of blood as blood from all the castes never mixes with each other.
Give one definition of caste.
According to Martindale and Mona Chesi, “A caste is aggregate of persons whose share of obligations and privileges is fixed by birth, sanctioned and supported by magic and religion.”
Exploitation of lower caste.
In caste system, lower castes were exploited by the upper castes. They were misbehaved and were not given any rights. They lived their lives in hell like conditions.
Discuss two changes in the Caste System.
- Due to the passing of many Legislations, the discrimination of untouchability is coming to an end.
- Due to the advent of many new occupations, the hierarchical order of the caste system and the superiority of many castes is changing.
Caste as Segmental division of society.
Give the number and name of castes.
In caste system, whole of the society was divided into different parts. First part comprised the Brahmins, second part comprised the Kshatriyas, third part was Vaishyas and the fourth part comprised the people of lower castes.
Change in the caste regarding marriage.
Now people work with each other and come closer to each other. It led to increase in inter-caste marriages. People started to marry according to their own wish. Child marriage no more prevails, widow marriage is increasing day by day.
Short Answer Type Questions:
What is Stratification?
Stratification is a process in which high and low groups have been divided in social structure and their roles and statuses have been determined. Every group has its definite place and all the groups are related with each other with inferiority and superiority relations. English word ‘Strata’ is originated from the Latin word ‘Stratum’ whose meaning is layer. Its meaning is that any specific object has been divided in different layers and these layers have system of superiority and inferiority.
Two characteristics of Social Stratification.
- Universal Process : Stratification is a universal process. We cannot find any human society where stratification was hot there.
- Inequality of Status : Every member doesn’t have equal status. Anyone has superior position and anyone has low position.
Main bases of Social Stratification.
- Social Stratification can be divided in two parts:
- Biological basis.
- Socio-cultural basis.
What are the Biological bases of Social Stratification?
Give the names of Socio-cultural bases of Stratification.
- Economic Basis
- Occupational Basis
- Political Basis
- Religious Basis
Age as the base of Social Stratification.
Persons have different positions in society on the basis of age like-child, young, elder. Age is the most important factor in India to give a vote, to become adult, to become M.P. or to become President of India.
The educational base of Social Stratification.
Literate persons are known as intelligent in the society and illiterate people are known as idiots. Persons who get higher education have more respect in society as compared to others and even are known as the members of higher class. Illiterate people don’t have respect in the society. In this way society has been divided in literate and illiterate persons on educational basis.
What is the result of stratification according to Marx?
Marx was of the view that there are two classes in society. First one is the owner of means of production and other class is not the owner of means of production. On the basis of this ownership, owner class gets higher status and non-owner class gets lower status in society. Marx has given the name of capitalist class or Bourgouise to owner class and labourer class or proletariat to non-owner class. Capitalist class always exploits the labourer class and labourer class always struggles with capitalist class to get its rights. This is the result of stratification according to Marx.
Which type of relations are there in different classes?
According to Marx, the mutual relations of classes are of inter-dependence and struggle. Capitalist and labourers both depend upon each other for their existence. Labourer class has to sell its labour to earn meal. It sells its labour to capitalist and depends upon capitalist to earn its meal. Capitalist gives the rent of his labour for this capitalist also depends upon labourers because without labourers, he can neither produce any thing nor he can accumulate wealth. But struggle also goes on with dependency because labourer always struggles with capitalist to achieve his rights.
Karl Marx lias studied two classes in each society. According to him, there exist two classes in each society. One class is the exploitive class and the other class is exploited class. There always exists conflict between them which Marx calls class struggle. Exploitive class is capitalist class which has all the means of production and with the help of which it suppresses the other classes.. Second class is labour class which doesn’t have any means of production. To earn bread and butter, it needs to sell its labour. This class i.e. labour class is always exploited by the first class i.e. the capitalist class because of which struggle is always there between these two groups. This struggle is given the name of class struggle by Karl Marx.
Means of Production.
Means of production are those means through which money is earned to live a happy life. A person uses means of production and production talent to produce material things and all these elements colloectively form the production forces. Means of production are owned by the Capitalist with the help of which he produces surplus value and exploits the labour class. Capitalist becomes more rich with these means of production and he uses these means to suppress the labourers.
Meaning of Caste.
Hindu social system has one of the important complex and interesting institutions which is known as caste system. Word Caste has been taken from Portuguese word ‘Casta’ whose meaning is birth. Caste is an endogamous group whose membership is based on birth. Occupation is hereditary and traditional, many types of restrictions are there regarding ways of living, eating, relations and marriage. According to Risley, “Caste is a collection of families or group of families bearing a common name, claiming a common descent from mythical ancestor, human or divine. Professing to follow the name hereditary calling and regarded by those who are competent to give an opinion as forming a single homogeneous community.”
Give any four characterises of Caste.
- Membership of caste is based upon birth.
- Caste is an endogamous group.
- Restrictions on social relations are there in caste.
- Restrictions are there in caste regarding feeding.
- Occupation of a person is hereditary in caste. It means that no one can adopt an occupation of his choice.
- Society is divided in different segments.
- There is a definite hierarchy in caste system.
What is Hierarchy?
There was a definite hierarchy in caste system. Society was divided in different segments on the basis of their higher or lower status. Brahmins got the higher status in all parts of India. Kshatriya were coming at second place and third place was of Vaishyas. Fourth and the last place was given to lower castes. Social status of any person in society was determined on the basis of this hierarchy.
Membership based on birth.
Membership of any caste is based upon birth. No one can determine his caste according to his- wish. Social status of a person was determined by that caste in which caste that person was born. No one can change his caste even if he has the ability to do so. In this way the person used to get social status according to the caste in which he was born, not on the basis of individual ability.
Which type of restrictions are there in caste regarding food?
Some clear rules are there in caste system which tell us that with which caste we can establish relations regarding food or feeding. Whole food has been divided into two parts-Kachcha food and Pakka food. Kachcha food is that food which can be made with the help of water and Pakka food is that food which can be made with the help of oil or ghee. A general rule is that any person never takes kachcha food till that time until it has not been made by the person of his own caste. Brahmins accept Pakka food from any specific caste.
How occupation is fixed in caste?
According to the rules of the caste system, all the castes have their traditional, specific and hereditary occupations. Every person has to adopt the occupation of that caste in which he is born even if the other occupations are more profitable. Person had no choice instead of adopting his traditional and hereditary occupations. Main function of the brahmins was to perform religious rites and to give education to people. Function of Kshatriyas was to protect the country and rule over the country. Vaishyas were doing agriculture and business and the function of lower castes was to serve the people of three higher castes. All of them had to adopt traditional occupations.
Describe the functions of caste.
- Caste determines the occupation of a person.
- Caste provides social security to a person.
- Caste gives mental security to a person.
- Caste maintains purity of the blood.
- Caste provides political stability to the country.
- Caste saves the technical knowledge.
- Caste determines the rules related to education.
Caste is a closed group.
Is Caste a closed group?
Yes, caste is a closed group. Meaning of closed group is that the membership is based on birth. Social Status of a person was determined by that caste in which he was born. Person can neither leave his caste nor can he change his caste. Anyone cannot change his caste even if he has enough ability. Membership of caste was not based upon the ability and wish of the person but was based upon birth. In this way it is a closed group.
Give merits of Caste.
- Caste does division of labour.
- Caste maintains the social unity.
- Caste maintains the purity of blood.
- Caste makes the rules of education.
- Caste produces cooperation in society.
- Caste provides mental and social security to the person.
Causes of change in caste.
Why is caste changing?
- Socio-religious movements.
- Efforts of Indian government and making of legislations.
- Contribution of Britishers towards change.
- Change in caste due to industrialization.
- Because of the spread of education.
- Because of development in the means of transport and communication.
Is caste changing?
Future of Caste.
Yes, caste is changing rapidly. Now importance is given to money instead of caste. The policy of reservation is being adopted in jobs for scheduled castes. Now a person can adopt any occupation. Inter-caste marriages have been started. Many changes have taken place in the rules of feeding. Now elections are fought in the name of caste. In this way after looking at this we can say that the caste is changing.
Demerits of Caste.
- Position of women is lower in the caste system.
- Caste system increases untouchability.
- Caste system increases casteism.
- Caste system increases cultural conflict.
- aste system is a hindrance in social unity and social mobility.
- Caste system produces hindrance inefficiency of the person.
- It is against the democratic values of the country.
Meaning of class system.
Class is a group of people which are equal to each other and every class has its own status in society. According to this, every member of class has some responsibilities, rights and powers. Class consciousness is the main necessity of class. Person in class thinks about others as higher or lower than him.
Two characteristics of class system.
- Class consciousness : Every class is conscious about the fact that its status or prestige is higher than the other class. It means person knows about higher, lower or equal status.
- Restricted social contracts : In class system people like to establish close contacts with the members of their own class and have very limited relations with members of other class.
Bases of Division of Class.
- Family and kinship
- Property income and wealth
- Direction of place of living
- Status symbols.
Long Answer Type Questions:
Explain different bases of social stratification.
Stratification, in every society has diffemt features because they are based upon the social values and the important ideologies. That is why the bases of social stratification are also different. Nature of the process of social stratification is different in different societies. It is related with the social values which exist in that society. That is why social stratification has many bases. But we can divide these bases in two parts
- Biological Basis
- Socio-Cultural Basis
Now we will explain both of these basis in detail.
1. Biological Basis. Humans, on the base of their Birth, are given higher or lower position in society in biological basis. In simple words, the relation which exists in different humans and groups can be determined on biological basis.
Biological base, in social stratification, is related with the birth of the person. Some times persons get higher or lower status in society on the basis of their birth. Some of the biological bases are given below:
1. Birth. Stratification, in the society, also exists on the basis of the birth. If we look carefully at the ancient Hindu society then we can see that humans were getting higher or lower social status on the basis of their birth. There were mainly 4 castes existing in Hindu society. Persons related with those castes in which they were bom were getting status on the basis of their birth. Persons were not allowed to change their castes even if they had the ability to do so. In this way there was a hierarchy in caste system. So on the basis of this description we can say that humans were not getting social status according to their ability or wish. The main base of social startification in caste system was birth. Humans were getting higher or lower social status on the basis of the birth.
There was no value of personal ability of the person in this. Person’s ability was neither helpful in changing caste nor it was helpful in taking up his social status. Maximum what a person was able to do was that he was free to take his position up only in his caste. But his position was definitely lower from other castes even if he had the higher status in his own caste. Social Status of person in caste stratification is not determined on the basis of his ability but is determined by his birth. Even today we can find this ype of stratified life on the basis of caste in Indian rural societies.
2. Age. After birth, social stratification also exists in society on the basis of age. Famous sociologist Harry M. Johnson has given different stages of human age in his book ‘Sociology’ and these are :
- Childhood stage
- Adolescence stage
- Adult stage
- Old stage
Many other scholars also have given different stages of life of the person. Status of a small child is never higher in any society because a child doesn’t have complete development. The way in which he becomes older his mental level also develops. Maturity also comes in it with the development of mental level. That is why mature persons are also given preference over younger ones. If we look at the Indian government then we can see that most of the people in it are of older age. Minimum age of 35 years is required to become the President of India. If we look at the family system in ancient Indian society then we can see that the control of the family was in the hands of people of more or higher agd. In India minimum age to give vote is 18 years. But many changes were brought in modem society by Indian government. Like age of giving vote is now 18 years instead of 21 years. Today more and more young people are coming in politics like Rahul Gandhi, Naveen Jindal, Omar Abdullah etc.
But the older people are the pillars of politics. They prepare the younger generation to take the responsibility of the country. In this way government has fixed the age of marriage so that the custom of child marriage could be stopped. People of more age has more respect in all the societies. In many tribes a council is made with the people of more age and they take many decisions related to their societies. In Australian tribes, Administrative rights are in the hands of people of more age.
In ancient Indian Society a scheme of Ashramas existed in which age of 100 years was fixed for every person. Age was fixed for every Ashrama. For example age of 1— 25 years was fixed for Brahmcharya ashrma, 26—50 years for Grihastha ashrama, 51—75 years for Vaan-Prashta Ashrama and the age of 75 years till death was fixed for Sanyasa Ashrama. In this way we can see that stratification exists in every society on the basis of age and person gets status in the society on this base. So age is given enough importance in determining responsibility of different status. Any function of more responsibility is neither given to any child nor it is given to any young one. It is definitely with age. That is why age is fixed to become President, Prime Minister or M.P. and even to give vote. It is so because it is believed that mental level and experience increases only with age.
3. Sex. Sex is also the basis of stratification. Difference on the base of sex is of male and female. If we will see the history then earlier societies were divided only on the base of sex. Females were doing household works and males were going out of the house to collect the eatables.
Family is divided in two parts on the basis of authority :
- Patriarchal Family.
- Matriarchal Family.
Both types of families exist on the basis of sex. Father’s authority is very important in Patriarchal family. But family is under the control of mother in matriarchal families. But if we look at the ancient societies then we will see that males have got higher status in society. Functions of males and females are also different. Even in modern societies differntiation still exists on the basis of sex. The government has done a number of efforts to bring females in many sectors. Some states are giving free education to females. But still we can see many differences on this base. In western countries females are considered as equal to male but even till today no female has been able to become the President of U.S.A. Some roles are different naturally in males and females. Like only female can give birth to child. In this way we can say that sex is also a very old base of startification through which status of male and female is determined in society.
Right from the ancient times females were considered as inferior to males becuase of which their social status and functions remained differnt. After independence, many laws were made,in India with the help of which many disabilities of females were removed. Now the girl has the right to take share from the father’s property. But still in many states, females are considered as inferior to males and discrimination is there on the basis of sex. Yet females are doing every type of work these days and are working with males but still discrimination is there on the basis of sex.
4. Race. Race is also one of the biological hases of the process of social startification. Society has been divided in different groups on the basis of race. Mainly three types of races of humans exist and these are :
A system of hierarchy exists in these three classes. White race means Caucasion has got a higher status in society. Yellow race means Mangoloid comes at the middle level and black race means Negroid has got the lowest status in society. In U.S.A., even today, white race is considered as superior to black race. People of white race are sending their children to different schools to study. Even they never marry in each other’s race. Yet some changes have come in this base but still it is one of the bases of social startification. Blacks are discriminated by whites. Even discrimination is there between them while giving certain facilities. White people even discrminate with Asian people because they consider themselves superior to yellow and black people.
2. Socio-Cultural Basis. Stratification, in society, not only exists on biological basis but it also exists on socio-cultural basis. There are many socio-cultural bases which are given ahead
- On the basis of occupation
- Political basis
- Economic basis
- Educational basis
- Religious basis
- On the basis of blood relations.
Now we will explain them in detail.
1. Basis of occupation. Society has been divided in many parts on the basis of occupation. Some occupations in society are considered as very important and some are considered as less important. In the varna scheme, society was stratified on the basis of occupation. Humans were getting the social status according to the occupation which they had adopted. For example if any one was getting education of vedas and adopted the occupation of giving education to the people then he was included in brahmin varna. The wish of adopting occupation was of person himself. According to Kingslay Davis, the achievement of able person for any specific occupation affects the status of that occupation. Some sociologists have considered it as the main base of social startification.
In modern society, person adopts his occupation according to his ability to do work. For example, in modern Indian society, the occupations of Doctor, Professor, Engineer etc. have a better place in society than the occupation of clerk or suprintendent. Those occupations have higher social status in society which are considered as important in controlling the society. In this way society gives them status by checking the abilities, disabilities etc. of different occupations.
Yet the occupations in earlier societies were based upon caste and the status of person was also determined according to caste but in modem societies, occupation is considered more important than the caste. The position of an I.A.S. officer will definitely be higher than the peen. In the same way some officers, Judges, Megistrates etc. don’t have same status even if their occupation is same. In short, stratification in society exists on the basis of different occupations. For example, the occupation of a prostitute will be considered as lower even if she has a lot of money.
2. Political base. Different types of stratification exist in every society on political basis. Stratification, in Indian society, exists on this base. Political system in India, remains important on the basis of family or lineage. India is a democratic country. The main power in it is in the hands of President. Position of Vice-President is lower than that of President. Two types of groups exist in every class.
- Ruling class
- Ruled class or Suppressed Class.
The position of ruling class is higher than that of ruled class. Even in administrative system different officers get social status according to their job. According to famous sociologist Sorokin, “If political organization spreads then political stratification also increases. Complexity also increases in social stratification with political system. If any sudden change comes in political system due to any revolution then political stratification also changes. There are many political parties in India but the status of that political party is higher which rules over the country. In ancient tribal societies, every tribe had one head who takes care in solving the problems of the tribe and was loyal towards the tribe. Administration in the kingdoms was in the hands of kings end they were running the administration according to their wish.”
Politics also exists in family. Father has the highest position in family. Higher place in the administration of country is of President, then is of Vice President, Prime Minister, cabinet ministers, state ministers and deputy ministers. Some leaders in every political party have higher status and some have lower status. Some leaders are of National Level and some are of regional level. Some political parties also are of national level and some are of regional level. Position of that political party will definitely be higher which has political power in its hands. For example, today the status of B.J.P. is definitely higher then that of Congress because it has political power in its hands.
3. Economic base. Famous sociologist Karl Marx has considered economic base the alone base of stratification in society. According to him, two classes always exist in every society.
1. Owners of means of production i.e. capitalist class
2. Those who don’t have means of production i.e. labour class. Position of those persons is higher who own the means of production. Marx has given them the name of capitalist class. On other side labour class is there which works under the control of capitalist class. Capitalist class always exploits the labour class. On the basis of wealth, three classes are there in society :
- Higher Class
- Middle Class
- Lower Class
In this way the relations of inferior and superior exist in them. According to Sorokin as base of social stratification, economic elements are moving up and and down. This moving up and down is of two types—progress and downfall of any group in economic sector and the more or less importance of economic element in the process of stratification. Its result comes in the form of going upwards like economic pyramid and spreading after reaching at one level and not to go more high. According to Sorokin, the average income of every society and group is different. This average income of groups keeps on changing in different times with which status of these groups also changes. In this way position always moves higher or lower in socio-economic sector.
Generally having or not having property is the main base of stratification in society. Person with more property will definitely have higher status in society and person with less property will have lower status in society. We can take example of capitalist and labour class in modern society. Society generally is divided in three classes-higher, middle and lower class and these classes are very much conscious about their membership. They never like that any lower class people would enter their class. Every class has many sub-classes because difference of income is always there. One millionaire is also rich and one multi-millionaire is also rich but the position of multi-millionaire is higher than that of millionaire. Because income is the base of this class that is why a person can change his class and membership by increasing his income. If a person can move to higher class with more income then he can also move to lower class in the absence of more income. This type of society is also known as open society.
Relations between economic based classes are quite limited in nature. Many sub classes exist in one class like in capitalists class one is multi millionaire and one is billionaire. Persons are free to achieve higher status in class system which is based on economy. Poor person can achieve middle or higher class by earning more and more money.
In short, modern society is known as industrial society. Hierarchy of high or low exists in society on the basis of having or not having property. In this way it is also one of the important bases of social stratification.
4. On the basis of Education. We can also stratify society on the basis of education. Society can be stratified in two parts on the basis of education i.e.
- Literate Class
- Illiterate Class
Status of literate class is definitely higher than that of illiterate class. Person who gets education, with hard work, gets more respect in society. It is one of the important bases of stratification in modern society. Literate person gets more respect than that of illiterate person. Position of a Professor, who has done Ph.D., is definitely higher than that of a Matric pass person. Status of an engineer, doctor or teacher is higher than that of a peon because they are more literate than a peon. In this way stratification is there in society on the basis of education.
5. Religious base. Society is also stratified on religious base. In ancient Hindu society, brahmins had got the highest place in society according to religious system. It is so because they were getting education of religious vedas and were giving education to others. Shudras had got the lowest position because according to Hindu religious system, they are considered as untouchables. Many religions exist in India. Members of every religion consider themselves superior to the members of other religions. In this way social stratification also exists on the basis of religion. There are many religions in India which consider themselves superior to the other religions. Any religion, whose members are more than the other religion, is definitely considered as higher than that of other religion. We can take example of Hindu religion and Christianity in India.
6. Basis of blood relations. Person also gets higher or lower status in society on the basis of the family in which he is born. For example son of any king is given the status of king when he becomes younger. In., this way sometimes human gets social status on the basis of the family or blood relations. Position of any child who is born in the Gandhi family is definitely higher than that of child of any ordinary people. In this way there are many bases of stratification in society on the basis of which inequality exists in society.
What is Caste System? Explain the features given by G.S. Ghuriye.
Caste system is one of the most important social institutions which is coming on from ancient times. It was one of the important bases of social stratification on the basis of which status and role of the person was determined in society. Meaning of caste system. The word ‘caste’ originated from the Portuguese word ‘Casta’ which means Race. It is also closely related with the Latin word ‘Castus’ whose meaning is Pure race. Actually, caste system is based upon birth. The caste in which the person takes birth, he needs to live with that caste only for the whole life. With the birth of the child, his ways of living life are determined. It keeps some restrictions on its members which are necessarily to be obeyed by the person. This caste system was one of the main bases of Indian social system and all the aspects of Hindu social life were affected by this system. Its effect was so powerful that it affected every group and community living in India. Word caste has been taken from the Sanskrit word ‘Jana’ whose meaning is birth. Yet this system prevailed in other societies also but its developed form was available in India.
Definitions of Caste System:
(1) According to Risley, “Caste is a collection of families or group of families bearing a common name, claiming a common descent from mythical ancestor, human or divine. Professing to follow the same hereditary calling and regarded by those who are competent to give an opinion as forming a single homogeneous community.”
(2) According to Robert Bierstdt, “When a class system is a closed group on one or more than one issue then it is known as caste system.”
(3) According to Blunt, “A caste is an endogamous group or collection of endogamous groups, bearing a common name, membership of which is hereditary, imposing on its members certain restrictions in the matter of social intercourse, either following a common traditional occupation or claiming a common origin and generally regarded as forming a single homogeneous community.”
(4) According to Ketkar, “Caste is a social group having two characteristics :
- Membership is confined to those who are born as members and includes all persons so born.
- The members are forbidden by a social law to marry outside the group.”
G.S. Ghuriye has given features of the caste system which are more acceptable :
- Segmental division of society
- Restrictions on feeding and social intercourse
- Civil and religious disabilities and privileges of various castes.
- Lack of unrestricted choice of occupation
- Restrictions on marriage.
Now we will see these features in detail:
1. Segmental division of society : The caste system divides the Hindu society in many parts in which it determines or fixes the status, position and functions of the members of every part. That is why members of any specific group are conscious about their position and because of which they think themselves as unbreakable part of that group. The area of interaction of members of one caste is limited to its own caste because of this division of society in parts. Every caste has its own ways of living, traditions, values etc. Generally members of one caste interact with the members of its own caste. In this way according to Ghuriye one caste is a social unit in which person lives his whole life.
2. Hierarchy : In most of the parts of India, Brahmin varna has got the highest status. We can see a definite hierarchy in caste system in which all castes are kept in a definite hierarchy. In this system the status of highest and lowest caste is definitely determined but there is some unclarity between the middle caste.
3. Restrictions on feeding and social intercourse : There are some definite and detailed rules in caste system which tell us that with which caste a person can keep social relations and with which caste he can keep relations of feeding. Whole food has been divided in two categories of‘Kacha Food’ and ‘Pakka Food’. We need water to cook ‘Kacha Food’ and we need oil to cook Pakka Food. There are a number of restrictions in giving and taking food to different castes.
4. Civil and religious disabilities and privileges of various castes : Different castes have special civil and religious disabilities. In ancient times impure castes were kept out of the limit of the village. There were restrictions on social intercourse with impure castes. They were restricted to go to the temples of higher castes, they were restricted to take water from the wells. They were restricted to read religious books. Children of lower castes were restricted to get education. Higher castes had special privileges over lower castes.
5. Lack of unrestricted choice of occupation : According to the rules of caste system, some castes had traditional occupations. Members of the caste had to adopt the traditional occupation. But some occupations like trade, agriculture, job etc. were free to be done by anyone. But still with that a number of castes had definite occupations like carpenter, blacksmith, potter etc.
6. Restrictions on marriage : Castes were again divided into sub-castes. These sub-castes were restricting their members to marry out of their group. The characteristic of caste is that it is an endogamous group. Person has to marry in his own sub-caste. If any one was breaking this rule then he was generally thrown out of his caste.
Give features of Caste System.
1. Membership is based on birth : Membership of caste is based upon birth and no one can fix his caste with his own wish. Person used to get social status according to the caste in which he was born. One cannot change his caste even if he has the ability to do so. Is this way membership of caste is based upon birth and not on the ability of an individual.
2. Restrictions in social relations : In earlier times, whole of the society was divided into different castes and their status was pre-determined. There were a number of restrictions regarding keeping relations with other castes. People of upper castes were keeping relations only with upper castes. They were not allowed to keep relations with lower castes.
3. Restrictions on eatables : Several clear rules are there in caste system which tells that with which caste one has to keep feeding relations or not. Whole of the food was divided into two categories and these were Kachha food and Pakka food. Water was used to make Kachha Food and oil was used to cook Pakka food. There was a general rule that one never eats the Kachha food unless it is made by the member of his own caste or the food must be made by the Brahmin or his Guru. That’s why most of the castes accepted the food given by Brahmins. But Brahmins never accepted Kachha food made by any one of the other caste. Pakka food was accepted only by a specific caste. In this way restriction on feeding was one of the major features of caste system.
4. Restriction on occupation : According to the rules of caste system, castes had their specific traditional occupations. Person had to adopt the occupation of his own caste even if the other occupations were more profitable. Man had no choice except adopting his caste’s occupation. But some occupations were free to be adopted by any one like trade, agriculture, job in military etc. Even many castes were free to adopt any occupation but many castes used to do their traditional functions like carpenter, blacksmith, barber, potter etc. Main function of Brahmins was to give education and to perform religious rites, function of Kshatriya was to protect the country, function of Vaishyas was to do agriculture and trade and lower castes used to serve the higher castes. They had to perform their traditional functions.
5. Restrictions on marriage: Caste system was again divided and different castes were divided into sub-castes. These sub-castes used to restrict their members to marry out of their group. Endogamy is the important feature of caste system. It means to marry in the group. Yet in some specific conditions, there were some relaxations. But generally they had to marry in their own caste. If anyone was breaking this rule then he was generally thrown out of his caste and was restricted to enter any other caste. In this way everyone used to marry in his own caste or sub-caste.
6. Segmental division of society : Hindu society was divided into many parts by caste system and the status, place and function of every part were determined by it. That is why members had some consciousness of being members of a group and used to think themselves as the unavoidable and unbreakable part of the group. Because of this segmental division of society the area of interaction for a person was generally restricted to his own caste. Panchayats were free to give punishment to the person who will break the rules of caste. Different castes had different traditions and way of living. People of one caste were generally interacting with the persons of their own caste.
7. Endogamy : There were strict restrictions related to marriage. Man was not allowed to marry out of his caste but he had to marry in his own sub-caste. If anyone was breaking this rule then he was generally thrown out of his caste. Anulom marriage was also allowed to a certain extent. That is why boy of higher caste used to marry girl of lower caste. So endogamy was the main base of caste system.
Explain the functions of caste system.
1. To control individual’s behaviour: Rules of the caste system were forcing the person to live acoording to the rules made by society. Caste used to tell the person about his behaviour of occupation, restrictions of feeding, social intercourse and marriage and man was working according to them.
2. To provide social security : Caste provides social security to all its members. Members of a caste were ready to give help .to the* other members of their caste from any aspect. Whenever person was in great problem, caste always comes forward for his help. In this way all the members of caste were joining their hands at the time of problem. At every moment they were ready to give help to each other.
3. To provide occupation : Occupation of a person, in caste System was pre-determined even at the time of his birth. Different castes had different functions like function of Brahmin was to give education, function of Kshatriya was to protect the society, function of Vaishya was to do business and the function of lower castes was to serve higher castes. People believed in Karma theory that person will take next birth according to the deeds of his birth and he will get functions according to that. In this way every person had to adopt his traditional occupation.
4. Functions related to Marriage : Rule of Endogamy exists in caste system. Person has to marry in the same caste in which he is born. Caste puts certain restrictions on its members to marry in the caste only and if he tries to break the rule then he is thrown out of the caste.
5. To provide Mental Security: Persons don’t have any individual responsibility in the caste system because whatever caste is determined for him he has to accept that. The person used to get status according to his caste in which he was born. There was no mental pressure on him of occupation or marriage. In this way he was getting mental security from the caste.
6. It develops the feeling of co-operation : Members of the caste were always ready of give help to each other. Every person obeyed the rules made by caste. Rule breaker was thrown out of caste. In this way all the members of caste lived with each other with which stability was maintained in caste.
7. Educational Function : Caste always tried to tell about the rules related to education of its members. Education was confined only to the people of higher castes. Only Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas were allowed to take education.
8. Preservation of culture : Every caste has its own culture. Members of caste preserve their culture from generation to generation. Every caste has its own rules and traditions of eating, living, marriage, education etc. Children adopt these traditions from their parents. In this way it is an important function of caste system to preserve the culture of the caste.
9. Maintenance of the Purity of blood : Rule of endogamy exists in caste system. According to this rule man has to marry in the same caste in which he is born. On the basis of this rule members of higher castes marry in higher caste and members of lower castes marry among lower castes. In this way this rule maintains the purity of blood.
10. Security of Religious customs : Religious customs are also related with i ;aste. Every caste has’its own different religious customs. It is necessary to perform religious customs among Brahmins. So caste system helps in securing religious functions of caste.
What are the merits and demerits of caste system?
Merits or Advantages of Caste System:
1. It gives Social Security. The biggest advantage of caste is that it provides social security to all its members. Members of one caste are always ready to give help to other members of the caste. That is why there is no need to worry for anyone because he knows that if any problem comes on him then .his caste will definitely give him help. Caste system determines social status of man and reduces the Impossibility of competition.
2. Fixation of Occupation : Another characteristic of caste system is that it cletermines the occupation or function for the person. This occupation is according t o his family and is transmitted from one generation to another generation. Occupational qualities come automatically in the child of the family. In this way specialization comes in the person without any formal education. Except this it also reduces the competition of occupation in society and provides economic security. but this way it is an important advantage of caste system.
3. Purity of Blood : Caste System is an endogamous group. The meaning of (endogamy is that man has to marry in his own caste and if any one was trying to 1 break this rule then he was forced to leave the caste. Advantage of this thing is that : it stops the blood of other castes to come in their caste and it maintains the purity i af blood. In this way its advantage is that it helps in maintaining purity of blood.
4. Division of Labour : Another important advantage of caste system is that it i produces feeling of love and dedication among humans towards their duties. Humans vvith lower duties were doing their functions properly. Caste system fills one feeling within its members that every person has got his function according to the deeds of 1 lis previous birth and if he will do good deeds in this birth then he will get next birth in higher caste. It reduced the sense of hatred towards their functions and toward others. With this people did their functions properly. Caste system has divided the society in four varnas. Everyone knows about its functions properly. All of them do their functions properly and transmit their trade secrets to their next generations. In this stability is maintained in the society towards their functions and it helps in increasing division of labour and specialisation.
5. To make rules of education : Another important merit of caste system is that it has made definite rules regarding getting education and has made religion as the base of education. Education helps the person in learning self control, knowledge about occupation and to live in discipline. Education also gives knowledge about daily routine and occupation. Caste system determines that who will get education and which rule he has to obey. In this way caste system arranges the education for person according to the social status of his caste.
6. It maintains Social Unity : Another merit of caste system was that it kept the Indian society in unity. Caste system has divided the whole society in four parts and has given different functions to different parts. The way in which everyone has s different functions in division of labour, in that same way caste system has producec t division of labour in society. These different parts do different functions but he each other and fulfill each other’s needs. In this way even after this division, the are tied in the thread of unity.
7. It gives Mental Security : Caste gives mental security to its members. Fron n the rules of caste, every person comes to know that which occupation he has t o adopt, in which group he has to marry and perform religious customs and wit] a which groups he has to establish social relations^In this way when a person is fre e from these burdens then he feels secured himself mentally.
Demerits or Disadvantages of Caste System:
1. Low Status of Women : The main reason of the low status of women is cast e system. Because of controls of caste system, the position of Hindu women was no t more than a maid in the family. Because caste is an endogamous group, that is wh y to find a match for their children in their own caste, they advocated the child marriage;. It has resulted in polygamy. Kuleen Vivaha has also produced many evils in societ; y like polygamy, dowry system. Females used to work only in the house. They had n o rights. In this way the main reason behind all the problems of women was cast e system. Even it had not given the permission of widow remarriage and female wa s a server for the family only.
2. Untouchability: Problem of untouchability came into being because of divisioi i of society by caste system. A big portion of total population was made untouchablt e and they were generally disgraced by the higher castes because their function wan known as non-sacred. Their position was even less than servants. They were restrictec l in many ways. They were not allowed to take part in economic sector. In this way J i large portion of population was just like a burden on society. That is why poverty r came in society. It produced the sense of hatred in society and the problem of casteism came into being.
3. Casteism : With caste system, our thinking has been shrinked. Too much dependence upon caste related to marriage, occupation, social relations etc. increase d the sense of casteism among people. It has increased the sense of prestige and hatred among people. It has increased the social and physical farness among the people. Because of this we have to face the problem of casteism. People only think about their caste.
4. Cultural Conflict : There are many restrictions in the relations of different castes and because of this every caste is a closed group which has its own ways of living. This differentiation has given birth to cultural conflict. Different castes have been divided in different cultural groups. We can see a number of conflicts in these groups. Higher castes think that their culture is superior and that is why they keep themselves away from other castes.
5. It stops Social Mobility : Distribution of status in caste system depends upon birth. No one can change this with his ability. Every member knows that he cannot change or improve his position. This system never motivates to do hard work because person knows that he cannot change his position even with hard work. It is an obstacle in economic progress. People cannot invent anything even if they have ability to do so because people have to adopt their traditional occupation. Many occupations are running at very less pace because of caste system.
6. It stops efficiency among persons : The main reason of people lacking in efficiency is that they are under the control of caste and caste system. All the members of all the castes ard not working by coordinating with each other instead they try to create obstacles in the way of other caste. Their occupation is hereditary and even if they don’t have any ability to do that work, they have to adopt their ancestral occupation. It reduces efficiency in person.
Which changes are coming in Caste System? Write in detail.
Many changes are coming in caste system. These changes are not the result of any factor but are the result of many factors like industrialization, urbanization, modem education, development in means of transport, governmental efforts, new laws etc. They have completely changed the caste system and these changes are given below:
1. End to the discrimination and untouchability. In 1955, Indian government passed a law ‘Untouchability Offence Act’ and tried to eradicate untouchability. Now if any one says ‘Untouchable’ to any person of lower caste then he will be considerd as criminal. Government adopted the policy of reservation in government institutions to uplift the lower castes. On the basis of this policy, special provision is kept to give jobs to lower caste people. In modern times person of every caste is doing every type of work. Government gave scholarships to the people of backward classes so that they should be able to get any status in society with some hard work. In this way the discrimination of untouchability has been reduced to a great extent.
2. Change in caste hierarchy. The hierarchy which was determind by the caste system in Indian society, has been changed completely. Lower castes have been uplifted in society by a number of processes like urbanization, industrialization, sanskritization etc. In modem times, no caste considers itself inferior to the other castes. Even people of higher castes are ready to marry in the lower castes. Some want to obtain the facilities given to lower castes by the government and some want to marry in them after looking at their richness. In this way social mobility came into being in Indian society and now we cannont find the hierarchy of castes anywhere.
3. Changes in restrictions of food and drink. In ancient times, feeding of the caste was determined by the caste. Food was divided into two parts and feeding relations of a caste were pre-determned. But in modern times it was very difficult to adopt these restrictions. When people of differnt castes came in contact with each other in cities then these restrictions slowly and slowly came to an end. Cooks in hotels belong to different castes and people eat in hotels by sitting with each other and without asking each other’s caste. In cities people work with each other and that is why they start to eat with each other. In this way a number of changes have come in the feeding restrictions of a caste.
4. Decline in the status of Brahmins. Changes in caste system were started even under the rule of Britishers on Indian society. First of all British government started to behave equally with all the people of different castes. According to them all of them are IndiAnswer: They started to give western education to Indian people instead of religious education. Every one was free to get education in these educational institutions. In this way there was no question of superiority of brahmins because humans started to attain social status according to their ability and not on the basis their caste. Lower castes have taken their status upwards by doing progress in economic sector. After Independence, Indian government tried to remove the superiority of upper castes by making some laws. Now every one can get higher status in society by getting higher education. In this way the importnce of the birth of the person has come to an end. Importance of money has reduced the superiority of upper castes. Now the rich person gets more respect and prestige in society.
5. Freedom in Selection of Occupation. In ancient Indian society, occupation of person was determined right after his birth and it was according to his caste. Person had to adopt the occupation of his caste, even against his wish. He was not allowed to adopt any other occupation except his pre-determined occupation. But because of many reasons, society started to give importance to personal ability. Now humans are free to adopt occupation of their choice. It means that person can select the occupation according to his ability. Even the concept of profit has been tied with this. No occupation is higher or lower in their eyes. Now they adopt that occupation in which they see more profit. In this way the freedom, which a person has got in selection of occupation, has brought changes in caste system.
6. Change in Status of Woman. The status of woman was not good under the influence of caste system. She used to spend her life only by living in the four walls of the house. She was neither free to get education nor she was free to speak on any subject. In this way she had to spend her life in a suppressed way. But in modern times, she has got freedom in all sectors of life and she is now no more under the control of males. Now she is economically self-dependent. Status of females have been completely changed. Now people feel happy in case of birth of a baby girl. Now there is no differnce in boy or girl child. Even government has given reservation to females for their upliftment. Now every female is free to marry anywhere she wants. Even her parents are not interfering in her decisions.
7. Change in the Marriage System. In ancient times, caste system had made many tough rules related to marriage. No one was free to marry out of his sub-caste. But in modern times people have started to work with each other with which they came closer to each other. Inter-caste marriage has got sanctions of society. Now person can marry anywhere with his wish. Second change which came in the sector of marriage is that earlier child marriage was very popular. Widow had to live as a widow for the whole life and she was not allowed to remarry. But government has banned child marriage and has set the age for mariage i.e. 18 years for girl and 21 years for boy. Widow remarriage was also given sanction by society and governments.
Explain different bases of class distribution.
There are many bases of class distribution which are given below.
- Family and Kinship
- Property, income and money
- Location of Residence
- Status Symbol
1. Family and Kinship : Family and kinship are very important in determining status of class. According to Bierstdt, “As a base of social class, importance of family and kinship is not eqiial in all societies, but it is one of the base out of those bases which can be used as a part of the whole system.” Status given by family goes from generation to generation. For example the children born in the family of Tata, Birla will remain capitalist because their ancestors have earned a lot of money for them and they can live their life happily without doing anything. In this way person will get higher status who is born in a rich family. So in this way person gets higher status in class system due to his family and kinship.
2. Property, income and money: Property, income and money are the important base of class. That is why modern society is known as capitalist society. Money is a source which can take person to higher class in quick succession. Karl Marx has also believed that money is the alone base of class determination. Here more money doesn’t mean that person is rich, the thing which is important is how this money has been earned. Smugglers have a lot of money but their status is very low. Prostitutes also have a lot of money but their way of earning is not good. So the means is also important for determination of class.
3. Occupation : Occupation is also known as the determinant basis of social class. Which type of occupation a person is doing in society, is also related with class system. Some occupations in our class system are very important and some are less important. The social status of Doctor, Engineer, Professor is always higher irrespective of their family status. People give them a lot of respect. Occupation of an illiterate person is always lower in society. In this way occupation is an important determinant in class system. Every person has to do some work in life to live and he does this1 work according to his ability. He gets social status in society according to his occupation. If any one accumulates money with wrong deeds then his position is always low in society. In modern Indian society occupations related to education are of more importance.
4. Location of Residence : Where the person is living, is also a determinant factor of his class. We can see that people are very choosy, about their place of living. Some areas in the city are ‘posh areas’ and some are backward areas. Persons who are living in posh areas have higher status and persons living in backward areas,slums and small colonies are of low status. Labourers, sweepers are generally making their colony in any area. Rich people are living in big and clean houses but poor people are living in slums.
5. Education : Modern society has been divided in two classes on the basis of education:
- Literate Class
- Illiterate Class
Importance of education exists in every society. We can generally see that literate people have more prestige in society irrespective of money. That is why today every person is trying to get education according to his present position. Nature of education is also responsible for the determination of class status. Status of technical persons is higher in industrial societies as compared to a simple person.
6. Power : Because of development of industrialisation and with the advent of democracy, power has also become a base of class structure. More or less power also determines the class of the society. With power, the social, economic and political status is also determined. Power is in the hands of people of higher strata and these can be politicians, military officers, rich people etc. We can take example of Indian Government. Status of Narendra Modi or Arun Jaitley is definitely higher than the position of Sonia Gandhi or Rahul Gandhi because they have power and authority in their hands. In the same way the position of B.J.P. is definitely higher than the Congress because today B.J.P. government is there in centre.
7. Religion : According to Robert Bierstdt, religion is also one of the important factors of social status. Some societies exist in” the world where traditional fundamentalist views have great influence. Status is determined on the basis of higher or major religion. In modem times, where.society is developing very quickly, the importance of religion has been reduced due to industrialization, western education, modernization etc. In ancient Indian society, Brahmins had highest status but today it is not so. Status of Muslims in Pakistan is definitely better than that of Hindus and Christians because Islam is the religion of Pakistan. In this way sometimes, religion also plays an important role in the determination of status of class.
8. Race : Race is also a determinant of class in many societies of the world. White people are considered as of higher class and black people are considered as of lower caste. Asian countries are seen with the sense of hatredness in western countries. We can see racial conflict commonly in these countries.
9. Caste : In Indian Society, where caste system has played an important role from centuries, caste is also an important factor in determining class. Caste is based on birth. You cannot change your caste even if you have the ability. The membership of caste in ancient times was based on one’s birth.
Difference and Interface Between Caste and Class:
Give difference between Caste and Class.
What are the differences between Caste and Class? Write in detail.
1. Caste is based on birth but class is based on action : Membership of a person in caste system was based upon birth. Person was related with that caste for the whole life in which he was born. For example, a person, who was born in Kshatriya caste, will remain Kshatriya for the whole life an d he cannot change his membership. Membership of a person in class system is based upon income, education, occupation, ability etc. Person can change his membership according to his wish. A person can relate himself to the higher caste with hard world. Member ship of class is based upon ability. If the person does have ability but he never does any work can go from higher caste to lower caste. But if he does his work then he can change hi.s position from lower caste to higher caste. In this way cash is based upon birth class is based upon action.
2. Occupation of caste is determined but not of class : In caste system occupation was determined by the birth of the person. It means that occupation a were related with different castes. Person had to adopt the occupation of the caste in which he was born. He cannot change his occupation for this whole life. In this way he had to adopt the occupation of his caste even against his wish. Scope of selection of occupation in class system is very wide. It if 5 the wish 0f the person to choose the occupation. He adopts that occupation in which the is expert or which is more profitable. He can change his occupation at any time this way the selection of occupation deponds upon the ability of the person.
3. Membership of caste is ascribed but members! hip of class is e achieved : Status of person in caste system was; related with his cas te. It means status was not achieved by him but was related with his birth. That is why the – word ascribed was used for his status and that is why stability was there in caste system. Status of person was determined by the status; of the family.Status of person in class system is achieved. It means has to achieve his position in society. That is why the person in hard working righ from the start. Person can get higher or lower status in society with his ability. Birth i & of no importance. Person’s ability and hard work are important in changing his position.
4. Caste is a closed system but class is an open syste. Caste system is a close system of stratification because person has to live in its restrictions for the whole life. He can neither change Inis caste nor his occ upatir jn. Class system is an open group of stratification. Person has every type of indej jendence in it. He can move forward in any area with hard work. He gets full ch and to change his position from lower to higher. Class is open for everyone. Person car . become member of any class according to his ability. Perseverance and hard work can change his class many times in his life.
5. There are many restriction in caste system but at in class: Caste system puts various restrictions on its members. There were ma ny restrictions related to feeding, social intercourse. Caste had full control over the 1 ife of the person. One was not in a position to break these re strictions. Person has individual freedom in class system. There is no control or restriction over feeding, marriage, social int ercourse etc. Person if any class can establish contacts with person of any class.