Punjab State Board PSEB 11th Class Biology Book Solutions Chapter 2 Biological Classification Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
PSEB Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification
PSEB 11th Class Biology Guide Biological Classification Textbook Questions and Answers
Discuss how classification systems have undergone several changes over a period of time?
(i) Linnaeus proposed a two kingdom system of classification with Plantae and Animalia kingdoms was developed that included all plants and animals respectively. But as this system did not distinguish between the eukaryotes and prokaryotes, unicellular and multicellular organisms and photosynthetic (green algae) and non-photosynthetic (fungi) organisms, so scientists found it an inadequate system of classification. Classification systems for the living organisms have hence, undergone several changes over time.
(ii) The two kingdom system of classification was replaced by three kingdom system, then by four and finally by five kingdom system of classification of RH Whittaker (1969).
(iii) The five kingdoms included Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia. This is the most accepted system of classification of living organisms.
(iv) But, Whittaker has not described viruses and lichens. Then Stanley described viruses, viroids, etc.
Thus, over a period of time, classification systems have undergone several changes.
State two economically important uses of:
(a) Heterotrophic bacteria
(a) Heterotrophic Bacteria
- Maintain soil fertility by nitrogen fixation, ammonification and nitrification, e.g., Rhizobium bacteria (in the root nodules of legumes).
- The milk products such as butter, cheese, curd, etc., are obtained by the action of bacteria. The milk contains bacterial forms like Streptococcus lacti, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus lactis and Clostridium sp., etc.
- Methanogens are responsible for the production of methane (biogas) from the dung of animals.
- Archaebacteria help in the degradation of waste materials.
What is the nature of cell walls in diatoms?
In case of diatoms, the cell wall forms two thin overlapping cells, which fit together as in a soap box. The cell wall is made up of silica. Due to siliceous nature of cell wall, it is known as diatomite or diatomaceous Earth. Diatomaceous Earth is a whitish, highly porous, chemically inert, highly absorbant and fire proof substance.
Find out what do the terms ‘algal bloom’ and ‘red tides’ signify?
Sometimes, greqn algae such as Chlorella, Scenedesmus and Spirogyra, etc,, grow in excess in water bodies and impart green colour to the water. These are called algal blooms. Red dianoflagellates (Gonyaulax) grow in abundance in sea and impart red colour to the ocean. This looks like red tides. Both due to algal blooms and ‘red tide’ the animal life declines due to toxins and deficiency of oxygen inside water.
How are viroids different from viruses?
Viroids different from viruses as follows:
|1. These are smaller than bacteria.||Smaller than viruses.|
|2. Both RNA and DNA present.||Only RNA is present.|
|3. Protein coat present.||Protein coat absent.|
|4. Causes diseases like mumps and AIDS.||Causes plant diseases like spindle tuber diseases – potato.|
Describe briefly the four major groups of Protozoa.
Protozoans are divided into four phyla on the basis of locomotory organelles – Zooflagellata, Sarcodina, Sporozoa and Ciliates.
(i) Zooflagellates: These protozoans possess one to several flagella for locomotion. Zooflagellates are generally uninucleate, occasionally multinucleate.
The body is covered by a firm pellicle. There is also present cyst formation.
Examples: Giardia, Trypanosoma, Leishmania and Trichonympha, etc.
(ii) Sarcodines: These protozoans possess pseudopodia for locomotion. Pseudopodia are of four types, i.e., lobopodia, filopodia, axopodia and reticulopodia. Pseudopodia are also used for engulfing food particles. Sarcodines are mostly free living, found in freshwater, sea water and on damp soil only a few are parasitic. Nutrition is commonly holozoic. Sarcodines are generally uninucleates. Sarcodines are of four types – Amoeboids (i.e.,Amoeba, etc.), radiolarians (i.e., Acanthometra, etc.), foraminiferans (i.e., Elphidium, etc.) and heliozoans (i.e., Actinophrys, etc.).
(iii) Sporozoans: All of them are endoparasites. Locomotoryorganelles (cilia, flagella, pseudopodia, etc.) are absent. Nutrition is parasitic (absorptive), Phogotrophy is rare. The body is covered with an elastic pellicle or cuticle. Nucleus is single. Contractile vacuoles are absent. Life cyle consists of two distinct asexual and sexual phases. They may be passed in one (monogenetic) or two different hosts (digenetic),e.g., Plasmodium, Monocystis, etc.
(iv) Ciliates: These are aquatic, actively moving organisms because of the presence of thousands of cilia. They have a cavity (gullet) that opens to the outside of the cell surface. The coordinated movements of rows of cilia causes the water laden with food to enter into the gullet, e.g., Paramecium.
Plants are autotrophic. Can you think of some plants that are partially heterotrophic?
Plants are autotrophs, i.e., they prepare their own food through the process of photosynthesis. But, in nature there are also some other plants which are partjally heterotrophic, i.e., they partially depend upon another organisms for food requirements, e.g.,
(i) Loranthus and Viscum are partial stem parasites which have leathery leaves. They attack several fruit and forest trees and with the help of their haustoria draw sap from the xylem tissue of the host.
(ii) Insectivorous plants have special leaves to trap insects. The trapped insects are killed and digested by proteolytic enzymes secreted by the epidermis of the leaves, e.g., pitcher plant.
(iii) Parasitic plant, e.g., Cuscutta develops haustoria, which penetrate, the vascular bundles of the host plant to absorb water and solutes.
What do the terms phycobiont and mycobiont signify?
In case of lichens (t. e., an association of algae and fungi), the algal partner which is capable of carrying out photosynthesis is known as phycobiont, whereas the fungal partner which is heterotrophic in nature is known as mycobiont.
Give a comparative account of the classes of Kingdom Fungi under the following:
(i) Mode of nutrition
(ii) Mode of reproduction
|Fungal Class||Mode of Nutrition||Mode of Reproduction|
|Myxomycetes||Heterotrophic and mostly saprophytic||Asexual and sexual reproduction|
|Phycomycetes||Mostly parasites||Asexual and sexual methods|
|Zygomycetes||Mostly saprophytic||Asexual and sexual reproduction|
|Ascomycetes||Saprophytes or parasites||Asexual and sexual reproduction|
|Basidiomycetes||Saprophytes or parasites||Asexual and sexual method|
|Deuteromycetes||Saprophytes or parasites||Only asexual reproduction|
What are the characteristic features of Euglenoids?
The characteristic features of euglenoids are as follows :
- They occur in freshwater habitats and damp soils.
- A single long flagella present at the anterior end.
- Creeping movements occur by expansion and expansion of their body known as euglenoid movements.
- Mode of nutrition is holophytic, saprobic or holozoic.
- Reserve food material is paramylum.
- Euglenoids are known as plant and animal.
Plant characters of them are as follows:
(a) Presence of chloroplasts with chlorophyll.
(b) Holophytic nutrition
Animal characters of them are as follows:
(a) Presence of pellicle, which is made up of proteins and not a cellulose.
(b) Presence of stigma.
(c) Presence of contractile vacuole.
(d) Presence of longitudinal binary fission.
- Under favourable conditions euglenoids multiply by longitudinal binary fission, e.g., Euglena, Phacus, Paranema, etc.
Give a brief account of viruses with respect to their structure ’ and nature of genetic material. Also name four common viral diseases.
Viruses are non-cellular, ultramicroscopic, infectious particles. They are made up of envelope, capsid, nucleoid and occasionally one or two enzymes. Viruses possess an outer thin loose covering called envelope. The central portion of nucleoid is surrounded by capsid that is made up of ( smaller sub-units known as capsomeres.
The nucleic acid present in the viruses is known as nucleoid. It is the r infective part of the virus which utilises the host cell machinery. The
genetic material of viruses is of four types –
(i) Double stranded DNA (dsDNA) as found in pox virus, hepatitis-B virus and herpes virus, etc.
(ii) Single stranded DNA (ssDNA) occur in coliphage Φ, coliphage Φ x 174.
(iii) Double stranded RNA (dsRNA) occur in Reo virus,
(iv) Single stranded RNA (ssRNA) occur in TMV virus, polio virus, etc.
Four common viral diseases are – (i) Polio, (ii) AIDS, (iii) Hepatitis-B (iv) Rabies.
Organise a discussion in your class on the topic—Are viruses living or non-living?
Viruses are intermediate between living and non-living objects. They resemble non-living objects in:
- Lacking protoplast. ‘
- Ability to get crystallised.
- High specific gravity which is found only in non-living objects.
- Absence of respiration and energy storing system.
- Absence of growth and division.
- Cannot live independent of a living cell.
They resemble living objects in:
- Presence of genetic material (DNA or RNA).
- Property of mutation.
- Can grow and multiply inside the host cell.