Punjab State Board PSEB 10th Class Maths Book Solutions Chapter 4 Quadratic Equations Ex 4.2 Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.

## PSEB Solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 4 Quadratic Equations Ex 4.2

Question 1.

Find the roots of the following quadratic equations by factorisation:

(i) x^{2} – 3x – 10 = 0

(ii) 2x^{2} + x – 6 = 0

(iii) √2x^{2} + 7x + 5√2 = 0

(iv) 2 x^{2} – x + \(\frac{1}{8}\) = 0

(v) 100x^{2} – 20x + 1 = 0

Solution:

(i) Given quadratic

x^{2} – 3x – 10 = 0

Or x^{2} – 5x + 2x – 10 = 0

S = -3, p = -10

Or x (x – 5) + 2 (x – 5) = 0

Or (x – 5) (x + 2) = 0

Either x – 5 = 0 Or x + 2 = 0

x = 5 Or x = -2

Hence, 5 and -2 are roots of given Quadratic Equation.

(ii) Given quadratic equation

2x^{2} + x – 6 = 0 =1

0r 2x^{2} + 4x – 3x – 6 = 0

S = 1 P = -6 × 2 = -12

Or 2x (x + 2) -3 (x + 2) = 0

Or (x + 2) (2x – 3) = 0

Either x + 2 = 0 Or 2x – 3 = 0

x = -2 Or x = –\(\frac{3}{2}\)

Hence, – 2 and \(\frac{3}{2}\) are roots of given quadratic equation.

(iii) Given Quadratic Equation,

√2x^{2} + 7x + 5√2 = 0

Or √2x^{2} + 2x + 5x + 5√2 = 0

S = 7, P = √2 × 5√2 = 10

Or √2x (x + √2) + 5 (x + √2) = 0

Or (x + √2) (√2x + 5) = 0

Either x + √2 = 0 Or √2x + 5 = 0

x = -√2 Or x = –\(\frac{-5}{\sqrt{2}}\)

Hence, -√2 and \(\frac{-5}{\sqrt{2}}\) are roots of given quadratic equation.

(iv) Given quadratic equation

2x^{2} – x + \(\frac{1}{8}\) = 0

Or \(\frac{16 x^{2}-8 x+1}{8}\) = 0

Or 16x^{2} – 8x + 1 = 0

S = -8, P = 16 × 1 = 16

Or 16x^{2} – 8x + 1 = 0

Or 16x^{2} – 4x – 4x + 1 = 0

Or 4x(4x – 1) -1(4x – 1) = 0

Or (4x – 1) (4x – 1) = 0

Either 4x – 1 = 0

Or 4x – 1 = 0

x = \(\frac{1}{4}\) Or x = \(\frac{1}{4}\)

Hence, \(\frac{1}{4}\) and \(\frac{1}{4}\) are roots of given quadratic equation.

(v) Given quadratic equation,

100x^{2} – 20x + 1 = 0

Or 100x^{2} – 10x – 10x + 1 = 0

S = -20, P = 100 × 1 = 100

Or 10x(10x – 1) – 1 (10x – 1) = 0

Or (10x – 1)(10x – 1) = 0

Either 10x – 1 = 0 Or 10x – 1 = 0

x = \(\frac{1}{10}\) Or x = \(\frac{1}{10}\)

Hence, \(\frac{1}{10}\) and \(\frac{1}{10}\) are roots of given quadratic equation.

Question 2.

Solve the problems given in Example I. Statements of these problems are given below:

(i) John and Jivanti together have 45 marbles. Both of them lost S marbles each, and the product of the number of marbles they now have is 124. We would lfke to find out how many marbles they had to start with.

(ii) A cottage Industry produces a certain number of toys in a day. The cost of production of each toy (In rupees) was found to be 55 minus the number of toys produced in a day. On a particular day, the total cost of production was 750. We would like to find out the number of toys produced on that day.

Solution:

(i) Let the number of marbles John had be x.

Then the number of marbles Jivanti had = 45 – x

The number of marbles Íeft withJohn, when he lost 5 marbles = x – 5

The number of marbles left with Jivanti, when she lost 5 marbles = 45 – x – 5 = 40 – x

Therefore, their product = (x – 5) (40 – x)

= 40x – x^{2} – 200 + 5x

= -x^{2} + 45x – 200

According to question,

-x^{2} + 45x – 200 = 124

Or -x^{2} + 45x – 324 = 0

Or x^{2} – 45x + 324 =0

Or x^{2} – 36x – 9x + 324 = 0

S = -45, P = 324

Or x(x – 36) – 9(x – 36) = 0

Or (x – 36)(x – 9) = 0

Either x – 36 = 0, Or x – 9 = 0

x = 36 Or x = 9

∴ x = 36, 9

Hence, number of marbles they had to start with were 36 and 9 or 9 and 36.

(ii) Let the number of toys produced on that day be x.

Therefore, the cost of production (in rupees) of each toy that day = 55 – x

So, the total cost of production (in rupees) that day = x (55 – x)

According to question.

x(55 – x) = 750

Or 55x – x^{2} = 750

Or -x^{2} + 55x – 750 = 0

Or x^{2} – 55x – 750 = 0

Or x^{2} – 30x – 25x + 750=0

S = -33, P = 750

Or x(x – 30) – 25(x – 30) = 0

Or (x – 30)(x – 25) = 0

Either x – 30 = 0 Or x – 25 = 0

x = 30 Or x = 25

∴ x = 30, 25

Hence, number of toys produced on that day were 30 and 25 or 25 and 30.

Question 3.

Find two numbers whose sum is 27 and product is 182.

Solution:

Let one number = x

2nd number = 27 – x

Their product = x (27 – x) = 27x – x^{2}

According to question,

27x – x^{2} = 182

Or – x^{2} + 27x – 182 = 0

Or x^{2} – 27x + 182 = 0

S = -27, P = 182

Or x^{2} – 13x – 14x + 182 = 0

Or x(x – 13) – 14(x – 13) = 0

Or (x – 13) (x – 14) = 0

Either x – 13 = 0 Or x – 14 = 0

x = 13 Or x = 14

x = 13, 14

Hence, two numbers are 13 and 14 Or 14 and 13.

Question 4.

Find two consecutive positive integers, sum of whose squares is 365.

Solution:

Let one positive integer = x

2nd positive integer = x + 1

According to question,

(x)^{2} + (x + 1)^{2} = 365

Or x^{2} + x^{2} + 1 + 2x = 365

Or 2x^{2} + 2x + 365 = 0

Or 2x^{2} + 2x – 364 = 0

Or x^{2} + x – 182 = 0

Or x^{2} + 14x – 13x – 182 = 0

S = 1, P = -182

Or x(x + 14) – 13(x + 14) = 0

(x + 14)(x— 13) = O

Either x + 14 = 0

Or x = -14

Or

x – 13 = 0

x = 13

∵ We have positive integers.

So, we reject x = – 14.

∴ x = 13

∴ One positive integer = 13

and 2nd positive integer = 13 + 1 = 14

Hence, required consecutive positive integers are 13 and 14.

Question 5.

The altitude of a right triangle is 7 cm less than its base. 1f the hypotenuse is 13 cm, find the other two sides.

Solution:

Let base of right triangle = x cm

Altitude of right triangle = (x – 7) cm

and hypotenuse of right triangle = 13 cm (Given)

According to Pythagoras Theorem,

(Base)^{2} + (Altitude)^{2} = (Hypotenuse)^{2}

(x)^{2} ÷ (x – 7)^{2} = (13)^{2}

Or x^{2} + x^{2} + 49 – 14x = 169

Or 2x^{2} – 14x + 49 – 169 = 0

Or 2x^{2} – 14x – 120 = 0

Or 2[x^{2} – 7x – 60] = 0

Or x^{2} – 7x – 60 = 0

Or x^{2} – 12x + 5x – 60 = 0

S = – 7 P = – 60

Or x(x – 12) + 5(x – 12) = 0

Or (x – 12) (x + 5) = 0

Either x – 12 = 0 Or x + 5 = 0

x = 12 Or x= – 5

∵ Length of any triangle cannot be negative.

So, we reject x = – 5

∴ x = 12

Hence, base of right triangle = 12 cm

Altitude of right triangle = (12 – 7) cm = 5 cm.

Question 6.

A cottage industry produces a certain number of pottery articles in a day. It was observed on a particular day that the cost of production of each article (in rupees) was 3 more than twice the number of articles produced on that day. If the total cost of production on that day was 90, find the number of articles produced and the cost of each article.

Solution:

Let, number of pottery articles produced by industry in one day = x

Cost of production of each article = ₹ (2x + 3)

∴ Total cost of production in panicular day = ₹ [x(2x + 3)] = ₹ (2x^{2} + 3x)

According to question,

2x^{2} + 3x = 90

2x^{2} + 3x – 90 = 0

S = 3, P = 2 × -90 = -180

Or 2x^{2} – 12x + 15x – 90 = 0

Or 2x (x – 6) + 15 (x – 6) = 0

Or (x – 6) (2x + 15) = 0

Either x – 6 = 0 Or 2x + 15 = 0

x = 6 Or x = \(\frac{-15}{2}\)

∵ number of articles cannot be negative

So, we reject x = 2

∴ x = 6

Hence, number of articles produced on certain day = 6

and cost of production of each article = ₹ [2 × 6 + 3] = ₹ 15.