Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Sociology Book Solutions Chapter 3 Society, Community and Association Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
PSEB Solutions for Class 11 Sociology Chapter 3 Society, Community and Association
Sociology Guide for Class 11 PSEB Society, Community and Association Textbook Questions and Answers
Answer the following very short answer questions in 1-15 words each
State the meaning of society.
According to Maclver, “Society is the web of social relationships.”
Society and community are derived from which words ?
Word Society is derived from a Lgtin word ‘Socivs’ which means companionship or friendship. Word Community is also derived from a Latin word ‘Communitias’ which means things held in common or shared.
Who said, “Man is a social animal.”?
These words are of Aristotle.
Who gave the simple compound society, compound society, double compound society and trebly compound society classification?
This classification is given by Herbert Spencer.
What is association?
When few people co-operate with each other, form an organisation to achieve a particular objective, this organisation is known as Association.
What is an open society ?
The society in which people are free to move from one class to another, is known as an open society.
Answer the following short answer questions in 30-35 words each
Discuss the three characteristics of society.
- Society is a group of people with mutual relationship among them.
- Society always depends upon likeness and differences.
- Society is based upon co-operation and conflict.
Describe the types of society.
There exist many societies in the. whole world such as tribal society, rural society, industrial society, post-industrial society etc. But different scholars have given different classification on different basis such as Comte (intellectual development), Morgan (social development), Spencer (the degree of structural complexity), Tonnies (types of social ties), Durkheim (types of solidarity) etc.
What is community?
When few individuals live in a group, in a particular geographical area and they spend whole of their life over there without any particular purpose, it is known as community. It is a concrete concept and members have ‘we’ feeling among them.
How is society different from community? Mention two points.
- Society is not having any geographical area but community develops in a particular geographical area.
- Conflict and co-operation both are there in society but only co-operation exists in community.
Define association and discuss its characteristics.
According to Bogardus, “An Association is usually a working together of people to achieve some purpose.” It is having certain characteristics such as it is established deliberately, it is having a definite objective, it develops and comes to an end, its membership is based on individual’s wish etc.
State two differences between community and association.
- Community is not made for a particular objective but association is formed for a particular objective.
- Membership of community is not optional but of association, it is optional.
Answer the following long answer questions in 75-85 words each
Write a short note on human society.
When sociologists use the word society then their meaning is not only by the collection of people. Their meaning of society is by the web of relationships among members of society with which people are connected with each other. Just by collection of some persons, we cannot make a society. Society can be made only when meaningful relations are established among people of the society.
These relations are abstract in nature. We cannot see them and they don’t have any concrete form. We can only feel them. They exist in every form of life. We cannot separate them from each other. These are so much interrelated that it is very difficult to differentiate and separate them. The web of these social relationships is known as society. We cannot see them because they are abstract in nature.
Name the three stages of human society as identified by Auguste Comte.
Auguste Comte gave three stages of human society’s evolution and these are :
- Theological Stage
- Metaphysical Stage
- Positive Stage.
Which are the main bases of Community ?
- A Community develops of its own.
- Each Community has its particular name.
- Each Community develops in a particular geographical area in which an individual lives.
- These days community is having a specific base that it is self-dependent in itself.
- We-feeling always exists in each community.
- Stability is always there in community. It means they never break up.
Give three examples of association.
- Political Parties
- Labour Union
- Religious Organisation
- International Associations.
What are the types of society discussed by Tonnies ?
(i) Gemein Schaft. According to Tonnies, “Gemein Schaft is a community whose members live by co-operating each other and spend their lives. Permanent and primary relations are there in its life; for example, rural society.”
(ii) Gesell Schaft. According to Tonnies,“Gesell Schaft is a new phenomenon which is formal and of less duration. It is nothing but individuals live in society. Its members have secondary relations among them.”
Answer the following long answer questions in 75-85 words each
What do you understand by the term society ? Write a detailed note.
In simple language, the meaning of society is generally taken as a group of people. Many philosophers use this word in the same sense. In this way meaning of society can be taken from the group of persons, not from their mutual relations. Sometimes meaning of society is taken from any institution such as Arya Samaj, Brahmo Samaj etc. In this manner in the language of a layman, meaning of the word society has been taken in the same sense. But in Sociology its meaning is quite different from this meaning.
In Sociology meaning of word society is not the group of the people but is taken by those laws which emerge out of their mutual relationships’. Social relationships are very important among people. They are an integral part of a society. It is not a thing but is a process. The important thing in society is the mutual relationships and interactions among people with which people live with each other. When any sociologist uses word society in general form then his meaning of society is by the web of social relationships and when he uses word society in special sense then his meaning is that society is a group of people in which special type of relations exist.
When Sociologists use the word society then their meaning is not merely by the collection of people. Their meaning of society is by the web of relationships among members of society with which people are connected with each other. Just by collection of some persons, we cannot make a society. Society will be made only when the meaningful relations will be established among the people of society.
These relations are abstract in nature. We cannot see them and they don’t have any concrete form. We can only feel them. They exist in every form of life. We cannot separate them from each other. These are so much interrelated that it is very difficult to differentiate and separate them. The web of all these social relationships is known as society. We cannot see them because they are abstract in nature.
Some writers are of the view that society can be made only then when its members know each other and when they have some mutual interests. For example, if two persons are sitting in a bus and they don’t know each other then they cannot make a society. But when they start talking to each other, come to know about each other then existence of society starts. They should have mutual interaction among them to form a society.
Actually society is the web of social relationship. Humans who live at one place have mutual relations and mutual interests. They are dependent upon each other and they make a society. This thing will become clear when we will see the definitions of society given by different sociologists.
Individual and society are interrelated. Comment.
According to Greek philosopher Aristotle, “Man is a Social Animal.” It means that man lives in society. Without society there is no value of man. The person, who does not live collectively with others, is at the lowest level of humanity. To live a long life, man has to fulfil his needs and to fulfil his needs, he is dependent upon others. He is dependent upon others for his security, food, education, many types of services etc.
We can call a man social animal on these three bases :
1. Man is social by nature. First of all, man is social by nature. Man cannot live alone. No one can develop in a proper way by living outside the society. Many Sociologists have experimented on this that the children who develop by living beyond the societies cannot develop properly. Even one child of 17 years of age cannot walk properly. Even after giving him education he was unable to live like a simple man. Like this one more case came in our notice.
In 1920, two children were found in a den of wolf. Out of those two, one died sometimes after their discovery but second behaved in a strange way. He was not able to walk like humans, eat like humans and even talk like humans. He walked on all two hands and legs like animals, he did not have any language, and that’s why he crawled like wolves. After that when some loveable attitude was adopted for him then only he was able to learn social habits and behaviour.
Another case was experimented in America with an orphan child. No one was aware about his parents. He was kept alone in a room from the age of six months. At the age of 5 years it was seen that the child was unable to talk and walk and even he was afraid of humans. All these examples show that man is social by nature.
Humans can develop properly only in that condition when they live in society and share their life with other humans. From these examples we can see that those children had the capacity like humans but in the absence of social contact they were not developed socially. Society is a thing which fulfils the needs of nature of man. It is not a thing forced by God but man is social by nature.
2. Necessity makes a man social. Man lives in society because he needs a lot from the society. If he will not cooperate with other members of society then most of his needs will not be fulfilled. Every human is the result of mutual relation of men and women. Child grows in the presence of his parents and he learns a lot while living with his parents. Child is totally dependent upon society for his existence. If the society will not give security to a newly born baby then that baby will not be able to live for more than one day. Child of a man is so helpless that he needs help of society.
We can fulfill his needs of eating, wearing and living because we all live in society and all of our needs can be fulfilled only by living in society. From the given examples we can see that those children who were brought up by animals, were behaving like animals. For the physical and mental development of man society is necessary. Only then a person can be called a human when he lives in society. Hunger forces the person to make relations with others. That’s why he needs to do some work which forces him to make relations with others. In this way just not because of nature of man but to fulfil his needs man lives in society.
3. Society makes Personality. Man lives in a society to increase his physical and mental conditions. Society protects and preserves cultural heritage so that it can be transmitted to next generation. It also gives us independence so that we can improve our qualities and can change our behaviour, wishes, beliefs, customs etc. Without society the mind of man is just like the mind of child. Our culture and our heritage make our personality because our culture puts a great effect on our personality. Society not only fulfils our physical needs but it also fulfils our mental and psychological needs.
So in this way we can say that man is social by nature. If a man wants to live then he needs society. It is not that for one or two needs he needs a society but for all of his needs and for the development of personality he needs society. Without human society also cannot exist. Society is nothing but is the web of social relationships and relationships can exist only among humans. That’s why they both are dependent upon each other. This relation is not a one sided affair.
They both are necessary for each other’s existence. We cannot call men only an organism and society is not only the means of fulfilling the needs of a man. Society is that without which humans cannot exist and humans are those without which society cannot be formed. Now question arises that whether society is more necessary for humans or humans are more necessary for society. This question is like that question whether hen came first or the egg. Actually all humans are born in society and exactly after their birth they enter the society. No one can be completely individualistic and no one can be completely social. Actually they both are dependent upon each other.
If one will not be there then other’s existence will be in danger. They both are complimentary to each other. Society develops self of an individual. While living in society only, man adopts social habits and becomes social. Thus society cannot be made without humans. To make a society we need at least two humans and relation is necessary between them. In this way society is the web of relationships of humans. Their existence depends upon each other. One’s existence depends upon other’s existence.
In the end we can say that man is a social animal and he can fulfil his needs only by living in society. It is not possible for humans to live alone. For his needs he needs other humans. In the same way society makes a human a social animal. We cannot call him a human until he does not live with other humans. When we call anyone a social animal then it doesn’t mean that he is very intelligent or is very beautiful. He is social animal in the sense that he needs social relations. In this way he cannot live without society.
What do you mean by community? Discuss the characteristics of community in detail.
Different types of groups are there in each society. Different names are given to these different groups and community is one of them. Community is a society in itself and is in definite area like any village or city. The day from which man has started to live at one place, from that same day community came into being and from that day till today man is living in community. First of all when man started to do agriculture from that day man started to live in community because he started to live at one place and with this his exchange was started.
The word community has been taken from two Latin words ‘Com’ and ‘Munus’. Meaning of the word Com is ‘to live together’ and the meaning of word Munus is to make. If we will join them then the literal meaning of community is to make jointly. In this way literal meaning of community is that when some people jointly live in a group for the whole life then it is called community.
Characteristics or Elements of Community:
1. We-feeling. Community has this characteristic that it has we-feeling. Because of this we-feeling every member of community cannot differentiate from each other but they believe each other and think that they are one. Everyone believes that he is one of them.
2. Role feeling. The second characteristic of community is that its members have role feeling. In community every one has some status-and role to play and he knows that which work he has to do and what duties he has to do.
3. Dependence. Another important characteristic of a community is that the members of a community depend upon each other for their needs because it is not possible for any one to live alone. Man cannot do all of his functions that’s why he is dependent upon others for most of his different functions.
4. Permanence. Community is permanent. Its members’ are permanent. If any one leaves his community for some time he still belongs to his community. If any one goes abroad and leaves his community then the area of community starts to widen because even after going abroad he never forgets his community. Today man is not a member of just one community. Man is the member of different communities at different times. That’s why it doesn’t matter that to which community he belongs. Community is permanent.
5. Common Life. Community does not have any particular aim. It has just one aim and that is that its members should live an easy life and man spends his life while living in community.
6. Geographical area. Every community has its geographical area in which he lives. Without any particular area community can be formed.
7. Spontaneous birth. Community came into being automatically. Community doesn’t have any particular aim. It is established knowingly. Wherever man starts to live community comes automatically. Community provides all those facilities with which humans can fulfil their needs very easily.
8. Particular Name. A particular name is generally given to community which is necessary for its formation.
Define community. Discuss in which respect Community differs from society.
1. According to Maclver and Page, “Wherever the members of any group, small or large, live together in such a way that they share, not this or that particular interest,but the basic conditions of a common life, we call that group a community. The mark of a community is that one’s life may be lived wholly within it. The basic criterion of community then is that all one’s social relationships may be found within it.” .
2. According to Kingsley Davis, “The community is the smallest territorial group that can embrace all aspects of social life. Although the household is a smaller contiguous group, it is also more limited in scope. The community on the other hand is a local group broad enough to include all the major institutions, all the statuses and interests, that make a society. It is the smallest local group that can be and often is a complete society.”
3. According to Bogardus, “A community is a social group with some degree of we-feeling living in a given area.”
4. According to Lundberg, “Community is a human population living within a limited geographical area and carrying on a common independent life.”
5. According to Ogburn and Nimkoff, “Community is the total organization of social life within a limited area.”
In this manner after looking at the definitions of community we can say that the geographical group of humans where they spend’their complete life, is a community. Community has its special features and that is man can spend whole of his life in the community. Man cannot spend his whole life in his office, temple, club etc. but he can spend his whole life in his village or city. In community every type of social relationships are there. ‘
Difference between Community and Society :
- Society is a group of people which develops automatically and community develops automatically in a particular area.
- Society does not have any specific geographical area but community does have a specific geographical area.
- There is no specific name of society but community does have a specific name.
- Society is based upon social relations, that’s why it is abstract but community is a concrete concept.
- Each society is not self-dependent but each community is self-dependent in itself and it fulfills all the needs of its members.
- Members of society do not have any we-feeling but community members do share we-feeling with each other.
Draw a comparison between community and association.
- The community develops spontaneously. It is not formed. Association is formed with special efforts.
- The community doesn’t have any specific objective. It fulfills the needs of everyone but the association has some definite objective.
- One person can become a member of one community at a time but a person can become a member of many associations at a time.
- Membership of a community is necessary but the membership of an association depends upon the wish of the person.
- A definite geographical area is necessary for a community but it is not necessary for an association.
- The community has an aim in itself but the association is a means for the attainment of any objective.
- Community is permanent but the association is temporary.
- Man takes birth in the community and dies in the community but the man takes part in association to fulfill any of his objectives.
- The community doesn’t have any Legal Status but the association has some Legal Status.
Discuss the difference between society and association.
Association is a group of people that are formed for specific objectives but society is a group of people that develops automatically. Membership of the association is based on an individual’s wish and one can leave its membership after the attainment of his objectives.
But membership in society is not optional. It means one needs to be a member of any society till his death.
Association is a concrete concept because it is based upon individual needs. But society is an abstract system because it is based on social relations which are abstract in nature.
Association is formed with conscious efforts but society develops automatically and no conscious efforts are required in it.
Association has a formal structure that includes Chairman, Secretary, Cashier, Members, etc., and they are elected for a fixed term. But society does not have any formal structure and all the individuals are its members. They cannot leave their membership in any case.
The origin and development of an association is the result of individual .efforts whose specific objectives are attached to it. But society originates when all the people agree to it and no selfish interests are attached to it. Individuals can leave or break the association once” their objectives are achieved. But no one can break society and its existence remains intact.
The origin of an association is related to any objective but the origin of society depends upon social relations.