Punjab State Board PSEB 12th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 6 Gender Inequalities Important Questions and Answers.
PSEB 12th Class Sociology Important Questions Chapter 6 Gender Inequalities
Multiple Choice Questions:
1. On the basis of sex, how many classes are there in society?
2. Word ‘sex’ is a …………….. term.
3. Where is the word ‘Gender’ made?
4. When the difference is kept on the basis of gender, it is known as
(a) Gender socialisation
(b) Gender equality
(c) Gender discrimination
(d) Gender relation.
(c) Gender discrimination
5. Name the book written by ‘Simone de Beauvoir’.
(a) The Second Sex
(b) The Third Sex
(c) The Second Job
(d) The Third Job
(a) The Second Sex
6. Radical Feminism gives stress on ……………..
7. Sex Ratio can be defined as:
(a) Number of males per 1000 females
(b) Number of females per 1000 males
(c) Number of females per 1000 females
(d) None of the above
(b) Number of females per 1000 males.
Fill in the Blanks:
1. Two types of sexes ……………. and ……………… are there in the world.
2. Major reason for gender inequality is …………………
3. Meaning of ……………… is the authority of father at home.
4. Marxist feminism gives stress on the relations between patriarchy and ……………….
5. ………………. wrote the book ‘The Second Sex’.
Simone de Beauvoir
1. Liberal feminism says that all humans are important.
2. Radical feminism says that males play a very important role in oppressing females.
3. Giving education to children according to their sex is called gender socialisation.
4. Gender socialisation increases discrimination.
5. In 2011 there were 914 females (0-6 years) behind every 1000 males.
One Word/One Line Questions Answers:
Is there any discrimination against women in our society?
Yes, there is discrimination against women in our society.
What is Karva Chauth?
Females keep a fast for long life of their husband which is known as Karva Chauth.
Whose order is obeyed in patriarchy?
In patriarchy, the order of father is obeyed.
What is sex?
Sex is a biological word that tells us about the physical differences of male and female.
What is Gender Class?
Gender is a word made by society that includes such conditions in which relations of male and female are there.
What do we study in gender relations?
In gender relations, we study gender subordination.
On what the base of gender socialisation depends?
The base of gender socialisation is if, but, do’s and don’ts.
What is gender socialisation?
When society teaches its children to behave according to their sex, it is called gender socialisation.
What is gender discrimination?
In different social .sectors, discrimination is made with females by males and this is gender discrimination.
What is Sex ratio?
The number of females, in a given area, behind every 1000 males is known as sex ratio.
What is the major reason of decreasing sex ratio?
Major reason of decreasing sex ratio is sex based abortion and wish to have a male child.
Very Short Answer Type Questions:
What do we think when we talk about gender relations?
Whenever we talk about gender realtions, we think about four things:
- Inequalities between man and woman
- Relation between man power and woman power.
- To analyse the domination of man power over women.
- Women participation in economic and political fields.
What is the difference between Sex and Gender?
Sex is a biological concept which shows the physical differences between male an,d female. But Gender is a socially constructed concept which includes all those political, cultural, socio-psychological and economic propositions in which males and females work.
What do you mean by Gender Relations?
The meaning of gender relations is such relations between males and females which are based on ideological, cultural, political and economic issues. In this, we study gender domination, issues concerning uplifting status of women and problems related to women.
Which issues do we talk about in gender relations?
In gender relations, we talk about many issues such as institutions of marriage and family, relations before mari.age, relations after marriage, issue of homosexuality, issue of transgender etc.
On what the subordination of women is based?
In different societies, the subordination of women is based on many issues such as class, caste, religion, education, socio-cultural background etc. The nature of society decides the level of women subordination.
What is meant by Gender Socialisation?
The meaning of gender socialisation is that method with which society cares that its children should learn the habits according to their sex. It divides children in different groups according to their sex. In this way society controls human behaviour.
What is meant by Gender discrimination?
It means women are treated or behaved with subordination, exclusion and non-participation and they are ignored in many senses. Such behaviour-is known as gender discrimination.
What is meant by sex-ratio?
The number of females, in a given particular area, after every 1000 males is known as sex ration. According to census survey 2011, sex ratio in India was 1000: 914 (0-6 years.)
Short Answer Type Questions:
In simple words, word Gender is used to explain physical and social differences between male and female. It means that what are the physical differences between male and female which one gets by nature itself and which are social differences which both get while living in society. The word Gender is used to explain such differences.
In common language, there exist few differences between male and female and these differences are given the name of gender discrimination. Two types of humans—male and female, live in this world. Any person can only be identified by looking at his/her physical features that weather a person is male or female. Nature has kept few differences between them. Both male and female have their own physical features. Discrimination can be made between the both on the basis of their sex. In this way, what difference is there between male and female is given the name of gender discrimination.
Social factor of Gender Discrimination.
Yet nature has kept few differences between male and female but humans themselves have created few differences between the both. Right from the ancient times, females are discriminated. They were kept away from education and property. They were confined only to four walls of the house. All of their decisions were taken by males and males had complete control over females. Yet these differences are decreasing day by day in modern societies but they still exist in traditional societies.
Natural factor of Gender Discrimination.
Nature itself has started this gender discrimination. Man is created by nature itself. Nature has created two types of humans—male and female. Males are given hairs on body, strength, good physical structure but females are given beauty, good behaviour, love, sympathy, softness etc. Males are given hard work like earning bread and butter, doing hard labour but females are given easy works. In this way nature itself has created gender discrimination.
Causes of Gender Discrimination.
- Differences given by nature itself.
- Due to the wish of males.
- Due to existence of male dominated societies.
- Due to evils of social institution.
- Due to lack of physical strength among females.
Consequences of Gender Discrimination.
- Low social status of females.
- More control of males over society.
- Increase in strength of male dominated society.
- Decrease of sex ratio in society.
- Increase in imbalance of power.
In simple words the number of females behind 1000 males in one square kilometre is known as sex ratio. It means that how many females are there behind 1000 males in a particular area. Word sex ratio is one of the demographic features of any country’s population and to know something about any country’s population, knowledge of sex ratio is must. Sex ratio in India in 2001 was 1000: 933 and it was 1000: 943 in 2011.
Causes of lower status of women.
- In joint family system, female has to live in many types of restrictions in the four walls of house and her position became lower.
- Position of female became lower due to dominance of males in society and due to patriarchal families.
- Females were not able to get education due to child marriage with which her position deteriorated.
- She was not aware about her rights due to illiteracy and that’s why her status was lower in society.
- She was economically dependent upon males because of which she had to face lower status in the society.
Religious disabilities of women.
A female was considered as necessary to complete religious rituals in Vedic age. But with the passage of time, her status changed and her social status became lower. Her religious knowledge came to an end due to child marriage and that’s why she was started to keep away from Yagyas. Because she was unable to get education, that’s why her religious education and knowledge also came to an end. Now she was not allowed to perform Yagyas and religious rituals. Her religious functions came to an end due to the dominance of males. Her religion and duty remains confined only to serve the husband and the family. In this way she was differentiated from religious education because she was considered as impure due to her monthly periods. In this way religious disabilities were slapped on her.
Economic disabilities of women.
Females also had to face many economic disabilities. She had the right to keep property in Vedic age but later on this right came to an end. In medieval period she was neither allowed to keep property. She was not given any share in father’s property. Property, in joint family, was in the names of males of the family. It was not given to her at the time of division of property. Her Work was only to serve the family and her husband. She had no freedom related to money. Economically she was dependent upon father, husband and her sons.
Changes which are coming in the status of women.
- Females are getting education due to advent of education.
- Females are doing jobs in offices and industries due to industrialisation.
- Her mentality is now changing due to the development of western culture and now she has come to know about her rights.
- Indian government has made many laws to uplift her status and that’s why her status is going higher and higher.
- Now she came out of the four walls of the house due to disintegration of joint families.
Long Answer Type Questions:
What is the meaning of Gender? Explain it in the form of Social Construct.
Write a note on Gender as a Social Construct.
Generally the word gender is used to tell physical and social difference between male and female. It means that what are the physical differences between male and female which are given by nature and which are the social differences which they both get while living in society. Word Gender is used to tell these differences. If we look at its biological aspect then we will come to know that there are many biological differences in male and female like sexual organs or coming out of some parts etc. or ability to do any specific work of male and female.
In this manner if we look from the social point of view then we can see that there are many social differences in males and females. For example, Patriarchal society and Matriarchal society. In Patriarchal society, family takes order from males, every one obeys the eldest male, father earns the money and female takes care of family. Status of female in patriarchal society is very low. Her status is not more than mother of the children 6r a maid. In this way position of father in patriarchal society is very high.
He takes care of the house and nomenclature of the house is on the name of father. Son gets ancestral property from his father. On the other side status of male is lower than that of female in Matriarchal society. Family and society is run by the female. Females have every type of power and authority in this type of society. Female is the wholly incharge of house. Nomenclature’is on the name of mother. Male goes to live to female’s house after marriage. Property in these societies is generally given to daughter or to nephew (Son of the sister).
From this example we can come to know that gender difference is not only on the biological basis but we can see gender difference on the social basis as well. While living in society we can see many examples from which we can come to know about gender difference. But the meaning of gender is different for sociologists. Sociologists are in favour of giving complete explanation of this word and want to know that upto what extent gender behaviour is natural, social or is made by humAnswer: Sociologists take the meaning of gender in two ways.
1. First meaning is that which biological or physical differences are there in males and females. It means that because of which biological or physical differences we can differentiate between males and females. These differences are natural and they are out of control of hum Answer:
2. Second meaning of gender is by cultural and social differences in the roles and behaviour of humAnswer: It means that what are the differences produced by humans while living in society and from which we can come to know about gender difference (Male and Female). These differences are made in society and they are made by humAnswer: .
In this way sociologists take the meaning of gender in two parts. Biological differences are coming in first part which depend upon nature. Socio-cultural differences are coming in second part which are made by humAnswer:
For example females are not allowed to go through the upanayana Samskara to enter into Brahmcharya Ashrama. But here one question arises that the behaviour of male and female is determined by biological factor or is determined by socio-cultural factors? Which factors affect the behaviour of both male and female? Whether male and female are different from each other naturally or difference between them is made in society? Whether males are clever and rational by birth and females are peaceful and tolerable by nature? Whether just males will go out of house to earn money and females will take care of family and children? Why females cannot go out of house to earn money and why males cannot take care of the house? Questions of this nature are very serious and these type of questions should be taken care. While looking at these type of qustions, two views are coming in front of us to solve these questions. Both of these views are given by Naturists and sociologists. These views are given below:
1. Naturists are of the view that if there are any socio-cultural differences in both the sexes then these are because of biological differences. It means that the base of socio-cultural differences in both the sexes is not social but is biological. Which ever differences nature has given to humans, are the basis of socio cultural differences. Males are considered more powerful than females and they are. That is why they take care of the society. Nature has given the functions of producing and upbringing of children to females because they get the qualities of love, tolerance and taking care by nature. There is no need to tell them how to tolerate and to love because these qualities in females are there by birth. In this way the system of division of labour in males and females is coming from ancient times that males will go out of house for work and females will take care of house and children. That is why every person gets some qualities of doing any work by birth and they are doing that work.
This view of Naturists is definitely a part of evolutionary theory of Darwin. But this view has gone even beyond the view of Darwin. Naturists are of the view that every organism goes from a process of evolution means it, moves from smaller to bigger and simplicity to complexity. For example embryo is produced after the mating of male and female and embryo develops in the form of child. In this way every organism starts from the lowest level and goes upto the highest level. Naturists are of the view that biologically male and female are different from each other and they both are living their lives in a different way. But male is more powerful than female and that is why his status is higher than that of female. His authority is there in society and he takes all the major decisions of the family and society.
But here social anthropologists are of the view that there are physical differences in males and females but they have tied physical differences with social roles. According to Murdock, physical difference in male and female is the base of gender division of labour in society. It means that yet there are physical differences in males and females but these physical differences are the base of division of labour in males and females in society. He says that because males are more powerful and females are capable of taking care of childen and this division of labour determines the gender roles. In this way Parsons was of the view that females give love, sympathy and emotional strength to males because they get these traits by birth and these traits play an important role in the socialization of a child. Males are going out for work and females are doing house hold works. According to him there should be clear division of labour among both the sexes so that social system should run smoothly.
But the views of Murdock and Parsons has been criticised. Some Naturists have criticised the view that social roles are determined due to biological differences. They are of the view that both mother and father take care of the house and if need arises they take each other’s role. Today even females are doing functions which were specified only to males like job in military, working in mines or making big buildings. In this way they are of the view that social roles are not determined by biological difference but biological difference plays an important role in the determination of gender role.
2. Sociological View. On the other side, views of sociologists are exactly opposite to Naturists. They completely disapprove the views that biological differences determine the gender role. They says that gender roles are not determined due to biological factors but these are formed in society and are determined by culture. Person has to do many roles while living in society. Yet these roles are given on the basis of gender like father or mother. But most of the roles are given to the person according to the culture of society.
They are of the view that we can see many examples of society that except producing children, no other function is reserved for females. Gender base of femalds cannot prevent them from doing any work and they can do every type of work. Even the role of mother is given tQ them by culture and society. Many examples are there with us which tell us that those children who don’t have mother due to one or another reason, the role of mother is generally fulfilled by Father. In this way sociologists are of the view that social factors play an important role in determining gender role.
Role Of Gender In Social Construct:
Gender roles never come due to biological reasons but they come due to cultural factors. In other words we can say that humans learn to fulfil the roles of male and female while living only in the society. Just after birth, they hardly come to know that he or she is boy or girl. They come to know about their gender only by livng in society and by the ways of behaviour of people towards them. Now we will look it into the form of socialization. Socialization has a great role in making of an animal into a social animal. Both sexes contribute in the socialization of the person. This is known as gender socialization.
Socialization. Socialization is one of the most important concept in sociology. The process of socialization is that process with which a person learns the ways of living and behaving in society. Person learns to play social roles in this process. In this way gender socialization is that process in which males and. females learn to behave according to their sex. It is that process which starts right after the birth of the child and goes on till the death of the person. Our gender role starts at very early stage and child comes to know about playing his role according to his sex. This process has many stages which are given below:
1. Determination of gender based role after sometime of the birth. Even child of 1-2 years of age comes to know about this because members of the society behaves with him or her according to the sex. Even the calling of the children is according to the sex. Behaviour towards the girl is generally very much soft as compared to boys. Boys are considered as powerful and clever as compared to girls. Parents also behave with the children according to the sex yet the difference of behaviour is very less. Children of both the sexes are given different types of clothes to wear. Even the colours of the clothes are also different. Ways of behaviour talking etc. are also different with them. Even punishment to the child is given according to the sex of the child. In this way gender socialization starts after some time of the birth and it goes on for the whole life.
2. Second stage of Gender socialization starts in the childhood when child takes parts in games and play groups. Child takes parts in play groups according to his sex. Girl child plays with other girls and boy child plays with other boys. At this stage, even the difference also comes in playing different games. Boys are playing those games which needs a lot of hard work and girls plays those games which need less hard work. Even boys are motivated to play those games which require a lot of hard work. Even the toys and sporting things given to boys and girls are also different. Boys are given the toys of guns, buses, car and things of out door sport and girls are generally given things of indoor sports. In this way boys and girls start to learn to behave according to their group with which they coine to know about ways of living in society.
3. Third stage of the process of gender socialization is school where child spends very valuable years of his life. This is the time when child goes in either the wrong way or he learns a lot. This process not only goes on in the family but it goes on in the school with great pace. No other means except -school can put a great influence on the gender behaviour of the child. Child sits in the class according to his or her sex. They behave with each other according to his or her sex, Girls sit away from the boys and even talk with them from a distance because they are told to do so.- Boys are generally influenced by female teachers and girls are generally affected by male teachers. In school, they both form their own group which helps in the making of society.
Both learn to work according to their sex. Boys are going out of the house to do some household work and girls are generally working the household work in the house. Girls are taking easy subjects in school i.e. home science, arts etc. and boys are given tough subjects like science, maths, commerce etc. In this way the formation of main elements of making the society starts at this level.
4. Next and the last stage of gender socialization is adult socialization in which both the sexes completely differentiate from each other. Boys are doing powerful works after getting adulthood and girls generally like to do work of less hard work like teaching or work of clerk etc. Females are getting very few higher positions. Females are generally given less pay and less promotions. Females never like to change their jobs very quickly.
In this way both the groups start functioning in a different way on the basis of gender with which society works in a proper way. If there would be no difference between them on the basis of their work then the functions of both the groups will mix with each other and no one would be able to work properly. Social system and structure will be destroyed with this. Then every person will work according to his wish and the division of labour on the basis of gesder qlso come to an end. Males
and females throw their responsibilities on each other and no one would like to take his responsibility. In this way we can say that the gender has a great role in form of social construct and that is why society works very smoothly.
What are the reasons behind the lower status of women?
Status of women was sometime better and sometime worse in different ages. It was very good in Vedic Age but slowly and slowly it deteriorated. Aftet Vedic Age especially from Medieval Age to British Age her position was worse. There was not one factor’ responsible for the lower status of women but many factors were there which are given below:
1. Joint Family System. One system of joint family prevailed in Indian society. This custom played a very important role in the pitiable condition of female. Under this system female had no right to keep property and had no any other social right. She was confined only to the four walls of the house. Child marriage and Sati Pratha systems were also given importance in ancient family system because of which her position was lower in the family.
2. Patriarchal Family. We can see most of the families in Indian society as patriarchal family. In.this type of family, every function of the family is being done with the wish of the male. Nomenclature of father is given to the child. Female has to go to her husband’s house after marriage. Right over property, over family matters is of father. In this type of family status of woman is very much lower because males of the family hardly take the advice of the female in any of the matters.
3. Ideal of Kanyadan. Ideal of Kanyadan prevails in Hindu marriage right from the ancient times. Father finds a suitable match for his girl and gives her hand in the boy’s hand as aim or Dann. The custom of Kanyadan performed by father is the symbol of one thing that husband has full right over his wife. In this way, due to the ideal of Kanyadan, her position in the society remains lower.
4. Child Marriage. The custom of child marriage is also responsible for the lower position of women. Due to this custom girl was married to boy at a very young age because of which she was neither been able to get education nor she came to know about her rights. Husbands also control their wives because of which female has to live under the control of her husband.
5. Hypergamy. In the custom of Hypergamy or Kulin Vivaha, girl is to be married either in the family of equal status or in the family of higher status but boys are free to marry even in the family of lower status. That’s why parents were used to marry their daughter in her young age so that she should nor face any problem regarding marriage. In this way girl was forced to live without education and her position remains lower in society.
6. Illiteracy of Women. Condition of Hindu woman was pitiable due to unavailability of education. She was unable to get education due to child marriage and it was the main reason of ignorance towards her rights. She was strangled in the cycle of superstitions, social traditions, evils due to ignorance that she was unable to come out of it. She was given the teaching, right from the childhood that the order of husband for her is just like an order from the god and she had to live her whole life while serving husband and others. Due to all these factors she was unconscious about her rights and her status remained lower the society.
7. Economic Dependency of Women. Male is the head of the family right from the ancient times and he takes care of the family. All the functions of the family are being done by him. Female was not allowed to go out for work because it was considered as the disrespect of the family. That’s why female has to depend, economically, on her husband. That’s why the status of women remained lower in the society.
8. Brahmanism. Some thinkers are of the view that Hindus religion or Brahmanism was the main reason of lower status of woman because whichever social rules and religious rules were made by brahmins, all have given higher status to males and lower status to females. According to Manu, the main function of the woman was to serve her husband. When Muslims had established their supremacy in India then they had no problem in making marital relations with Hindu females. That’s why Hindus had made very strict rules regarding marriage to secure Hindu females from Muslims. Child marriage was encouraged and widow remarriage was restricted because of which the status of women remained lower and lower in the society.
Which disabilities women had to face in life?
Write a detailed note on the major problems faced by women in India.
It has been.beleived that males and females are equal in number and they both had got the equal rights in Vedic Age. But the ages were changed with the passage of time and many changes came in the status of women. Status of women deteriorated and she had to face many restrictions. Many disabilities were slapped on her. Then her respect remains only in the form of mother. Some of the disabilities are given below:
1. Religious disabilities. Status of woman was very good in Vedic Age and she hardly faced any disabilities in that age. Woman was considered as very important for religious functions because it was believed that she is very much necessary to complete yajna and other rituals. With this females were getting education and education was based upon religion. That’s why she had complete knowledge of religious books.
But with the passage of time, her status changed and became lower. Her religious knowledge came to an end due to child marriage and that’s why she was started to keep away from Yagayas. Because she was unable to get education, so her religious education and knowledge also came to an end. Now she was not allowed to perform Yagyas and religious rituals. Her religious functions came to an end due to the dominance of males. Her duty remained confined only to serve the husband and the family. In this way she was kept away from religious education because she was considered as impure due to her monthly periods. In this way religious disabilities were slapped on her.
2. Social disabilities. Social disabilities also started for woman with religious disabilities. She hardly got education due to child marriage. She was unable to do any job due to non-availability of education for her and education is considered as necessary to get any job. At the time of education she was married in childhood and that’s why she was unable to get education.
Many social evils also prevailed related to women in our society. First evil was child marriage. She had to marry in her childhood because of which she was not allowed to get any education and was not doing any function out of the house. She was limited only to the four walls of the house.
Purdah pratha also prevailed in our society with child marriage. She was not allowed to come in front of every one. If she was coming then she had to take one long purdah (ghoonghat). Sati pratha was also there in Indian society. If husband of any female was died then living life alone was considered as hell for her. That’s why she had to do Sati and was forced to sit alive on the funeral pyre of her husband. In Vedic age widow remarriages were there but later on they also came to an end. Sati Pratha prevailed in Indian society till 19th century. When Muslims established their empire in India then they started to marry Hindu female. So to save females from Muslims, many restrictions were imposed on her by the upper castes. In this way many social disabilities were imposed on her.
3. Familial disabilities. Women also had to face many disabilities related to family. Yet the status of women of rich families was very good but the status of women of poor families was very bad. Condition of a widow was very pitiable. Wife was considered as servant. She was beaten up by husband even due to small small thing. Her duty was to serve the husband and the family. Father in law and mother in law also commitejl many atrocities on her. She was always dependent upon males. She was dependent upon father before marriage, on husband after marriage and on children in her old age. Patriarchal families were there because of which no advice of women was taken in any decisions of the families. Even the decision of her marriage was taken by her father. In this way she was considered as servant of the family.
4. Economic disabilities. Females also had to face many economic disabilities. She had the right to keep property in Vedic age but later on this right came to an end. In medieval period she was neither allowed to keep property. She was not given any share in father’s property. Property, in joint family, was on the names of males of the family. It was not given to her at the time of division of property. Her work was only to serve the family and her husband. She had no freedom related to money. Economically she was dependent upon father, husband and her sons.
In this way we can see that the women had to face many disabilities in society. Yet there was no such disability to women in Vedic Age and she had a. number of rights in that age. But later on all these rights came to an end and the place of rights was taken away by disabilities.
Which types of efforts were being done after independence for the improvement of status of women?
Highlight the role of legislation in the upliftment of status of women.
Highlight the role of various legislations and government programmes in uplifting their status.
Half the population of the country is of women. So it is necessary, for the development of the country, that their condition should also be improved and the evils related to them should also be removed. After independence many provisions were kept in Constitution with which efforts were done to improve the status of women. Many laws were made to uplift her social status. The following efforts were done to improve the status and the welfare of the women.
1. Constitutional Provisions. Many provisions were kept in Constitution to improve the status of women:
- Article 14 of the Constitution says that every one is equal in front of law.
- According to Article 15 (1) of the Constitution there shall be no discrimination with Indian citizen on the bases of religion, caste, sex or living place.
- Article 15 (3) says that the state shall do special efforts for women and children.
- Article 16 says that state shall give equal opportunities to all Indian citizens in the matters of employment and appointments.
- Article 39 (D) of the Constitution says that males and females will get same pay for same work.
- Article 42 of the Constitution says that state shall produce judicial condition of functions and shall provide more and more maternity help.
- Article 51 (A) (E) says that the customs disgracing women’s respect shall be sacrificed.
- Article 243 of the Constitution says that one-third seats in local government- panchayats and municipalities shall be kept reserved.
2. Legislations. Many laws have been made for the security of interests of women and to improve their social status which is given below:
- The Sati Prohibition Act 1829, 1987.
- The Hindu Widow Remarriage Act, 1856.
- The Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929.
- The Hindu Women’s Right to Property Act, 1937.
- The Special Marriage Act, 1954.
- The Hindu Marriage and Divorce Act 1955 and 1967.
- The Hindu Succession Act, 1956.
- The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961, 1986.
- The Maternity Relief Act, 1961, 1976.
- The Muslim Women Protection of Right of Divorce, 1986.
Yet many of these laws were made even before independence but they were also amended after independence. Many problems of women came to an end due to these laws like Dowry system, Sati pratha, Child marriage, No Right to keep property etc. These laws have greatly helped in the improvement of status of women.
3. Women Welfare Programmes. Many programmes were started after independence to uplift the status of women whose description is given below:
- International Women Day was celebrated in 1975 and many programmes were started for their welfare.
- DWAKRA programme was started in 1982-83 to strengthen the rural women rom economic point of view.
- Women Development corporation was established in 1986-87 so that the women could get opportunities of employment.
- National Women Commission was reorganized in 1922 so that the attrocities committed on women could be stopped.
4. Women cells were established in the country. These are those organization of women which arranges for the welfare programmes for women in rural areas. 75% of total money spending on these programmes is given by central social welfare board.
5. Many houses have been estabhshed for the working women in cities. Central Social Welfare Board has estabhshed hostels in many cities so that the working women would be able to live in cities.
6. Central Social Welfare Board has started many socio-economic programmes after 1958 in country so that the needy women could be provided the employment. Dairy programmes are also included in this. In this way, many programmes were started after independence so that the social status of women could be uphfted. In this way, we can see a very good future of women in coming days.
Explain the different causes which have brought changes in the status of women and also explain the present status of women.
A great change has come in the status of Indian women in today’s age. There is a lot of difference in status of women in present age and pre-independence age. Today she has come out of four walls of the house and is working in the offices, factories. But this change has not come due to one or two reasons, but it has many reasons. The description of these reasons and the present status of women is given below:
1. Improvement in the literacy rate of women. No one was taking care of education of women before independence but Indian government took many steps to uplift the level of education among women. That’s why the level of education among women has been increased to a great extent. The government arranged for free education for girls, given them the scholarships, arranged for free books so that the people could send their girl child to school to get education. In this way, education gradually spread among women and their level and standard of education started to increase. Now girls are getting higher education in every sector. Their age of marriage has also gone up due to education with which, their living standard has been moved in upward direction. Now they are getting education like boys. In this way, the major reason for the change in status of women is the spread of education among them.
2. Industrialization. Industries started to develop very quickly after independence. Females came out of the four walls of the house, due to education, and started going out for a job which resulted in the relaxation of restrictions upon her. Females started to work in offices with males with which the restrictions of caste system came to an end. Love marriages started to increase due to her interaction with others. Her economic dependence upon males was decreased due to her job which resulted in the improvement in her condition. It this way, industrialization played an important role in the improvement of status of women.
3. Western culture. India came in direct contact with the western countries after independence because of which their cultures and ideas also came to our country. Females came to know about their rights and freedom because of which their ideology started to change. That’s why females now are standing with males in every sector. Working women became economically self dependent and a sense of equality, with males, also came in them. Many feminist movements also started because of which consciousness came among them and changes came in their status.
4. Inter caste marriages. Hindu Marriage Act was passed in 1955 which gave the legal sanction to inter caste marriages. Females started to work in offices due to spread of education. She came in contact with other castes due to her job. Love marriages, inter caste marriages were increased very quickly which has resulted in the change in ideology of the people. That’s why her status rose in the eyes of general public and she started to get more respect due to her economic self-dependence. In this way, the custom of dowry was deceased due to intercaste marriages and her position started to change in society.
5. Development in the means of communication and transport. Means of transport and communication started to develop after independence. People started to come in contact with each other. People started to move towards far off cities, by leaving their villages, with which they came in contact with other castes. With this many feminist movements were also started and many laws were made to stop the exploitation of the women. Women started to get education and came out for jobs due to the development in means of transport and ideology of people started to change.
6. Formation of Laws. Many laws were made even before independence to uplift the status of women but they were not properly implemented because our country was under foreign rule. But many changes came in these laws after independence and were strictly implemented. Except these many other laws were also made, like Hindu Marriage Act, Hindu Succession Act, Dowry Prohibition Act to stop the exploitation of women. Due to’ these laws, her exploitation was reduced and she started to feel safe in the changed atmosphere. Now .every one thinks many times before doing the exploitation of women because nowr laws are with women. In this way status of women has also changed due to these laws.
7. Disintegration of joint family. Joint families started to disintegrate because of many reasons like development in means of transport and communication, education, jobs, working in offices, getting job away from the city or the village, industrialization etc. Due to disintegration of joint families, nuclear families came into being which is actually based upon the equality of males and females. Female in joint family is considered only as a servant but the status of a woman is equal to ftiale in a nuclear family where she is standing with males in economic or any other sector. In this way due to the disintegration of joint families and the advent of nuclear family, status of women has been changed to a great extent. In this way after looking at the given description we can say that the status of women has been changed due to these factors and the status of present day’s women is actually equal to males.