Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Sociology Book Solutions Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
PSEB Solutions for Class 11 Sociology Chapter 8 Polity, Religion, Economy and Education
Sociology Guide for Class 11 PSEB Polity, Religion, Economy and Education Textbook Questions and Answers
Answer the following very short answer questions in 1-15 words each:
What do you mean by power?
Power is the ability of individuals or groups to carry out their will even when opposed by others.
Name the three types of authority given by Max Weber.
Traditional authority, Legal authority and Charismatic authority.
What do you mean by economy ?
According to Sociologists, “Economy is human activities which are associated with food or property.”
Mention any two elements of state.
Population, geographical area, sovereignty and government.
Who gave the theory of animism ?
The theory of animism was given by E.B. Tylor.
Who made a ‘distinction between sacred and profane things ?
Emile Durkheim made a distinction between sacred and profane things.
Who discussed the idea of naturism ?
The idea of naturism was given by Max Muller.
Who calls religion ‘a belief in supernatural being’ ?
E.B. Tylor called religion ‘a belief in supernatural being’.
Give the names of two Semitic religions.
Islam and Christianity are the two Semitic religions in India.
What do you understand by sect ?
Sect is a religious group which is having some specific rituals.
Give the meaning of cult.
Cult is a religious organisation originated from the views and ideology of an individual leader.
Name the two major classes in the capitalist society as given by Karl Marx.
Capitalist class and Labour class.
What is formal education ?
The education which we get in school, college, university is known as formal education.
Define informal education.
The education we get from our family, our daily experiences, our friends etc. is known as informal education.
Answer the following short answer questions in 30-35 words each:
What is stateless society ?
The societies where there is no institution called state are known as stateless societies. These are simple and ancient societies. These have very less population and people have direct relations. That’s why, to control individual behaviour, there is no need of a formal organisation called state. Council of elders is enough to do so.
Discuss charismatic authority.
When a person is influenced by the other in a way that he can do any thing for him, the authority enjoyed by the other is charismatic authority. Many a time people are influenced by the personality of an individual. Religious leaders, political leaders enjoy such authority.
What is legal-rational authority ?
The authority given according to some rules and regulations is known as legal rational authority. Government enjoys legal authority. The President, Prime Minister, different officers have such authority which they enjoy according to the rules given in the constitution.
Write down two merits of Panchayati Raj System.
(i) Panchayati Raj System is implemented at local level and common people get a chance to participate in the govt.
(ii) In this system, local problems are solved at local level and the work is done very quickly.
What do you mean by animism and naturism ?
(i) Animism : This theory was given by Tylor and according to him, religion originated from the idea of spirit. It means that people believe in spirits and consequently religion originated.
(ii) Naturism : According to this theory, humans in ancient times were afraid of natural phenomona such as thunder, rain, fire etc. That’s why they started worshipping nature and thus religion originated.
What is an interest group ?
An interest group is a group formed by people of a particular group who work only for the interests of their people. They never care about the interests of other people while achieving their interests. For example, trade union, labour union, FICCI etc. .
Write a short note on sacred and profane.
Durkheim gave a description of sacred and profane things associated with religion. He says that sacred things are those which are considered above all and seen with great respect. These are not general and are away .from our daily functions. But there are few things which we confront and use on daily basis. These are known as profane.
WTrite a short note on totemism.
In totemism, any tribe starts to associate itself with any object especially any animal, tree, plant, stone or anything. They give respect to it and worship it. They consider their origin from that thing. That thing is known as totem.
What is a ‘pastoral economy ?
It is a type of economy in which people depend upon domestic animals to earn their livelihood. They are known as pastorals. They rear sheep, goat, cow, camel and horse. Such societies live in the plains with lot of grass or in mountains. They change their habitat with the change in climate.
How does agrarian economy differ from industrial economy ?
In agrarian economy, main occupation of the people is agriculture and they live on this. These societies have less population and informal relations. In industrial economy, people are engaged in industries to earn their livelihood. These societies have more population and formal relations among
What is Jajmani system ?
This is a system of exchange in which lower castes provide their service to upper castes and they get renumeration for their service. One who gets service is known as Jajman and one who gives is known as Kameen.
Discuss capitalist society.
Western societies are known as capitalist societies where money is earned by investing in industries. Means of production are in the hands of factory owners and they employ labourers to produce things. Major elements of Capitalism are – labourers, means of production, industries, relations between mechanics and owners etc.
What is socialist society ?
This concept was given by Karl Marx which says that whole of the economy is in the hands of labourers. Labourers will start revolution against capitalist and will throw away his authority. Then they will establish classless society. Every one will be equal in front of law and they will get according to their needs.
Give example of privatisation of education.
In present age, thousands of private schools have opened up in every town, city and metropoliton eity. Private colleges and universities have also opened up. These are the examples of privatisation of education.
Answer the following short answer questions in 75-85 words each:
Discuss the views of Emile Durkheim on religion.
According to Durkheim, “ A religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral comnjunity, called a church, also those who adhere to them.” It means that religion is a collective or social phenomenon which is found as a result of beliefs and practices. On this basis, the people of a group get organised. He divided religious things into sacred and profane.
In what way does religion play an important role in society ?
Religion plays an important role in giving stability to society and maintaining social organisation. One religion has millions of followers with common beliefs. Such common beliefs, values and ways of behaviour form a sense of unity atleast in that religion and consequently they unite with each other. This unity helps in strengthening social organization. Each religion tells its followers to give alms, to show sympathy and cooperate with others. It also strengthens society. In this way religion plays a very important role in society.
What is an educational institution ? Write down the educational policies adopted by the government.
An educational institution gives necessary knowledge to an individual and makes him a responsible citizen. The educational policies adopted by the government are as follows :
- According to article 45 of the constitution, free and compulsory education will be given to the children upto the age of 14 years.
- In 1960, the Kothari Commission laid emphasis on universal enrolment and retention.
- In 1986, a national education policy was adopted with emphasis on vocational education and equal educational opportunities for deprived groups.
- Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 1986 and 1992 laid emphasis on providing useful and relevant educational for all children in the age group of 6 to 14 years.
- Right of children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act (2010) states that every child in the age group of 6-14 years will be provided 8 years of elementary education in age appropriate classroom, in the vicinity of the child’s neighbourhood.
Write the functions of education in brief.
- Education helps in the intellectual development of an individual.
- Education connects an individual with the society.
- It helps in maintaining balance in society.
- Education helps in transmitting culture from one generation to another.
- It helps in developing individual ability.
- It develops moral values among children.
- It also helps in doing socialisation of an individual.
Write a short note on types of authority by Max Weber.
Max Weber gave three types of authority – traditional, legal and charismatic. Traditional authority is that which is traditionally going on and no one raises question mark against it. Father’s authority is of this type of authority in the house. Legal authority is that which one gets according to certain rules and laws. Government is having such authority. Charismatic authority is that which one gets due to his charismatic personality and his followers accept his orders without any cry. Religious leaders, Political leaders enjoy such authority.
Differentiate a state society from a stateless society.
1. Stateless society:
The society which lacks the institution of state is known as stateless society. These are simple and ancient societies. They have less population and people have direct relation among them. That’s why, to control individual behaviour, there is no need of state or government. It is controlled by council of elders.
2. State society:
Modern societies are state societies where authority is in the hands of state which is obtained from the people. Max Weber says that state is a community of people which uses authority in a geographical area with the help of physical force.
Answer the following short answer questions in 250-300 words each:
What is meant by political institutions ? Discuss in detail.
Our society is quite large and the political system is one of its parts. Political system defines those human roles which help in regulating society. Polity and society are closely related. To control social humans, political institutions are required and these are-power, authority, state, government, Legislature, Executive, Judiciary etc.
These political institutions keep formal control on society and the means to keep this control are government, police, army, courts at etc. So, political institutions are the means which help in maintaining social order. Political institutions are mainly associated with the distribution of power. Among all the political institutions, few are quite important and these are :
Power is the ability of an individual or a group to force their will on others even when they are opposed. It means that those who have power, they enjoy it at the cost of others. The quantity of power is limited in society. Those who have more power, they use it on those who have less or no power and influence them. Elders of the family, General Manager of a company, Government, Ministers etc. enjoy such power.
Power is used with the help of authority. It is a form of power which is just and legal. It is institutional and based on legitimacy. Those who have authority, force their will on others as it is considered legitimate. It is implemented not only on humans but on groups and institutions as well. For example, in dictatorship, authority is in the hands of one person, group or party but in democracy, it is in the hands of elected representatives of the people.
State is the most important political institution. It is a group of people having a definite geographical area, have population, government and sovereignty. State is a part of society. It affects all the aspects of life but it cannot take the place of society. State is an agency which controls social associations. State influences all the aspects of society and plays a very important role in maintaining balance between them.
Government is an agency of state which has the authority to control the people. It helps in maintaining peace in society. Government has legal sanction because it is elected under certain rules and .has the majority in legislature. Government is an agency to achieve the aims of state. There are three organs of government – Legislature, Executive and Judiciary.
(i) Legislature : It is a part of government whose function is to make laws for the country. Parliament of the country is known as Legislature.
(ii) Executive : It is another organ of government which implements the laws made by legislature. The President, Prime Minister and other ministers are the part of executive.
(iii) Judiciary : It is the third organ of government which uses the laws made by legislature and implemented by the executive. Our Courts, Judges are the part of Judiciary.
So, different political institutions contribute in running our country in a smooth way. These institutions do their work without interfering in each other’s matters.
Write a note on Panchayati Raj.
There are two ways of development of the local areas in our country. Local governments are there for the development of urban areas and panchayati raj institutions are there for the development of rural areas. Institutions of local government are based upon the concept of division of labour because functions here are divided in government and local groups. 70% of the population in our country lives in rural areas. The institution of local government which administers the rural areas is known as Panchayat.
Panchayati Raj expresses only the institutional structure of rural area. When the British Empire was established in our country, the entire country was under the control of landlords and Zamindars. In 1935, Indian government passed a law which has given the complete sovereignty to states and the panchayati laws were given a new form. In Punjab, one Panchayat Act was passed in 1939 whose aim was to give some powers to the democratically elected institutions with which they could be able to work at a unit of local administration.
On 2nd October, 1961 the three tier structure of Panchayati Raj was applied in the whole country. 73rd constitutional amendment was made in 1992 in which powers were decentralized upto the local level. With this the panchayati raj institutions were given many financial and other types of powers.
Many changes have taken place in Indian rural community during last 65 years. Most of the powers of Indian panchayats were taken away by Britishers. They wanted to run these panchayats according to their own way because of which they applied a new and common legal system in all the villages. Today’s panchayats are the results of the laws made after the independence.
Organization of Village Panchayats. There are two types of panchayats in the village. First type of panchayats which are elected according to the laws made by government and are formal in nature. 2nd type of panchayats are informal and they are known as caste panchayats. They don’t have any legal status but they plays a very important role in keeping social control.
Three types of organization of panchayats exists in our country and these are :
(1) Gram Sabha
(2) Gram Panchayat
(3) Nyaya Panchayat.
1. Gram Sabha.r All the adult persons of total population, of the village, are the members pf Gram Sabha and it is the complete unit of the whole population of the village. This is the basic unit on which the whole structure of our democracy rests. Gram Sabha can be made in that village whose population is more then 250.
If the population of one village is less than 250 then two villages can jointly make the Gram Sabha. Every adult of the village is the member of Gram Sabha, who has the right to vote. There is one chairman and some members of every Gram Sabha. It is elected for 5 years. ,
Functions of Gram Sabha. Gram Sabha approves the annual budget and the functions to be done for the development of the village and helps in applying these function. It also helps in doing the functions of social welfare, programmes of adult education and of family welfare. It also plays an important role in keeping unity in the village.
Village Panchayat or Gram Panchayat. Every Gram Sabha elects one Gram Panchayat from its area. In this way the Gram Sabha is an executive institution which elects members for the Gram Panchayat. It has one Sarpanch and 5-13 panches. There are certain places in Panchayats which are reserved for backward classes and females. It is generally elected for 5 years but state government can dissolve them even before 5 years if it will try to misuse its powers.
If any Gram Sabha is dissolved before completion of its term then all of its position will also comes to an end. Village is generally divided in different parts to elect Panchs and Gram Panchayats. Then the Panches and Sarpanch are elected by the members of Gram Sabha.
One third of the total seats in Gram Panchayat are reserved for women and the seats are also reserved for backward classes according to the ratio of their population in that area. Any governmental official and mentally ill person cannot be elected for panchayat. Gram Panchayat works for the sanitation, recreation, development of industries and means of communication. It also solves the problems of the village. Functions of Panchayats.
Gram Panchayat performs many functions for the village which are given below :
(1) The first important function of Gram Panchayat is to raise the economic and social standard of life of the people. There are many social evils in villages. Panchayat motivates the people to remove those evils and tries to change their traditional point of view.
(2) For the allround development of any area, it is necessary that illiteracy should be eradicated from that area and it is the main reason of backwardness of Indian Society. Indian villages are also backward due to this reason. Panchayat tries to open schools in village and motivates the people to send their children in the school. It also arranges the adult education centre to teach the adults of the village.
(3) Panchayat of the village also works for the welfare of the women and children of the village. It also arranges for giving education to females. The function of arrangement of good food and recreational facilities is also of Panchayat.
(4) There are no means of recreation in rural areas. That’s why Panchayat also arranges to provide recreational means in the village. Panchayat arranges for films, organizing fairs and to’opening up of library in the village.
(5) Increase in production is necessary in the agriculture based country. Panchayat tells the people about new techniques of agriculture, arranges for the new seeds and developed fertilizers for them so that their agricultural production could.be increased.
(6) It is very much necessary to establish small scale industries in villages for its allround development. That’s why Panchayat tries to establish small scale industries in villages with the help of governmental help. It helps in economic progress of the village and people get employment in their villages.
(7) Means of irrigation are of great importance in good production of agriculture. Gram Panchayat arranges the wells and tubewells in Gram Panchayat. It also arranges for river water so that the people could be able to irrigate their fields.
(8) Generally people are fighting in villages. Panchayat tries to solve their problems in village. Panchayat Samiti. Panchayats coming in one block are the members of the Panchayat Samiti and Sarpanchs of these Panchayats are the members of Panchayat Samiti.
Members of Panchayat Samiti are also elected. Panchayat Samiti takes care of the functions of the Panchayats which are coming in its area. It checks the developmental functions of the village and directs the Panchayat for the welfare of the village. It is the second level of Panchayati Raj.
Zila Parishad. The highest level of Panchayati Raj is Zila Parishad which takes care of the functions of the Panchayats which are coming in the district. It is an executive institution. Chairman’s of Panchayat Samiti, elected members, members of Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and Legislative Assemblies are the members of Zila Parishad.
All these take care of the developmental functions done in the villages of the district. Zila Parishad does many functions such as the improvement of agriculture, improvement of land, irrigation, rural electrification, arrangement of seeds and fertilizers, education, industries etc.
In what way do interest groups act as pressure groups ?
During the last few decades, a new concept of division of labour has come forward. In this concept, different people are employed in different professions and as a result, many professional groups have emerged. All these professional groups have their personal interests and they continually work to achieve them. So, the groups which care about the interests of their people and continualy work to achieve their aims are known as interest groups.
In present democratic societies, they always try to change political decisions according to their interests. If need arises, they pledge their support to the political parties and through them, try to influence official decisions. Almost all the interest groups have an objective to achieve higher status in the national politics.
That’s why they pressurise the govt to make policies in their favour. When they start to pressurise the govt, they take the form of pressure group. Pressure groups are organised or unorganised groups who influence govt, policies and promote their interests.
The ways in which they try to influence politices are given below :
- These pressure groups start a movement on a particular issue to gain public support. They take the help of mass media to draw attention of the people.
- They generally opt. for strikes, processions and create hurdles in government functioning. They declare strikes to raise their voice. Most of the labour unions opt. for this method to get “their demands met.
- Most of the trade groups create a loby, with few common motives, to pressurise the govt to change its policies.
- Each pressure .group or interest group is associated with some political party.
They support these parties during elections to get their demands met after winning elections and forming the government.
Define Religion. Describe its features.
The most difficult function for sociologists is to give that definition which should be accepted by every one and all sections of the society. It’s reason is that the nature of religion is very complex and different Sociologists have different views about it.
It is so because different sociologists are related with different countries and different cultures. There are many religions in the world and because of this diversity, they all are unable to reach on any consensus about the definition of religion. But still different Sociologists have given different definitions of religion which are as follows –
- According to Frazer, “Religion is belief in powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life.”
- According to Maclver, “Religion as we understand the term implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.”
- According to Durkheim, “Religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices related to sacred things is to say things set apart and forbidden.”
- According to Malinowski, “Religion is a mode of action as well as system of belief and an ecological, phenomenons as well as personal experience.”
Therefore, from these definitions it is clear that the base of religion is the belief in super- natural power and this power is believed as superior and powerful to man.
It keeps control over all the elements of life which are important for man. Its one base is emotional. There are many methods and rituals to keep this power happy. It is clear that the acceptance of religion is beyond social because religion is explained by supernatural forces. Religion is used very widely in society. According to sociologists, religion represents the habits and emotional experiences of man. Religion came into being because of the feelings of fear and the respect of humans towards many things.
According to Tylor, religion was developed because of belief of ancient humans in the spirits of ancestors. According to this belief, spirit lives at any place, in any thing or animal after the death. It can affect human life. To keep these spirits happy, man started to worship these spirits and from here the origin of religion starts.
Features of Religion:
1. Belief in Supernatural Power. Religion is the complexity of thoughts, feelings and methods which express its belief in super regulates powers. This power is universal and all powerful. It is believed that this power regulates human action. In this way the first characteristics of religion is the belief in supernatural power.
The basis of this super-natural power are different but this power definitely exists in all religions. If any one doesn’t have faith in this power than he doesn’t have faith in religion and because of, this, existence of that person comes to an end. This power is powerful and better than human power. This power is believed to be beyond the range of human brain about which man says that he is afraid of this power.
2. Rituals. Religious rituals are the actions determined by religion. They are sacred in themselves and are the symbols of sacredness. For example according to Hindu religion, there are many fasts and pilgrimages which are religious rituals. Religious rituals bind together the followers of one religion and differentiate them from the followers of another religion.
3. Religious Acts. Another important feature*of religion is that it has different religious acts and actions. With the help of these religious acts man always tries to keep happy to supernatural powers and he expresses his belief in these supernatural powers by doing those acts. These acts are of two kinds. First one are those actions for which special religious knowledge is necessary.
This function has been done by religious priests in every religion. Second are simple religious acts like prayer and going for pilgrimage which even a layman can do very easily. But in every religion one belief prevails that man can keep natural powers happy by completing religious functions.
4. Religious Symbols. In every religion certain symbols are used to see these super natural powers. Like in Hindu religion portraits and sculptures are worshipped. In every religion some stories are there related to this supernatural powers. People believe that by believing these supernatural stories they can keep happy that almighty.
5. Religious Hierarchy. All the followers of any religion don’t have equal status in religious group. In every religion, a system of hierarchy exists. People who sit at high posts, are generally those who are experts in doing religious acts like priests. At second place those persons come who have full faith in religious representatives and concepts. At the end those persons come who cannot be called as sacred and who do those impure functions given by religion. They are restricted in almost all the religions.
6. Religious books. Every religion has one important feature and that is the religious books related to those religions. In every religion, some religious persons are there who write religious books and every religion has some religious stories whose description is generally given in those books. Like in Hindu religion Mahabharta, Ramayana, Bhagwat Gita, Four Vedas, Manu Smriti etc. are there. In the same way ‘Quran’ of Islam, ‘Guru Granth Sahib’ of Sikhs and ‘Bible’ of Christianity are the religious books.
In what way is religion useful and harmful for the society ?
1. To give stability to social organization. Religion plays an important role in providing stability to the society and maintaining social organization. Millions of people are there in one religion who have common beliefs. These common beliefs, values and ways of behaviour forms a sense of unity atleast in that religion with which unity comes in that group.
In this way this unity helps in strengthening social organization. Every religion tells its people to give alms, to show sympathy and to cooperate with others because of which stability comes in society. In this way religion saves its people from instability and gives stability to society.
2. Religion gives, definite form to Social Life. Religion is the collection of customs and mores. These customs and mores are parts of the culture also. In this way balance is maintained between social atmosphere and culture. Because of this balance social life gets definite form. Because of religion people respect customs, mores etc. and others also maintain this balance. In this way because of this balance social life moves in a proper way and all this is because of religion.
3. To organise Family Life. Marriage in different religions is done according to different religious traditions. Because of religious traditions religion becomes permanent and its life and organization strengthens. Every religion defines the duties and rights of different members. It tells the parents ahd children that what are their duties towards each other.
Every one, while living in family, obeys and fulfils the duties towards each other and cooperates with each other to run the family. It helps in maintaining balance between members of the family. All the functions of the family are determined by religion. ‘
4. To remove mutual differences. There are many religions in this world. They do not ask their followers to fight with the followers of another religion. Instead they ask to live with each other with love and peace and they ask their followers to remove their mutual differences. Removal of differences will increase unity in the society. That’s why all the religions and the leaders have tried to uplift the lower castes. Gandhiji had tried all his life to uplift scheduled castes and untouchables.
5. To keep Social Control. Religion is one of the important means of social control. Religion has the sanction of the society behind it. Religion affects the people forcefully even without their wish and the person feels that religion is putting a great effect on him.
Religion controls and directs its followers in such a way that the person has to obey the teachings of religion. Religion is the belief in the supernatural power and people never try to work against the wishes of that supernatural power because they are afraid of it. In this way the behaviour and ways of action are controlled by religion.
6. Social Welfare. Every religion encourages its members to do works of social welfare. In all the religions of the world giving alms is known as sacred. People are giving help to orphanages, hospitals, schools etc. and helping them by giving them money. People of every religion distribute food, clothes, medicine, money to poor people. They are doing this because their religion asks them to do so. In this way religion encourages the works of social welfare.
Dysfunctions or Demerits of Religion:
1. Religion is an Obstacle in Social Progress. Religion is fundamentalist by nature and change is the law of nature. Changes are often coming in society because of which society can develop from materialistic point of view but not from spiritual point of view. Religion is basically against any change.
Religion is not in the favour of any change. In fact it believes in keeping the situation as it is. Changed circumstances are not according to the religion because of which religion opposes the change. By opposing the change it becomes an obstacle.
2. Man becomes Fatalist. Religion says that whatever is written in man’s fate he will definitely get that. He will neither get more than that nor get less than that. After thinking this thing man stops working and says that if he will get according to fate then what is the advantage of doing work ? Whatever is written in his fate he will get that. In this way man leaves everything to fate. But he forgets that a person makes and change his own fate. If he will not work then what he will make and change. In this way man leaves everything to fate and becomes fatalist.
3. Opposite to National Unity. We can call the religion as opposite to National Unity. Generally every religion asks its followers to, go according to its rules and generally these rules are against other religion. While loving their religion, sometimes people start opposing other religions. This opposition results in religious narrowness and intolerance. This religious intolerance is dangerous for the unity of the country and even sometimes communal violence starts in different religions. In this way sometimes religion works against National Unity.
4. Religion Increases the Social Problems. There are certain custo’ms and rituals in every religion and according to priests and religious persons these customs and rituals are necessary for every person. Religious persons call their followers to go against other religion. Because of religion many problems in our country like child marriage, Sati system, Dowry system, no widow marriage, untouchability, poverty etc. came. Religion is responsible directly or indirectly for these problems. The government has made many laws to solve these problems but still religion is an obstacle in the way of their solution.
5. Religion is ah Obstacle in the Way of Change. Religion is always against change and is an obstacle in the way of change. Different types of inventions and discoveries are coming in the world. Because religion is always fundamentalist and that’s why it is against change. Any change of the society is opposed by religion. For example when a law was made against Sati system then it was opposed by religious persons. In this way religion is always against materialistic changes of the world.
Briefly discuss the characteristics of primitive, pastoral, agrarian and industrial economies.
(i) Primitive Economy. Many tribes live in far off places in forests and mountains. Yet most of the tribes have joined the main stream due to means of transport and have also adopted the occupation of agriculture but still many tribes are there who still spend their life as hunters and food gatherers. They collect roots, fruits, honey etc. and even are hunting smaller animals. Some tribes also exchange many things. In this way they fulfil their needs in the absence of agriculture.
Those tribes are known as ancient tribes which fulfil their needs in this way. These people not only kill animals but also collect fruits, roots and honey from the jungles. In this way they fulfil their needs even without the presence of agriculture. We can come to know about their culture after looking at their way of hunting.
These societies lack tools and means because of which they are the shadow of ancient tribes. There is no concept of surplus production in their societies. It is so because they can neither produce any thing surplus nor they can keep the surplus production. They live like wanderers. Tribes of Chenchu, Katkari, Kames, Baija, Khariya, Kuch, Paliyan etc. live this type of life.
(ii) Pastoral Economy. Pastoral economy is one of the important parts of tribal economy. Tribal people rear animals for different purposes like to take milk, meat and wool and to carry weight. Pastoral tribes of India live a static and permanent life and none according to the season. Tribes of mountainous region move towards plains in the winter season and come back to their areas in summer season. The main pastoral tribe of India is the Gujjar tribe of Himachal Pradesh which rears buffaloes, cows and sheep for business purposes.
This custom also prevails in the Toda tribe of Tamilnadu. This tribe rears animals and gets milk from them. Milk is used either to exchange things or it is used to fulfil their own needs. Indian tribes generally live a permanent life. They live at one place, rear animals and get many things from them such as milk, wool, meat etc. They also trade in animals such as sheep, goat etc.
(iii) Agricultural economy. The main occupation of rural society is either agriculture or any of the related work because they are very much closely related with nature. Because they are closely related to nature, that’s why their views towards life are very much different.
Yet many other occupations like carpenter, blacksmith etc. are there in villages but they also make tools related to agriculture. Land is considered as a very important thing in tribal society and people like to live here because their life depends upon the land. Even the economic, system and development of people and villages depend upon agriculture.
(iv) Industrial economy. Urban economy can also be called industrial economy because urban economy depends upon industries. Very large industries are there in cities where thousands of people work with each other. Production is also on large scale due to large scale industries. Owners of these larger industries are different individuals.
Production is done for the market. They produce not only for internal markets of the country but for foreign markets as well. Even in some cases, production is being done only for foreign markets. Owners of these big industries produce things only for their profit and they exploit the labourers as well.
We can find a number of occupations and occupational diversity in urban societies. Family, in earlier times, was the unit of productions. All the functions were being done only in the family. But due to advent of urban areas, thousands of occupations and industries were developed. For example we confine many types of functions in a factory and we need specialised person to do any specific type to work.
Only the skilled person can do that specific work. In this way functions in cities are divided among different people because of which division of labour prevails in urban society. People are specialised in their work and that’s why specialisation is of great importance. In this way division of labour and specialisation are two important aspects of urban economy.
Write a note on division of labour.
In 1893 Durkheim published his first book in French language called ‘De La Division du Trovail Social’. Yet it was his first writing but it was a strong base of his popularity. On this book only he got doctorate from Paris University in 1893. In this great book he has fully explained the social division of labour. Durkheim’s this book has been divided in three parts. In every part he has analysed the different aspects of labour.
In the first part of his book ‘Functions of Division of Labour’ he has tried to prove that division of labour is the base of social solidarity. With that from the point of view of scientific study he has explained different forms of Law, Types of solidarity, different forms of human relations, crime, punishment, social evolution and some problems of society. In second part of this book he has given detailed explanation of reasons and results of division of labour. In 3rd part of this book he has given some abnormal forms of division of labour.
1. Functions of Division of Labour. Durkheim accepts every , social fact as moral fact. Any social behaviour lives on the base of moral base. As a functionalist first of all Durkheim has given function of division of labour. According to him, division of labour is a social fact, that’s why he started his book from its functional analysis. First of all fourkheim has given the meaning of function.
He has given two meanings of function :
(а) Meaning of function is from system of movement which means from action.
(b) Second meaning of function is from this action or movement and from interrelation according to its needs which means The need to be fulfilled by action. Here Durkheim is using meaning of function from second point of view. In this way by function of division of labour his meaning is that by which basic of social existence is fulfilled by the process of division of labour. Function is that in the absence o’f which, the basic needs of its units cannot be fulfilled.
Generally it is been said that the function of division of labour is the development of society because it is a truth that with the development of division of labour and specialization, civilization in the societies increases. Because of division of labour the production force increases, material and intellectual aspect develops, leisure increases in general life and knowledge increases. That’s why generally division of labour is known as the source of civilization.
But Durkheim was against that. He said that the development of civilization is not the function of division of labour. According to him, the meaning of source is not the function. Increase in leisure, development of material and mental level comes due to result of division of labour. That’s why it is the result of this process, not the function. Meaning of function is not the result.
In the development of the society three kinds of development are included. Three types are :
(a) Industrial or economic aspect
(b) Intellectual aspect
(c) Scientific aspect.
Durkheim was of the view that all these three aspects of development are without moral facts. So with the development of industrial, intellectual and scientific aspect, crime, suicide and other immoral phenomena also increases in societies. So according to him the function of division of labour is not the development of civilization.
But what is the function of division of labour ? According to him to make new groups and their solidarity or unity are the functions of division of labour. He has tried to find any moral need related with the existence of society as the function of division of labour. According to him with the increase in members of society and their inter-relations, slowly and slowly the process of division of labour also develops.
In this process so many new business and social groups have been made. For the existence of society the unity or solidarity of these groups is must. Without the solidarity of these groups we cannot imagine the balance in social system. So solidarity is the moral need of different groups.
According to him this need of society is fulfilled by division of labour. On one side division of labour makes new social groups and with that it also helps in maintaining unity and collectivity of these groups. So the function of division of labour is to establish unity in society. Division of labour is related with the differences of functions of humans and these differences are the bases of social solidarity.
He has given factual base for this social reality. He was of the view that the important function is not that it increases the production with the divided work but it organises and unites them. So division of labour makes new social groups and produces unity among them.
(A) Law and Solidarity. Durkheim had the view .that the function of division of labour is to produce solidarity in society. Social solidarity is a moral fact. To clarify the social solidarity which came from division of labour classifies the laws. According to the classification of laws he has decided the types of social solidarity. To classify laws he has taken sanctions, related to that law, as base.
He has given two types of laws:
(i) Repressive law. Repressive laws can be called as Public laws.
These ar’e of two types.
(a) Penal law. These are related with giving suffering, causing loss, to kill and to obstract independence. We can call them organised Repressive laws.
(b) Diffused law. Some repressive laws are there which are spread in the whole society or group on the basis of morality. That’s why Durkheim is calling them diffused law. According to Durkheim, Repressive laws are related with criminal functions.
These laws explain the crime and its punishment. These laws also show the basic conditions of collective life of society. Every society has its basic circumstances. So in different societies repressive laws are also different. The power of these repressive laws is based in collective mind and collective mind gets power from equalities.
(ii) Restitutive law. Another type of law is the Restitutive law system. These laws provide balance to the imbalance produced in the human relations. In this group civil laws, business laws, constitutional laws, administrative laws are included. These laws are not related with , the whole society but are related with human. These laws are regulating the balance and imbalance produced in the personal relations of members of society. Restitutive laws are joining individuals and society with some middle institutions.
On the basis of these two types of laws according to Durkheim two types of solidarities can be made. These two types of solidarities are the result of two different types of lifestyles. Repressive laws are related with general nature of man and with equalities. But Restitutive laws are related with differences or with division of labour.
The type of solidarity which comes due to Repressive laws, according to Durkheim, is Mechanical Solidarity and the solidarity which comes due to Restitutive laws is called Organic Solidarity whose base is division of labour.
In this way according to Durkheim there are two types of social solidarities :
1. Mechanical Solidarity. According to Durkheim, Mechanical solidarity can be seen in the repressive laws of society. The bases of this solidarity are the equalities available in the members of the society. The society in which the life of members is full of equalities, where general norms of thoughts, beliefs, functions, lifestyle and ideal are there and the society which thinks, works as a collective unit on the basis of these equalities shows mechanical solidarity.
Its members are united like a machine. In old primitive societies mechanical solidarity was there. He was of the view that even crime helps in binding the people in solidarity. In this way there is existence of one social solidarity which comes out of definite conditions of consciousness which are normal for the members of any society. These can be shown by Repressive laws. These are based on the power of collective consciousness.
2. Organic Solidarity. According to Durkheim, the second type of solidarity is organic solidarity. The power of Repressive laws is in collective consciousness. Collective consciousness gets power from equalities. In primitive societies repressive laws were there because the base of social life were equalities. According to Durkheim, modern societies are influenced by division of labour and specialization in which instead of equalities, inequalities are the base. This difference of group or collective life gives importance to individual consciousness.
In modern societies man is not directly united with group. In these societies there is a lot of importance of mutual relations of humans. That’s why he was of the view that in modern societies instead of Repressive laws, Restitutive laws are important. In the societies which are based on differences humans are dependent upon each other. Every human can specialize in one field and for other works he is dependent upon others.
This inter-dependence of members of group or society and their personal inequalities force them to come closer to each other with the help of which solidarity in society would be established. To this type of solidarity Durkheim gives the name of organic solidarity. This can be seen in restitutive social system.
3. Contractual Solidarity. After analysing the mechanical and organic solidarity Durkheim has also written about one more solidarity which is known as Contractual Solidarity. According to Durkheim, the process of division of labour gives birth to contractual relations. People of a group are getting the services of each other on the basis of mutual contracts and mutually they are cooperating with each other.
It is right that in modern societies people are establishing cooperation and solidarity on the basis of contracts. But the function of division of labour is not to give birth to contractual solidarity. According to him, contractual solidarity is individual fact, but it is regulated by society.
2. Causes and Conditions. The second part of book ‘Division of Labour in Society’ is related with causes, conditions and results and these are given ahead :
Causes of Division of Labour. Durkheim has explained division of labour on Sociological basis. He has found the causes of division of labour in the conditions of social life and in the social needs produced from them. From this point of view, he has
divided the causes of division of labour in two parts :
(a) Primary Causes
(b) Secondary Causes.
(а) Increase in the size and density of Population. According to Durkheim, the increase in size and density of population is the central and primary reason of division of labour. He says that the increase of population has two aspects-increase in size of population and increase in density of population.
These both aspects give birth to division of labour. With the increase in population old primitive societies are disintegrating and new mixed societies are coming into being. Population started to concentrate in few centres. The density of population he has divided in two parts :
(i) Material Density:
From physical point of view concentration of people at one place is material density.
(ii) Moral Density:
Because of Material density relations of the people are increasing with which actions and reactions are increasing. The complexity which came out of increased rq,utual relations and inter-relations, Durkheim is calling dynamic or Moral Density.
(b) Unclarity of Collective Consciousness. In secondary reasons of division of labour he has given first place to unclarity of collective consciousness. In equality based societies, collective consciousness is quite strong because of which members of societies cannot be motivated by individual or personal point of view. Collective feelings are showing them the way.
Durkheim was of the view that division of labour and individual specialization is possible in that condition when instead of collective point of view, individual point of view will develop and when individual consciousness suppresses collective consciousness. So according to him, the development of division of labour will be slow and difficult if collective consciousness is strong and definite. If this collective consciousness will be loose enough then the division of labour vyill move with quite a good speed.
(c) Ancestral reason and division of labour. The second cause of the division of labour according to Durkheim is the decreasing influence of ancestral influence. How much more influence these ancestral qualities can exert on man that much less chances will be there for change. In other words for the development of division of labour it is must that we should not give importance to ancestral qualities. The development of the division of labour is possible only if there will be differences in the nature and behaviour of the people.
The result of classifying people on the base of their ancestral qualities and with binding them with their ancestors is that man has not been able to develop his special qualities and does not change. In this way it is an obstacle in the distribution of division of labour. He was of view that with the passage of time and change these ancestral bindings yvill become so weak that their ancestral qualities will also become weak. So slowly and slowly different qualities of people will develop and then division of labour will also develop.
Define economic institution. Write down the changes taking place in economic system.
Every person has some of his basic needs like food, cloth and shelter. Man always does efforts to fulfil his basic needs. Because of these efforts, economic institutions come in front of us. But here one question arises that if economic activities of humans are being studied by Economics then what they are doing in Sociology ? Then its answer is that economic activities affect other aspects and institutions of human life like religion, family, marriage, kinship etc.
These institutions are of great importance in the human life. That’s why, because the economic institutions affect all the other institutions, interest of sociology has also increased to study these economic institutions. If any change comes in economic institutions then change also comes in all the other institutions. That’s why the importance of economic institutions has been increased. Now we will see that what are economic institutions.
Economic institutions are those institutions which arrange for the things for production, distribution and consumption for the people. Economic institutions are of great importance in society. That’s why different forms of society have been divided on the basis of economy or economic institutions like hunting society, agricultural society and industrial society. All the other institutions of society like family, marriage, religion etc. are affected by these economic institutions.
Economic institutions tell a person and to his coming generations that every society has some of its limited means. These institutions tell every person that he has to use those limited means, their production, distribution and consumption and how he has to use these means for every one. In this way it is a system with which people satisfy their needs and find the solutions of their economic problems. In this way the functions of economic institutions are the production, distribution, consumption and selection of exchange.
According to Jones, “The economic selection of Exchange, complex of techniques, ideas and customs relating to the exploitation of the environment for the satisfaction of subsistence needs.” According to Davis, “The basic ideas, norms,»and statuses which govern the allocation of scarce goods in any society whether the primitive or civilized, we call it economic institutions.” .
According to Ogburn and Nimkoff, “The activities of man in relation to fo,od and property constitute the economic institutions.”
In this way after looking at these given definitions we can say that the definite and organised forms of actions done by man to fulfil his basic needs are known as economic institutions.
Changes Coming in the Economic Institutions :
Right since the beginning of the 20th Century, many changes have started to come in the economic institutions
which are given below :
- Now production is done on a large scale and for this pupose, a new technique of‘Assembly Line’ has emerged. In this, humans and machines both help in producing a new thing.
- Large machines are used in the production so that it can be done on a large scale.
- Due to the process of globalisation, all the countries have opened up their economic barriers. Almost all the countries have reduced custom duties. That’s why goods made in a particular country are easily available everywhere.
- The process of Liberalisation has also brought many changes in the functioning of economic institutions. After 1991, Indian Government adopted the liberalisation policy which expanded the Indian economy. Many multi-national companies opened up their factories in India which reduced unemployment over here.
- Many computer based industries have opened up in India. B.P.O. Industry, Call centres, Software services etc. have played a very important role in earning foreign exchange for the country. It has connected Indian economy with the other economies. The use of machines in all the industries has been increased to a great extent.
Define education. Differentiate between formal and informal education with examples.
Education is the most important mean of socialisation. It is the best method to transmit cultural values to the next generation. Education is of great help in maintaining balance with industrialisation, urbanisation and other processes. Education is not limited only to the bookish knowledge. It gives every type of knowledge to an individual regarding ways of living life.
It also develops many traits among individuals such as love, friendship, discipline etc. According to Durkheim, “Education is the influence exercised by the adult generation upon those who are not yet ready for adult life.”
According to Philips, “Education is the institution whose central point is collection of knowledge.” ‘
So we can say that education is a process which is a mixture of empirical knowledge and conceptual and practical ideas whose major aim is to establish balance between. an individual’s social and natural environment. It plays a very important role in social control.
Mainly education is of two types:
(i) Formal Education
(ii) Informal Education.
(i) Formal Education :
Formal education is the education which we get formally in school, college, university etc. Such education has definite curriculum and teachers teach according to this curriculum. Such education has a clear motive and that is allround development of an individual and to make him a better citizen of society. Such education is given according to a particular objective. It is having three levels- primary, college and university. Each level has a definite organisation which includes teachers, students and other staff.
(ii) Informal Education :
Informal education is the education which one never gets in school, college or university but he gets it from his daily experiences, views of other persons, family, neighbourhood, friends etc. It means that an individual always learns something from his daily life. It does not have a fixed time, fixed curriculum or a definite place. One can get it at any place and from any one. No degree is given for this but one becomes mature with informal education.
Discuss the views of functionalist sociologists on the role of education in society.
If we observe the modern society, we come to know that no other factor has greatly contributed in changing society as education has contributed. Education has played a very important role in bringing change in society. With the increase in education, the first changes came in the European society, and later on in the second half of twentieth century, changes came in the Asian society. These changes completely revolutionized whole of society. Modernization in India came due to education. People in the Indian society, started taking education which brought allround development over here.
Change in the status of women, change in the status of lower castes, all this has happened due to education. That’s why for sociologists, education is a very important subject to study so that they could find its impact on society. As a factor of social change, sociologists show great interest in the study of education.
According to them, education changes a human from an animal to a cultural and civilized person. According to the French Sociologist Emile Durkheim, “Education is the influence exercised by the adult generation upon those who are not yet ready for adult life.”
It means that education exerts its impact on the coming generation with which it can prepare itself to live in society. Durkheim says that society can survive when homogeneity exists among members, which is reinforced by education. Only through education, a child learns the basic rules, norms, values, and ways to live in society.
Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore also highlighted the functional aspect of education. According to them, social stratification is a process by which able persons are given suitable status in society. This aim is achieved only through education and it ensures that suitable person should get a suitable place.